Occupational safety and health is one of important issues for workforce movement among ASEAN countries. The objective was to study laws, main agencies, and law enforcement regarding occupational safety and health in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Singapore. This documentary research covered laws, main agencies' duties, and occupational safety and health law enforcement in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Singapore. Thailand has its Occupational Safety, Health, and Work EnvironmentAct 2011. Its main agency was Department of Labor Protection and Welfare. Indonesia had WorkSafety Act (Law No. 1, 1970). Its main agency was Department of Manpower and Transmigration. Malaysia had Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994. Its main agency is the Department of Occupational Safety and Health. The Philippines has its Occupational Safety and Health Standards. Its main agency was Department ofLabor and Employment. Singapore has its Workplace Safety and Health Act 2006. Its main agency is Occupational Safety and Health Division. Occupational safety and health law enforcement among each county covers work environment surveillance, workers' health surveillance, advice about prevention and control of occupational health hazards, training and education of employers and employees, data systems, and research. Further in-depth surveys of occupational safety and health among each ASEAN county are needed to develop frameworks for occupational safety and health management for all ASEAN countries.
Drug use can harm to sex workers. Abstinence intervention, however, may not be appropriate since drug use fosters their career performance. The objective was to develop the culturally appropriate model for sex workers participation on drug demand reduction at the Thailand/Malaysian border
The subset of data on southern Thai InterAsia study conducted in 2000 was revisited in order to document gender and ethnic breakdown of prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Three hundred and seventy-five men and 630 women with overall mean +/- SD age of 53.2 +/- 11.7 years were recruited. Combined gender prevalences were: 21.1% for smoking, 15.5% for drinking, 21.8% for hypertension (systemic blood pressure > or = 140/90 mmHg), 49.8% for impaired fasting plasma glucose (FPG 110-125 mg/dl), 9.9% for diabetes mellitus (FPG > or = 126 mg/dl), 10% for body mass index > or = 30 kg/m2, 43.5% for large waist circumference (WC > or = 90 cm in men and > or = 80 in women), 62.8% for total serum cholesterol (TC), > 200 mg/dl, 38.5% for TC divided by high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) > or = 5 and 61.6% for low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), > or = 130 mg/dl. After using logistic regression, adjusting the effects of age and community of residence, women were less likely than men to be smokers, drinkers, or showed impaired FPG but significantly more likely to have large WC, TC > or = 200 mg/dl and LDL-C > or = 130 mg/dl. Muslims showed significantly lower risk for drinking and large WC but higher risk for low HDL-C. The differences require further research. In conclusion, gender and age have stronger association with various risk factors than ethnicity in this selected population.
This report documents a case of infiltrating cervical spinal mass, most likely a spinal tumor, in a girl with HIV infection that regressed following HAART and without treatment of the tumor or any anti-infectives.
Assess the effectiveness of sildenafil in Asian males with erectile dysfunction (ED) and one or more of the co-morbidities, mild-to-moderate hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes.
MATERIAL AND METHOD:
A six-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was carried out in Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. One hundred and fifty five male subjects were randomized (2:1) to sildenafil (n = 104) or placebo (n = 51). Sildenafil was started at 50 mg and increased (100 mg) or decreased (25 mg) at week 2 if necessary.
On the primary efficacy endpoint, sildenafil-treated subjects had significantly better scores on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questions 3 and 4 than placebo (p < 0.001, both questions). When accumulated into IIEF domains, all five domains were significant in favor of sildenafil. In addition, sildenafil-treated subjects were more satisfied with treatment and had a higher intercourse success rate. The majority of adverse events were mild in severity; the most commonly reported treatment-related events were dizziness (7.7%) and tinnitus (2.9%).
Sildenafil (25, 50, and 100 mg) was found to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment for ED in the present study population of Thai, Malaysian, and Singaporean males who also had increased cardiovascular risk.
The HLA-A*02 subtyping in Thais was conducted and included in the 12th International Histocompatibility Workshop (12WS). A total of 81 randomized individuals previously serologically or DNA typed as A2 were studied for A2 subtypings. The subjects consisted of 32 Southern Thai-Muslims (STM) and 49 Central Thais (CT). The 12WS HLA-A*02 subtyping DNA typing kit was employed. The most common A*02 subtypes in STM were A*0203,*0201 and *0207 while they were A*0203, *0207 and *0201 in CT. A*0202, *0204, *0208, *0209, *0212, *0213, *0214, *0215, *0216 and *0217 were not found in both STM and CT. The 12WS data indicated that A*0201 was also the most frequent allele of A*2 among North-East Asians. A2 subtype study in 32 STM revealed that 2 in 8 of A*0201 showed the absence of bands at 813 bp and 705 bp with primer mix number 03A and 517A and weak reaction band with primer mix number 33A. In addition, 3 subjects with A*0201 variations have one nucleotide difference in exon 2 by sequence base typing (by MGJ. Tilanus) which will be reported separately.
One hundred and two Southern Thai-Muslims (STM) from Nakhon Si Thammarat province were studied for HLA class I and II by SSP ARMS-PCR and PCR-SSO, respectively. The allele frequencies, haplotype frequencies, delta value and linkage disequilibrium between alleles were expressed. The most frequent alleles for HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C were A*24(02,03), A*11 (01,02), A*02(01,03,05-07,11): B*15(01,04-07,12,19,20), B*07(02-05), B*51(01-05)/B*52 (011,012); and Cw*07(01-03), Cw*04(01,02), Cw*08(01-03), respectively. The HLA class II alleles frequently found were DRB1*1202, DRB1*15021, DRB1*0701; DRB3*0301; DRB5* 0101; DQA1*0101, DQA1*0103, DQA1*0601; DQB1*0301, DQB1*0501, DQB1*0201; and DPB1*1301, DPB1*2301 and DPB1*0501. Two common HLA class I and II haplotypes with significant linkage disequilibrium were A*24 (02,03)-Cw*08 (01-03)-B*15 (01,04-07,12,19,20) -DRB1*1202 and A*33 (01,02)-Cw*0302-B*5801-DQB1*0201. The absence of B*27 and DRB1 *1401, the presence of A*2301 and high frequency of A*68 were observed in STM.