Background: Sewage workers have a higher risk of exposure to various potential occupational respiratory hazards found in sewage plants. Although previous studies discuss occupational respiratory hazard concentration impacting sewage workers' respiratory health, the results are scarce and mixed. Hence, there is a need to identify the potential respiratory hazards in sewage plants so as to clarify the short- and long-term respiratory health effects. Therefore, this systematic review (SR) aims to critically review previous studies investigating potential respiratory hazards found at sewage plants and their effects on sewage workers' respiratory health. Methods: An SR was conducted using PubMed, EBSCO Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar on peer-reviewed studies published between January 1994 and October 2020 evaluating the impact of potential exposure to respiratory hazards and its effects on respiratory health among sewage workers. "Sewage treatment plant," "respiratory hazards," and "respiratory health effects" were the three main search terms chosen in this SR. The inclusion criteria were (1) studies on potential occupational respiratory hazard exposure among sewage workers, (2) manuscripts written in English, and (3) studies published in the peer-reviewed literature. The human observational studies' quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. Results: We identified 5,660 articles through an initial database search. Only 26 items met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review; 15 human observational studies and 11 environmental assessment studies were conducted in the sewage industries. Most of the human observational studies were rated as moderate quality, two studies were rated as weak quality, and one study with strong quality was identified. Hydrogen sulfide, bioaerosols, particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were found to be potential respiratory hazards. Most of the risks contributed to adverse outcomes on the sewage workers' respiratory health with some inconsistent findings on the relationship between respiratory hazard exposure and respiratory health effects. Conclusion: Our review finds that, although this area is of great importance, quality studies are still lacking. There is a need for additional studies to clarify the effects of respiratory hazard exposure on sewage workers and respiratory health, especially PM 2.5 and VOC.
Occupational safety and health is one of important issues for workforce movement among ASEAN countries. The objective was to study laws, main agencies, and law enforcement regarding occupational safety and health in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Singapore. This documentary research covered laws, main agencies' duties, and occupational safety and health law enforcement in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Singapore. Thailand has its Occupational Safety, Health, and Work EnvironmentAct 2011. Its main agency was Department of Labor Protection and Welfare. Indonesia had WorkSafety Act (Law No. 1, 1970). Its main agency was Department of Manpower and Transmigration. Malaysia had Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994. Its main agency is the Department of Occupational Safety and Health. The Philippines has its Occupational Safety and Health Standards. Its main agency was Department ofLabor and Employment. Singapore has its Workplace Safety and Health Act 2006. Its main agency is Occupational Safety and Health Division. Occupational safety and health law enforcement among each county covers work environment surveillance, workers' health surveillance, advice about prevention and control of occupational health hazards, training and education of employers and employees, data systems, and research. Further in-depth surveys of occupational safety and health among each ASEAN county are needed to develop frameworks for occupational safety and health management for all ASEAN countries.
A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among sawmill managers in Sarawak to explore certain health and safety aspects of workers in this industry. The survey reveals that many sawmills are lacking in the provision of occupational health facilities and activities for their employees.
Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Health Services; Occupational Health*
A literature review of 16 papers on occupational injury research in Malaysia published during a 13-year period from 2000-2013 was carried out. The objective of this review and article selection was based on relevance to the research theme and mention of areas for future research. Most of the publications have focused on descriptive epidemiology, management practices, worker's knowledge, attitude, training, and rehabilitation services. The transportation, agriculture and construction sectors were found to be the most hazardous sectors and would benefit the most from Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) research and interventions. There is a strong need to develop a national injury surveillance system and also a mechanism to ensure adherence to the Occupational Safety & Health Act(OSHA) 1994. Detailed description and identification of risk factors for occupational injury in the environment, including machinery and equipment used was generally lacking. Future research on occupational injury should focus on surveillance to determine the magnitude of occupational injuries, determination of risk factors, identifying costeffective interventions (such as enforcement of OSHA regulations), and assessment of rehabilitation services. Relevant government agencies, universities, corporate sector and occupational safety organizations need to play a proactive role in identifying priority areas and research capacity building. Funding for occupational injury should be commensurate with the magnitude of the problem.
A guideline on Basic Occupational Health Services (BOHS) has been established jointly by ILO/WHO/ICOH in response to poor achievements of the Occupational Health Services (OHS), especially among workers in small and medium enterprises at the global level. Malaysia. The international guideline describes competent and skilled human resources as an essential strategy for BOHS implementation. This commentary will discuss the challenges faced by current occupational health personnel providing OHS in Malaysia and proposes improvements of human resource development for future BOHS in Malaysia to ensure fair and better OHS coverage for Malaysian workers.
Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Health Services; Occupational Health
Infrastructure projects are the foundation for essential public services and have an influential position in societal development. Although the role of infrastructure projects is substantial, they can involve complexities and safety issues that lead to an unsafe environment, and which impacts the project key stakeholders. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the barriers to implementing occupational safety in infrastructure projects in the Gaza Strip, which cause serious threats and reduce project performance. To evaluate the barriers, 39 items were highlighted and modified as per the construction context and environment, and which later were distributed in the form of a questionnaire, to get feedback from consultants and contractors. The analysis shows that in the safety policy barriers group, consultants and contractors both ranked the item "a contractor committed to an occupational safety program is not rewarded" first. In the management barriers group, consultants and contractors both ranked the item "safety engineer does not have significant powers, such as stopping work when needed" in the first place. In the behavior and culture barriers group, consultants and contractors both ranked the item "workers who are not committed to occupational safety are not excluded" in the first place. Overall, both consultants and contractors shared the same viewpoint in classifying the barriers in the working environment. The outcome of this study is beneficial for Palestinian construction industry policymakers, so they can monitor the highlighted barriers in on-going infrastructure projects and can modify the safety guidelines accordingly.
A study conducted between 1998-2001 on the semiconductor industry in Penang and Selangor found that irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea and stress were identified as the three leading health problems by women workers from a checklist of 16 health problems. After adjusting for confounding factors, including age, working duration in current factory, and marital status, in a multiple logistic regression model, wafer polishing workers were found to experience significantly higher odds of experiencing irregular menstruation. Dysmenorrhea was found to be significantly associated with chemical usage and poor ventilation, while stress was found to be related to poor ventilation, noise and low temperatures.
Health-care workers are at risk of exposure to occupational infections with subsequent risk of contracting diseases, disability, and even death. A systematic collection of occupational disease data is useful for monitoring current trends in work situations and disease exposures; however, these data are usually limited due to under-reporting. The objective of this study was to review literature related to knowledge, risk perceptions, and practices regarding occupational exposures to infectious diseases in Malaysian health-care settings, in particular regarding blood-borne infections, universal precautions, use of personal protective equipment, and clinical waste management. The data are useful for determining improvements in knowledge and risk perceptions among health-care workers with developments of health policies and essential interventions for prevention and control of occupational diseases.
This study aimed to determine the perception and level of safety satisfaction of staff nurses with regards to Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) management practice in the Sabah Health Department, and to associate the OSH management dimensions, to Safety Satisfaction and Safety Feedback.
The objectives of occupational health services (OHS) are to create a healthy and safe working environment, prevent work-related diseases, optimise employees' functional capacity and promote health. According to the literature, global accessibility to OHS has not shown much improvement and even worsened in certain countries. The main challenges come from the small and medium enterprises (SMEs). To respond to these global challenges, the basic occupational health services (BOHS) guideline was published under the purview of the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. The guideline describes BOHS as part of the infrastructure called the occupational safety and health system, an essential element that ensures the high service coverage and sustainability of the programme. The BOHS guideline was introduced in Malaysia by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with a focus on SMEs, but its accessibility is low. A gap analysis was conducted between the current BOHS in Malaysia and the published international guideline. The important challenges identified that contributes to the low BOHS accessibility in Malaysia is the weakness in the BOHS infrastructure and OHS system provision. The proposed BOHS infrastructure model is meant to increase accessibility and to provide fair and equitable health services for Malaysians.
Matched MeSH terms: Occupational Health Services; Occupational Health