Manual work is associated with increased lung cancer risk possibly because of increased exposure to occupational and other carcinogens, reduced use of health care services and/or a less healthy lifestyle. The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between manual work and lung cancer risk has changed over time. Three separate retrospective studies were carried out over a 10-year period (1996-1997, 1998-2000 and 2003-2005) in patients attending a bronchoscopy clinic to investigate lung cancer risk in an area of Manchester characterised by high deprivation and unemployment. Cases (n=321) were patients newly diagnosed with a tumour of the lung, trachea or bronchus and controls (n=542) were patients free of tumours at the time of, and prior to, examination. Patients were interviewed using the same structured questionnaire for associations between risk factors and lung cancer examined. The study population in all three studies was similar with little difference in smoking history. In each study smoking was associated with lung cancer risk. Lung cancer risk was higher in manual workers (compared to managers and other professionals) in the first (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.20 – 5.05) and second study (OR 2.73, 95% CI 0.97 – 7.70) but not the third (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.58 – 1.61). However, the summary odds ratio (meta-OR) for lung cancer in manual worker was 1.81 (95% 1.75 – 1.87) after controlling for sex, age and smoking. This study suggested that even after taking into account known occupational and environmental causes of cancer, there was a residual cancer risk associated with manual work, high risk working populations of lung cancer. However this appears to have attenuated recently for as yet unknown reasons.
Homocysteine could be a mechanism that underlies the effects of lead on cardiovascular system. This study aims to identify the relationship between lead exposure and homocysteine levels among workers. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out on 80 workers of an automotive components manufacturing factory; that comprised of 40 exposed workers and 40 non-exposed workers. Blood samples of respondents were taken by fingerprick. The blood samples were analyzed for blood lead concentration by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Graphite Furnace Model GBC 908AA. Besides that, ELISA Kit was used to show the homocysteine level among the respondents. Questionnaires were used to obtain demography information of respondents. Results from the statistical analysis showed that the mean blood lead concentration for exposed respondents was 5.53±4.74 μg/dL and 3.53±2.81 μg/dL for the comparative respondents. Mann-Whitney U test showed that there was no significance difference between the mean blood lead concentration of the exposed and comparative group (z=-1.178; p=0.075). The blood lead concentration ranged 0.68-17.95 among the exposed group and with a range of 0.084-11.96 for the comparative group. The mean homocysteine level (μmol/L) was 32.48±2.481μmol/L for the exposed group and 16.50±4.0960 μmol/L for the comparative group. There was a significant difference in homocysteine level (μmol/L) between the exposed (32.48±2.481) and comparative (16.50±4.0959) groups (z = -7.699, p
The main objective of this study is to determine the association between respirable hexavalent chromium compounds with urinary β2-microglobulin levels among welders in an automotive components manufacturing plant. 49 welders and 39 workers involved in stamping process were selected as the exposed and the comparative group. β2-microglobulin is a protein renal tubular dysfunction marker that can indicate renal dysfunction caused by heavy metal. Air samples of worker’s breathing zone were collected using personal air sampling pump and filter papers. Filter papers were then diluted and analysed with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). Workers’ urine samples were collected at the end of 8-hour work shift and analysed with β2-microglobulin ELISA Kit (IBL-Hamburg) and a microtiter reader. Meanwhile, creatinine levels were analysed with creatinine test strips and Reflotron®. A mean concentration of respirable hexavalent chromium compounds in air for the exposed group was 0.135 ± 0.043μg/m3 while for the non-exposed group was 0.124 ± 0.029μg/m3. The mean level of urinary β2-microglobulin per creatinine for the exposed group was 84.996 ± 39.246μg/g while that of the comparative group was 61.365 ± 21.609μg/g. The concentrations of respirable hexavalent chromium compounds were higher in the exposed group compared to the comparative group (Z=-2.444, p=0.015). β2-microglobulin level was also higher in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group (t=3.821, p=
Studies have identified working postures as a major risk factors associated with Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) in industries. This study investigated the prevalence of WMSD among assembly workers in Malaysia and how psychosocial factors such as personal values and workers relationship with family and superior are associated with discomfort and pain. A survey was conducted among 127 workers at assembly process in the manufacturing industry. The workers were aged 28.74±6.74 years and 64.6% of them were males. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the effect of workplace factors on WMSD at different body regions. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to investigate association between psychosocial factors and occurrence of discomfort and pain. Only occupation and job activities revealed any significant different with WMSD in the major body regions while there was no significant difference in gender, age and work duration classifications. Shoulder painis the most prevalent in terms of frequency and intensity of occurrence. Psychosocial issues that have to do with person values, effect of job on family relationship and workers rapport with superiors are all found to be associated with the discomfort and pain among the occupational group. Employers and concerned government agencies need to take more proactive steps in tackling the problem as the occurrence of WMSD will have a significant effect on the overall wellbeing of the working population.
There is a need to develop an Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS) Critical Success Factors (CSF) Monitoring among gas contractor in Malaysia. Critical Success Factors (CSF) can be used for future implementation, adaptation and practice for gas contractor work for both by clients and contractors in Malaysia. The main purpose of CSF implementation is to reduce the number of accident related with Occupational Safety and Health (OSH). The need for CSF is due to the requirement by law and standard that require companies to establish an arrangement related to the identified OSH risks. The objective of this study is to assess the established of OSHMS among gas contractor in Peninsular Malaysia and to identify the CSF imposed by these industries. A cross sectional study for eighty gas contractor companies using established questionnaire has been done. All data consolidated in order to determine the OSHMS and it CSF among gas contractor in Peninsular Malaysia that has registered with Department of Occupational Safety and Health. Established questionnaire are based on OSHMS MS 1722:2011 elements requirement No 1: Policy, No 2: Organizing, No 3: Planning and Implementation, No 4: Evaluation and No 5: Action for Improvement as parameters to come out with organization means and Z-scores. Descriptive statistic showed that element mean (standard deviation) score for policy is 75(6.6), for Organizing is 63(5.2), for Planning and Implementation is 59(9.4), for Evaluation is 66(5.1) and Action for Improvement is 63(1.3). Percentage of company that complies with the main element for Policy is 15%, for Organizing is 8.8%, for Planning and Implementation is 11.3%, for evaluation is 11.3% and for Action for improvement is 13.8%. Percentage of companies that partially comply with Policy element is distributed between 61.0% to 85.0% which is 76.3 %, for Organizing score is mainly distributed between 46.0% to 60.0% which is 62.5%, for planning and Implementation score for 80 companies distributed mainly in group score between 46.0 to 60.0% which is 56.3 %, for Evaluation the partially comply score is distributed in group score between 61.0% to 85.5% which is 41 % and for Action for Improvement partially comply score, the distribution is mainly distribute in range of 61.0% to 85.0% which is 62.5 %. Z-score for element policy is five points from policy mean, for organizing Z-score is three points from Organizing mean, for Planning and Implementation the Z-score is three points from Planning and Implementation mean, for Evaluation the Z-score is three points from evaluation mean and for Action for improvement Z-score is two to three points from Action for Improvement mean. Percentage of compliance with OSHMS MS 1722:2011 elements by gas contractors in almost main element and sub element are still low and can be further improved by focusing on all company element score for continual improvement of OSH elements compliances.
This study was done to investigate the background level on microbiological indoor air pollutants in new constructed 8 stories buildings (2 level of Hostel facilities, 3 level of Training Room level, 2 level of Offices and 1 Exhibition Halls and Rooms) in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The offices and exhibition hall are carpeted furnished. All these spaces were using centralized air conditioning system. Airborne microbes’ concentrations were determined by using a single stage impactor (Biosampler) as per requirement of National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH method NIOSH Manual Analytical Method MAM 0800. Mean concentration of total bacteria detected is 1351 CFU/m3 and it was found significantly higher compared to maximum exposure limit 500 CFU/m3 in office room. The mean concentration of total fungi in the office rooms is 479 CFU/m3 and it was found slightly lower compared to maximum exposure limit 500 CFU/m3. The airborne microbe levels were found slightly lower in the accommodation, training and exhibition rooms compared to office room. These findings indicate that although a new constructed building should be having a significant background level of airborne microbe (total bacteria and total fungi).
Sound is one of the source of energy generated by vibration and is carried through the air in a form of pressure waves (Frederick, 1975). This pressure waves consist of pulsation or vibration of molecules of an elastic medium such as gas, liquid and even solid (Gerber, 1974). Due to its nature, sound can be irritating when it is excessive. The excessive amount of sound is called noise. Exposure to noise is common to the workers working at the industry. This can lead to hearing loss. Hearing loss is one of the most common health problems in the industrialized world. Working activities have been related to noise exposure due to increase use of machine that generates sounds. Many workers throughout the world experience hazardous noise exposure which is ≥ 85 decibels (dB) (Seter, 1998). Based on the previous study in the European region, most of the employers had difficulties to compensate workers diagnosed with hearing loss or hearing impairment cause by the working nature. (Rachiotis et al., 2006). According to European Survey on Working Conditions, about 7% of the workers considered that their work affects their health in the form of hearing disorders. Occupational risk factors for hearing loss include occupational noise, whole body vibration, work-related diseases and exposure to chemical. In this report, we specified in the noise exposure level of the workers.
How people perceive risk influences their behaviour towards these risks. We do not know how workers perceive risk of dying from activities or technology. This study was conducted among 198 workers of a security company in Malaysia. The workers were asked to score on a Likert scale of 1 to 5 the perceived risk of death of Malaysians from activities and technology. The highest perceived risks of death were, in order of ranking, motorcycles, motor vehicles, handguns, alcoholic beverages and smoking. The difference in perception and reality is discussed.
A study was undertaken to determine the effect of polyethylene and polystyrene used in the manufacture of plastic items on colour perception. Colour vision was assessed using the Ishihara plates, panel 015 test and the Farnsworth Munsell 100-Hue test. Two factories were chosen at random. One factory (referred here as factory A) used virgin resin in pellet form (polyethylene) in the manufacturing of plastic containers to store consumer edible oil. The other factory (referred as factory B) used polystyrene to make plastic bags. A total of 39 healthy employees from factory A (mean age 26.4 :t 8.2 years) and 40 healthy employees from factory B (mean age 26.8 :t 9.6 years) were recruited in this study. A control group of 27 normal healthy subjects (mean age 27.4 :t 4.3 years) who were employees of UKM with no occupational involvement with petroleum derivatives were also recruited in this study and they performed the same colour vision tests. All subjects passed the Ishihara plates test showing that none of the subjects (employees of factory A and B, and control subjects) had a congenital red-green defect. All control subjects passed all of the colour vision tests whilst some employees of factories A and B failed the 015 and FM100 Hue tests. For employees from factory A results from the 015 test showed that 7 (17.9%) had a tritan (blue-yellow) type of defect and 1 (2.6%) had a complex type of defect. The FM 100 Hue results of factory A employees showed that 51.3% (n=20) had a complex type of defect. Total error scores (TES) calculated from the FM 100 Hue test revealed that employees from factory A had a statistically significant higher mean TES of 65.13:!: 48.31 compared to that of control subjects with a mean TES of 31.26:!: 14.93. For employees in factory B, 10 employees (25.0%) had a tritan (blue-yellow) type of defect and 2 (5.0%) had a complex type of defect. Results of the FM 100 Hue test showed that 4 employees (1.0%) had a tritan type of defect whereas 22 (55.0%) had a complex type of defect. Mean total error scores (TES) calculated from the FM 100 Hue test revealed that employees from factory B had a statistically significant higher mean TES of 71.54 :t 54.63 compared with that of control subjects with a mean TES of 31.26 :t. 14.93
The above results show that employees of the plastic factories studies are associated with a higher risk of acquiring colour vision defects as compared to normal subjects who are not engaged in the plastic manufacturing industry. This may have an implication towards the future retinal health of employees in petrod1emical-based industries.
This retrospective study was conducted at the audiology clinic of UKM in the year 2000. It was intended to detect the effect of walkman on the hearing system of its users and to investigate whether distortion product otoacoustic emission test can provide an early and reliable sign of cochlear damage or not. Distortion product otoacoustic emission test helps to determine the function of outer hair cell. Outer hair cells get damaged with exposure to loud sound, drugs and aging. Thirty subjects (20 in the study group and 10 in the control group), between the ages of 19-25 years, who fulfilled all the criteria of selection, were investigated. There were two sets of criteria (general and specific). Anyone, in the control or study group, failing in any of these criteria was excluded from the study. According to the general criteria, it was essential for all the subjects to have clean ear canals, normal hearing at all the frequencies (250Hz- 8000Hz), normal middle ear function (Type A tympanogram), no middle ear problem, not used/using any ototoxic medicine, no family history of hearing loss, no history of ear surgery, not exposed to any form of loud noise like disco, concert, F1 racing or gun shooting. According to the special criteria it was essential for the subjects in the control group to have never used a walkman and those in the study group must have been using a walkman for at least 6 months. Comparison of distortion product emission levels between control and study groups revealed that emissions were significantly lower in the study group, across all the frequencies, suggesting outer hair cell damage in the walkman users. These differences reached level of statistical significance (p<0.05) at 2, 4, 6 and 8kHz. Using walkman at an intensity unsafe for hearing and a duration longer than recommended is suspected for the outer hair cell damage in our study group. Those using walkman for longer duration and higher intensity manifested much lower emission levels. Our study supports the literature that distortion product emission test is a much sensitive test than pure-tone audiometry, as it can detect cochlear damage long before it appears in an audiogram. It is recommended that people who are exposed to loud noise regularly should be monitored with distortion product emission test. It is suggested that the use of walkman.
Study site: Audiology clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Fishing industry in Malaysia is dominated by small scale fishing, scattered along the coast of the country. The risk associated with fishing industry is well known but few studies have been done among those in the small scale fishing community. Fishermen not only have to cope with the uncertainty of nature but also the physical demands of the occupation. The objective of the study was to determine the injuries and its associated factors related to the small scale fishing industry. The study was conducted in a fishing village in northern Malaysia, which was hit by tsunami. Most of the boats and fishing gear were donated by many relief agencies. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. 50 (83.3%) of the 60 fishermen had consented for the study. All the fishermen were Malays males. 46% (n=23) of the fishermen reported to having sustained injuries. Most of the injuries occurred offshore (p
Heat stress is considered to be the sum of heat generated in the body (metabolic heat) plus the heat gained from the environment (environmental heat) minus the heat lost from the body to the environment. The consequences of heat stress can caused heat disorder such as heat stroke, heat syncope, heat exhaustion, heat cramps and other heat related diseases. The objective of this study was to compare the pattern of heat stress in each section. A crosssectional study was carried out in two sections (Paintshop A and Bodyshop B) in a selected automotive assembly plant in Selangor to monitor the environmental heat stress. The environmental heat monitoring was done on 89 March 2005. Heat stress monitor (Model: QUESTemp o 34 Thermal Environment Monitor, Quest Technologies, USA) was used to record the pattern of heat exposure in the workplace over a period of eight hours. Heat parameters such as dry temperature, wet temperature, globe temperature and relative humidity were measured. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index (WBGT) and workload evaluation were used to compare both sections. Heat parameters such as timeweighted average wet bulb globe temperature for indoor setting (TWAWBGT indoor ), dry temperature (DB), natural wet bulb temperature (WB), globe temperature (GB) in Paintshop A were higher than those in Bodyshop B. The relative humidity in Paintshop A was hotdry compared to Bodyshop B which is hotwarm. Paintshop A was considered a hot area compared to Bodyshop B which is normal. Workers in both sections were not faced with heat stress problems because they were worked under acceptable condition according to American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists standard. Both sections in the automotive assembly plant exhibited acceptable working condition for workers in a tropical environment.
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 83 female electronics factory workers. The respondents comprised 50 exposed workers who use lead alloy solder and 33 unexposed workers. The objective of this study was to assess the lead exposure of these workers. Breathing zone were sampled using air sampling pumps. Dust samples were collected by wipe method. Venous blood collected and blood pressure were measured. All lead analyses were carried out with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean air lead for exposed workers (57 0. ± 0.93 μg/m³) was significantly higher than the unexposed workers (0.0067 ± 0.0045μg/m³) (p
A cross sectional study to determine the exposure of heat and its biological effects on the workers in a plastic factory located in the Shah Alam Industrial Estate, Selangor, Malaysia. Forty five respondents from the polymer section in the factory were selected as the respondents. Variables measured were the environmental temperature (WBGTin), air velocity, relative humidity, body temperature, average heart and recovery heart rate. QUESTEMP°34 Area Heat Stress Monitor was used to measure the environmental temperature in °C (WBGTin) and relative humidity (%). Velocicheck Model TSI 8830 was used to measure the air velocity in meter per second (m/s) while the OMRON Blood Pressure Monitor Model T3, was used to measure average heart rate and recovery heart rate. Body temperature (°C) was measured by the Instant Ear Thermometer-OMRON Gentle Temperature Model MC509. Interviews using questionnaires were used to determine respondents’ socioeconomic background, previous risk factors on heat exposure and other information related to heat stress. Results showed that the mean environmental temperature for the exposed group was 28.75°C, the mean air velocity was 0.15 m/s and the mean relative humidity was 58.1%. These production workers were exposed occasionally to heat when loading plastic powder into the molds as well as demolding the finished plastic products from the molds. The average time of monitoring was 2 hours for intermittent exposure and 8 hours duration for overall exposure. Maximum demand for work load was measured 1 minute after work activities were stopped at the demolding section. There was a significant difference between body temperature and average heart rate before work, after 2 hours of work and after 8 hours of work ( p < 0.001). The mean recovery heart rate after 1 min was 88.0 ± 12.0 beat per min. (bpm), indicating that there is no excessive physiological demand. Body temperature (36.8 ± 0.40°C) and average heart rate after 8 hours (78 ± 12 bpm) indicated a good body control of heat exposure. Five out of six workplaces monitored had temperatures of greater than 28°C (ACGIH TLV). The workers were exposed to moderate heat stress during the study period, however, body temperature and average heart rate measurement did not reach unacceptable level of physiologic strain.
Societal dynamics and increased public demands on education have produced adverse stressful classroom situation that have led to increase emotional and physical disabilities among teacher. The main objective of this descriptive study was to identify the causes of occupational stress amongst secondary school teachers. This study also conducted in order to determine the suitable ways and strategies at helping teachers to cope with the work related pressures that have increased during the past decade. The samples of this study were 100 teachers from four secondary schools in Dungun District, Terengganu. The data were descriptively analyzed based on the responds on a set of questionnaires, checklist and 20 interview sessions conducted for exploration of coping strategy with 20 out of 100 teachers. Based on the finding, it can be concluded that interpersonal relations, physical conditions and job interest contribute towards workrelated stress among teachers. Also discussed the 10 most frequently used coping strategies by teachers. Therefore, there are suggesting measures, which teachers may take to help them cope more effectively with potentially stressful situations at school.
The research is focus generally to identify and investigate the issue of accessible design for wheelchair users on selected Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTM) commuter stations in the city of Kuala Lumpur. The objectives are to ensure that the design of accessibility is comply with the law, regulations, standard requirements and guidelines; to understand the recent condition and their needs in commuter stations and to allow their secure equal rights and opportunities as others. The research began by gaining reliable information through literature study and a checklist for building audit was prepared to evaluate the accessibility. A building access survey was carried out on selected stations which enclosed three main stages to show the pattern of passengers’ path. Stage 1: From the road to the ticket counter. Stage 2: From the ticket counter to the platform. Stage 3: From the platform to the train. A series of structured questionnaire was also constructed to study and get a feedback from selected target of users. Result of findings in this study had been analyzed to assist the management and the station concerned in upgrading their station facilities to a comfortable, accessible, friendly and safe environment in order to encourage more users, including disabled persons to benefit from it.
A preliminary study has been conducted in a new constructed 8 stories building (2 level of Hostels facility, 3 level of Training Room, 2 Level of Offices and 1 level of Exhibition Halls and Rooms) in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The Hostels facility is a floor tile and furnished with build in locker and use split air conditioning system while the Training Room and Exhibition Rooms used floor tile. The Offices and Exhibition Hall are carpeted furnished. All these spaces were using centralized air conditioning systems. A pre-commissioning assessment on 5 chemical parameters of indoor air pollutants such Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC), Formaldehyde, Respirable Particulates (PM!
Needle Stick Injury is injuries caused by suture needle and hollow bore needle and does not include injuries via scalpel blades, lancet and glass pieces or by other means for the purpose of this training program. This problem needs to be prevented or minimized by embarking on an effective training program. The applicability of this program will be determined by the response of the participants to the contents and teaching methods which will in future effect the long term out come and the success of the Needle Stick Injury prevention and Universal Precautions training program. This Health Education program was designed to be used for the induction training of new workers as well as those already in service and is applicable to all levels of Health Care Workers especially those directly dealing with or handling syringes and needles. This Needle Stick Injury and Universal Precautions Training Program was carried out in one of the health facility under the Ministry of Health in Sabah and the outcome evaluation and analysis using paired t-test has shown a significant difference in their effectiveness in increasing the knowledge of the Health Care Workers after being exposed to the program (p < 0.01). The process evaluation was able to show that this approach was instrumental in creating awareness among the Health Care Workers who had attended this program. From the study, 98% (49) had not attended any formal training since joining the service, followed by 90% who had given a good overall rating for the program. For the lecture and its relevance, 90% and 74% for the hands–on training. About 77% of the participant was satisfied with the discussion. The program can be developed further and with it a comprehensive training module can be produced. The long-term benefits of such a training program will need to be evaluated in a future study.
There is a high prevalence of chronic diseases in the community. Promoting health at the workplace is an effective measure to manage such diseases. This study shares the findings of country-wide company health screening program. The prevalence of high cholesterol among participants was 29 %, high blood pressure was 8% and high blood sugar was 3%. The prevalence of high cholesterol from workplace screening was higher than the community prevalence but the prevalence of high blood pressure and high blood sugar was lower than the community prevalence. The various factors influencing these findings are discussed.
Brush cutting is a commonly performed activity occupationally as well as recreationally in Malaysia. There are various occupational injuries reported related to brush cutting, for example foreign body penetration. There were 11 reported cases of foreign body penetrated in leg of brush cutting workers admitted to orthopaedic ward in Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun from the period of January till October 2009. Among the cases, 4 were surgically removed under local anaesthesia and 7 cases performed under general anesthesia. 2 cases reported foreign body penetrated into tibia bone. There were many contributing factors to the injury, which include lack of protective measures for workers, engineering property of brush cutting machine and education on handling of equipment. It is vital to study the factors separately in order to determine and recommend useful preventive measures. However, the actual numbers of cases are under reported and awareness of the problem is undermined.