Manual work is associated with increased lung cancer risk possibly because of increased exposure to occupational and other carcinogens, reduced use of health care services and/or a less healthy lifestyle. The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between manual work and lung cancer risk has changed over time. Three separate retrospective studies were carried out over a 10-year period (1996-1997, 1998-2000 and 2003-2005) in patients attending a bronchoscopy clinic to investigate lung cancer risk in an area of Manchester characterised by high deprivation and unemployment. Cases (n=321) were patients newly diagnosed with a tumour of the lung, trachea or bronchus and controls (n=542) were patients free of tumours at the time of, and prior to, examination. Patients were interviewed using the same structured questionnaire for associations between risk factors and lung cancer examined. The study population in all three studies was similar with little difference in smoking history. In each study smoking was associated with lung cancer risk. Lung cancer risk was higher in manual workers (compared to managers and other professionals) in the first (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.20 – 5.05) and second study (OR 2.73, 95% CI 0.97 – 7.70) but not the third (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.58 – 1.61). However, the summary odds ratio (meta-OR) for lung cancer in manual worker was 1.81 (95% 1.75 – 1.87) after controlling for sex, age and smoking. This study suggested that even after taking into account known occupational and environmental causes of cancer, there was a residual cancer risk associated with manual work, high risk working populations of lung cancer. However this appears to have attenuated recently for as yet unknown reasons.
There is a need to develop an Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS) Critical Success Factors (CSF) Monitoring among gas contractor in Malaysia. Critical Success Factors (CSF) can be used for future implementation, adaptation and practice for gas contractor work for both by clients and contractors in Malaysia. The main purpose of CSF implementation is to reduce the number of accident related with Occupational Safety and Health (OSH). The need for CSF is due to the requirement by law and standard that require companies to establish an arrangement related to the identified OSH risks. The objective of this study is to assess the established of OSHMS among gas contractor in Peninsular Malaysia and to identify the CSF imposed by these industries. A cross sectional study for eighty gas contractor companies using established questionnaire has been done. All data consolidated in order to determine the OSHMS and it CSF among gas contractor in Peninsular Malaysia that has registered with Department of Occupational Safety and Health. Established questionnaire are based on OSHMS MS 1722:2011 elements requirement No 1: Policy, No 2: Organizing, No 3: Planning and Implementation, No 4: Evaluation and No 5: Action for Improvement as parameters to come out with organization means and Z-scores. Descriptive statistic showed that element mean (standard deviation) score for policy is 75(6.6), for Organizing is 63(5.2), for Planning and Implementation is 59(9.4), for Evaluation is 66(5.1) and Action for Improvement is 63(1.3). Percentage of company that complies with the main element for Policy is 15%, for Organizing is 8.8%, for Planning and Implementation is 11.3%, for evaluation is 11.3% and for Action for improvement is 13.8%. Percentage of companies that partially comply with Policy element is distributed between 61.0% to 85.0% which is 76.3 %, for Organizing score is mainly distributed between 46.0% to 60.0% which is 62.5%, for planning and Implementation score for 80 companies distributed mainly in group score between 46.0 to 60.0% which is 56.3 %, for Evaluation the partially comply score is distributed in group score between 61.0% to 85.5% which is 41 % and for Action for Improvement partially comply score, the distribution is mainly distribute in range of 61.0% to 85.0% which is 62.5 %. Z-score for element policy is five points from policy mean, for organizing Z-score is three points from Organizing mean, for Planning and Implementation the Z-score is three points from Planning and Implementation mean, for Evaluation the Z-score is three points from evaluation mean and for Action for improvement Z-score is two to three points from Action for Improvement mean. Percentage of compliance with OSHMS MS 1722:2011 elements by gas contractors in almost main element and sub element are still low and can be further improved by focusing on all company element score for continual improvement of OSH elements compliances.
Studies have identified working postures as a major risk factors associated with Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) in industries. This study investigated the prevalence of WMSD among assembly workers in Malaysia and how psychosocial factors such as personal values and workers relationship with family and superior are associated with discomfort and pain. A survey was conducted among 127 workers at assembly process in the manufacturing industry. The workers were aged 28.74±6.74 years and 64.6% of them were males. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the effect of workplace factors on WMSD at different body regions. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to investigate association between psychosocial factors and occurrence of discomfort and pain. Only occupation and job activities revealed any significant different with WMSD in the major body regions while there was no significant difference in gender, age and work duration classifications. Shoulder painis the most prevalent in terms of frequency and intensity of occurrence. Psychosocial issues that have to do with person values, effect of job on family relationship and workers rapport with superiors are all found to be associated with the discomfort and pain among the occupational group. Employers and concerned government agencies need to take more proactive steps in tackling the problem as the occurrence of WMSD will have a significant effect on the overall wellbeing of the working population.
Homocysteine could be a mechanism that underlies the effects of lead on cardiovascular system. This study aims to identify the relationship between lead exposure and homocysteine levels among workers. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out on 80 workers of an automotive components manufacturing factory; that comprised of 40 exposed workers and 40 non-exposed workers. Blood samples of respondents were taken by fingerprick. The blood samples were analyzed for blood lead concentration by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Graphite Furnace Model GBC 908AA. Besides that, ELISA Kit was used to show the homocysteine level among the respondents. Questionnaires were used to obtain demography information of respondents. Results from the statistical analysis showed that the mean blood lead concentration for exposed respondents was 5.53±4.74 μg/dL and 3.53±2.81 μg/dL for the comparative respondents. Mann-Whitney U test showed that there was no significance difference between the mean blood lead concentration of the exposed and comparative group (z=-1.178; p=0.075). The blood lead concentration ranged 0.68-17.95 among the exposed group and with a range of 0.084-11.96 for the comparative group. The mean homocysteine level (μmol/L) was 32.48±2.481μmol/L for the exposed group and 16.50±4.0960 μmol/L for the comparative group. There was a significant difference in homocysteine level (μmol/L) between the exposed (32.48±2.481) and comparative (16.50±4.0959) groups (z = -7.699, p
The main objective of this study is to determine the association between respirable hexavalent chromium compounds with urinary β2-microglobulin levels among welders in an automotive components manufacturing plant. 49 welders and 39 workers involved in stamping process were selected as the exposed and the comparative group. β2-microglobulin is a protein renal tubular dysfunction marker that can indicate renal dysfunction caused by heavy metal. Air samples of worker’s breathing zone were collected using personal air sampling pump and filter papers. Filter papers were then diluted and analysed with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). Workers’ urine samples were collected at the end of 8-hour work shift and analysed with β2-microglobulin ELISA Kit (IBL-Hamburg) and a microtiter reader. Meanwhile, creatinine levels were analysed with creatinine test strips and Reflotron®. A mean concentration of respirable hexavalent chromium compounds in air for the exposed group was 0.135 ± 0.043μg/m3 while for the non-exposed group was 0.124 ± 0.029μg/m3. The mean level of urinary β2-microglobulin per creatinine for the exposed group was 84.996 ± 39.246μg/g while that of the comparative group was 61.365 ± 21.609μg/g. The concentrations of respirable hexavalent chromium compounds were higher in the exposed group compared to the comparative group (Z=-2.444, p=0.015). β2-microglobulin level was also higher in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group (t=3.821, p=
Societal dynamics and increased public demands on education have produced adverse stressful classroom situation that have led to increase emotional and physical disabilities among teacher. The main objective of this descriptive study was to identify the causes of occupational stress amongst secondary school teachers. This study also conducted in order to determine the suitable ways and strategies at helping teachers to cope with the work related pressures that have increased during the past decade. The samples of this study were 100 teachers from four secondary schools in Dungun District, Terengganu. The data were descriptively analyzed based on the responds on a set of questionnaires, checklist and 20 interview sessions conducted for exploration of coping strategy with 20 out of 100 teachers. Based on the finding, it can be concluded that interpersonal relations, physical conditions and job interest contribute towards workrelated stress among teachers. Also discussed the 10 most frequently used coping strategies by teachers. Therefore, there are suggesting measures, which teachers may take to help them cope more effectively with potentially stressful situations at school.
Needle Stick Injury is injuries caused by suture needle and hollow bore needle and does not include injuries via scalpel blades, lancet and glass pieces or by other means for the purpose of this training program. This problem needs to be prevented or minimized by embarking on an effective training program. The applicability of this program will be determined by the response of the participants to the contents and teaching methods which will in future effect the long term out come and the success of the Needle Stick Injury prevention and Universal Precautions training program. This Health Education program was designed to be used for the induction training of new workers as well as those already in service and is applicable to all levels of Health Care Workers especially those directly dealing with or handling syringes and needles. This Needle Stick Injury and Universal Precautions Training Program was carried out in one of the health facility under the Ministry of Health in Sabah and the outcome evaluation and analysis using paired t-test has shown a significant difference in their effectiveness in increasing the knowledge of the Health Care Workers after being exposed to the program (p < 0.01). The process evaluation was able to show that this approach was instrumental in creating awareness among the Health Care Workers who had attended this program. From the study, 98% (49) had not attended any formal training since joining the service, followed by 90% who had given a good overall rating for the program. For the lecture and its relevance, 90% and 74% for the hands–on training. About 77% of the participant was satisfied with the discussion. The program can be developed further and with it a comprehensive training module can be produced. The long-term benefits of such a training program will need to be evaluated in a future study.
The research is focus generally to identify and investigate the issue of accessible design for wheelchair users on selected Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTM) commuter stations in the city of Kuala Lumpur. The objectives are to ensure that the design of accessibility is comply with the law, regulations, standard requirements and guidelines; to understand the recent condition and their needs in commuter stations and to allow their secure equal rights and opportunities as others. The research began by gaining reliable information through literature study and a checklist for building audit was prepared to evaluate the accessibility. A building access survey was carried out on selected stations which enclosed three main stages to show the pattern of passengers’ path. Stage 1: From the road to the ticket counter. Stage 2: From the ticket counter to the platform. Stage 3: From the platform to the train. A series of structured questionnaire was also constructed to study and get a feedback from selected target of users. Result of findings in this study had been analyzed to assist the management and the station concerned in upgrading their station facilities to a comfortable, accessible, friendly and safe environment in order to encourage more users, including disabled persons to benefit from it.
Individual factors have been considered to be a key issue to organizations’ performance and survival. Specifically, previous studies provide evidence that individual factors are closely associated with accidents in the workplace. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the relationship between individual factors and workplace safety. 50 respondents have been randomly chosen from a manufacturing company in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Data are collected using a survey and are analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. A descriptive statistic, cross tabulation, independent sample t-test and one-way between groups ANOVA are employed to interpret findings of the study. Findings show that employees’ perception on safety performance is at high level (Mean= 115, Standard Deviation= 17.73). Furthermore, the results of cross tabulation demonstrate that individual factors play a key role to determine the organization safety performance level. Another significant finding reveals that there is a significant difference of safety performance mean to two of individual factors namely gender and tenure of service. Individual factors namely gender, age, tenure of service and academic qualification give a significant impact to employees’ perception on safety performance.
Disaster can strike at any time on a small or large scale, but if an institution is prepared, the damage may be reduced or avoided. A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of affected society to cope using only its own resources. Disasters are often classified according to their speed of onset (sudden or ‘slow burning’), or according to their cause (natural or man-made). There is no single and specific method in handling a disaster. The application and method of disaster management do not only depend on types, location and levels of disaster, but also depend on the effectiveness and good system of management as well as the total commitment of first responders and disaster managers involved in handling a disaster. National Security Council Directive No. 20 is both a proactive and reactive generic plan to manage disasters in Malaysia. It is an integrated disaster management plan in mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.
This paper discuss thermal comfort studies of an under air conditioning in hot and humid climate which at one of the higher institution in East Coast of Malaysia. Indoor thermal environment is important as it affects the health and productivity of building occupants. The paper reports on an experimental investigation of indoor thermal comfort characteristics under the control of air conditioning. Firstly, the well known Fanger’s thermal comfort model was simplified for the current experimental investigation. This is followed by reporting the experimental results of indoor thermal comfort characteristics under the control of temperature, with eight different of temperatures which are 22oC to 29oC. Finally, indoor thermal comfort was merely affected by the increment ventilation and outdoor climate. PMV value was higher when near from the window because of the effects of the wall radiations and the metabolic heat.
A preliminary study has been conducted in a new constructed 8 stories building (2 level of Hostels facility, 3 level of Training Room, 2 Level of Offices and 1 level of Exhibition Halls and Rooms) in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The Hostels facility is a floor tile and furnished with build in locker and use split air conditioning system while the Training Room and Exhibition Rooms used floor tile. The Offices and Exhibition Hall are carpeted furnished. All these spaces were using centralized air conditioning systems. A pre-commissioning assessment on 5 chemical parameters of indoor air pollutants such Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC), Formaldehyde, Respirable Particulates (PM!
There is a high prevalence of chronic diseases in the community. Promoting health at the workplace is an effective measure to manage such diseases. This study shares the findings of country-wide company health screening program. The prevalence of high cholesterol among participants was 29 %, high blood pressure was 8% and high blood sugar was 3%. The prevalence of high cholesterol from workplace screening was higher than the community prevalence but the prevalence of high blood pressure and high blood sugar was lower than the community prevalence. The various factors influencing these findings are discussed.
The paper reports on a study conducted in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in NCER, Malaysia. Four safety management practices were studied in relation to safety behaviour of employees. Respondents consisted of employees working in SMEs in NCER. Companies were sampled randomly from directories provided by SMECorp and other SME-related body. Self-administered questionnaires were sent by mail to employees working in SMEs. Completed questionnaires were mailed back by respondents using pre-addressed and post-paid envelope included. Correlation analysis were conducted and found that all four safety management practices are highly correlated with safety behaviour. The result provides support to the use of safety management practices to improve safety behaviour of employees and overall safety of the workplace. Suggestions for management in SMEs are presented in the discussion section. Management in SMEs can consider the use of safety management practices as antecedents that trigger safety behaviour of their employees in order to reduce accident rate in workplace.
This retrospective study was conducted at the audiology clinic of UKM in the year 2000. It was intended to detect the effect of walkman on the hearing system of its users and to investigate whether distortion product otoacoustic emission test can provide an early and reliable sign of cochlear damage or not. Distortion product otoacoustic emission test helps to determine the function of outer hair cell. Outer hair cells get damaged with exposure to loud sound, drugs and aging. Thirty subjects (20 in the study group and 10 in the control group), between the ages of 19-25 years, who fulfilled all the criteria of selection, were investigated. There were two sets of criteria (general and specific). Anyone, in the control or study group, failing in any of these criteria was excluded from the study. According to the general criteria, it was essential for all the subjects to have clean ear canals, normal hearing at all the frequencies (250Hz- 8000Hz), normal middle ear function (Type A tympanogram), no middle ear problem, not used/using any ototoxic medicine, no family history of hearing loss, no history of ear surgery, not exposed to any form of loud noise like disco, concert, F1 racing or gun shooting. According to the special criteria it was essential for the subjects in the control group to have never used a walkman and those in the study group must have been using a walkman for at least 6 months. Comparison of distortion product emission levels between control and study groups revealed that emissions were significantly lower in the study group, across all the frequencies, suggesting outer hair cell damage in the walkman users. These differences reached level of statistical significance (p<0.05) at 2, 4, 6 and 8kHz. Using walkman at an intensity unsafe for hearing and a duration longer than recommended is suspected for the outer hair cell damage in our study group. Those using walkman for longer duration and higher intensity manifested much lower emission levels. Our study supports the literature that distortion product emission test is a much sensitive test than pure-tone audiometry, as it can detect cochlear damage long before it appears in an audiogram. It is recommended that people who are exposed to loud noise regularly should be monitored with distortion product emission test. It is suggested that the use of walkman.
Study site: Audiology clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
A cross sectional study to determine the exposure of heat and its biological effects on the workers in a plastic factory located in the Shah Alam Industrial Estate, Selangor, Malaysia. Forty five respondents from the polymer section in the factory were selected as the respondents. Variables measured were the environmental temperature (WBGTin), air velocity, relative humidity, body temperature, average heart and recovery heart rate. QUESTEMP°34 Area Heat Stress Monitor was used to measure the environmental temperature in °C (WBGTin) and relative humidity (%). Velocicheck Model TSI 8830 was used to measure the air velocity in meter per second (m/s) while the OMRON Blood Pressure Monitor Model T3, was used to measure average heart rate and recovery heart rate. Body temperature (°C) was measured by the Instant Ear Thermometer-OMRON Gentle Temperature Model MC509. Interviews using questionnaires were used to determine respondents’ socioeconomic background, previous risk factors on heat exposure and other information related to heat stress. Results showed that the mean environmental temperature for the exposed group was 28.75°C, the mean air velocity was 0.15 m/s and the mean relative humidity was 58.1%. These production workers were exposed occasionally to heat when loading plastic powder into the molds as well as demolding the finished plastic products from the molds. The average time of monitoring was 2 hours for intermittent exposure and 8 hours duration for overall exposure. Maximum demand for work load was measured 1 minute after work activities were stopped at the demolding section. There was a significant difference between body temperature and average heart rate before work, after 2 hours of work and after 8 hours of work ( p < 0.001). The mean recovery heart rate after 1 min was 88.0 ± 12.0 beat per min. (bpm), indicating that there is no excessive physiological demand. Body temperature (36.8 ± 0.40°C) and average heart rate after 8 hours (78 ± 12 bpm) indicated a good body control of heat exposure. Five out of six workplaces monitored had temperatures of greater than 28°C (ACGIH TLV). The workers were exposed to moderate heat stress during the study period, however, body temperature and average heart rate measurement did not reach unacceptable level of physiologic strain.
Workers in the health care industry and related occupations are at risk of occupational exposure to blood borne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and other potentially infectious agents. The primary route of occupational exposure to blood borne pathogens is accidental percutaneous (through the skin) injury. Health care workers handle sharp devices and equipment such as hypodermic and suture needles, intravenous blood collection devices, phlebotomy devices, and scalpels. Health care workers with the most involvement in direct patient care e.g., nursing staff, sustain the highest proportion of reported NSIs (needle stick injuries).
Stress is on one of the important hazards faced by nursing staff. Although various intervention methods to reduce stress have been developed, its effectiveness among Malaysian nurses has yet to be established. This study involved 185 health nursing staff working at health districts Kemaman and Dungun in Terengganu. Health nursing staff from Kemaman (n=94) was selected as intervention group whereas those from Dungun (n=91) were chosen as controls. Members of the intervention group were given stress awareness education. They were taught how to reduce stress by relaxation methods. Teaching was conducted through lectures, practical training and providing a stress guidebook. A stress reliever card and letter reminding respondents to practice stress reduction methods were sent every two weeks. The total intervention period was 6 weeks. The control did not receive any education on stress reduction or encouragement to practice any stress reduction techniques throughout this period. The effectiveness of the intervention programme was measured by comparing changes in stress symptoms scores. Stress symptoms were measured using a modified Personal Stress Inventory questionnaire. The study found significant reduction of stress symptoms (42.66 ± 20.36 to 35.51 ± 22.60) in the intervention group after intervention compared to before intervention. However there was no significant difference in change of mean score of stress symptoms between both groups. Further studies need to be conducted to establish an intervention programme, which is suitable and effective in reducing stress among health nursing staff.
Exposure to organic solvent during work activities has been known to be associated with significant clinical conditions such as peripheral neuropathy and neurobehavioral changes. Three reported cases of peripheral neuropathy most likely due to exposure to chronic organic solvent were reported recently in Bentong Malaysia. These cases showed a compatible clinical history, occupational history, examination and neurological study that link with peripheral neuropathy due to organic solvent poisoning. Proper education and training with review of engineering control measures are among preventive and corrective measures recommended. More comprehensive study in order to establish significant causal-effect relationship as documented evidence is recommended.
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 83 female electronics factory workers. The respondents comprised 50 exposed workers who use lead alloy solder and 33 unexposed workers. The objective of this study was to assess the lead exposure of these workers. Breathing zone were sampled using air sampling pumps. Dust samples were collected by wipe method. Venous blood collected and blood pressure were measured. All lead analyses were carried out with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean air lead for exposed workers (57 0. ± 0.93 μg/m³) was significantly higher than the unexposed workers (0.0067 ± 0.0045μg/m³) (p