Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 146 in total

  1. Sazlina SG, Browning C, Yasin S
    PMID: 24392445 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2013.00071
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among people aged 60 years and above is a growing public health problem. Regular physical activity is one of the key elements in the management of T2DM. Recommendations suggest that older people with T2DM will benefit from regular physical activity for better disease control and delaying complications. Despite the known benefits, many remain sedentary. Hence, this review assessed interventions for promoting physical activity in persons aged 65 years and older with T2DM.
  2. Payyappallimana U, Venkatasubramanian P
    PMID: 27066472 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00057
    Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine that originated over three millennia ago in the South Asian region, offers extensive insights about food and health based on certain unique conceptual as well as theoretical positions. Health is defined as a state of equilibrium with one's self (svasthya) but which is inextricably linked to the environment. Ayurvedic principles, such as the tridosa (three humors) theory, provide the relationship between the microcosm and the macrocosm that can be applied in day-to-day practice. Classical Ayurveda texts cover an array of themes on food ranging from diversity of natural sources, their properties in relation to seasons and places and to their specific function both in physiological and pathological states. The epistemic perspective on health and nutrition in Ayurveda is very different from that of biomedicine and modern nutrition. However, contemporary knowledge is reinventing and advancing several of these concepts in an era of systems biology, personalized medicine, and the broader context of a more holistic transition in sciences in general. Trans-disciplinary research could be important not only for pushing the boundaries of food and health sciences but also for providing practical solutions for contemporary health conditions. This article briefly reviews the parallels in Ayurveda and biomedicine and draws attention to the need for a deeper engagement with traditional knowledge systems, such as Ayurveda. It points out that recreation of the methodologies that enabled the holistic view point about health in Ayurveda may unravel some of the complex connections with Nature.
  3. Sazlina SG, Browning CJ, Yasin S
    Front Public Health, 2015;3:178.
    PMID: 26217658 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2015.00178
    INTRODUCTION: Regular physical activity is an important aspect of self-management among older people with type 2 diabetes but many remain inactive. Interventions to improve physical activity levels have been studied but few studies have evaluated the effects of personalized feedback (PF) or peer support (PS); and there was no study on older people of Asian heritage. Hence, this trial evaluated whether PF only or combined with PS improves physical activity among older Malays with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) compared to usual care only.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A three-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted in a primary healthcare clinic in Malaysia. Sixty-nine sedentary Malays aged 60 years and older with T2DM who received usual diabetes care were randomized to PF or PS interventions or as controls for 12 weeks with follow-ups at weeks 24 and 36. Intervention groups performed unsupervised walking activity and received written feedback on physical activity. The PS group also received group and telephone contacts from trained peer mentors. The primary outcome was pedometer steps. Secondary outcomes were self-reported physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, quality of life, and psychosocial wellbeing.
    RESULTS: Fifty-two (75.4%) completed the 36-week study. The PS group showed greater daily pedometer readings than the PF and controls (p = 0.001). The PS group also had greater improvement in weekly duration (p 
  4. Subermaniam K, Welfred R, Subramanian P, Chinna K, Ibrahim F, Mohktar MS, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2016;4:292.
    PMID: 28119908 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00292
    Falls and fall-related injuries are increasingly serious issues among elderly inpatients due to population aging. The bed-exit alarm has only previously been evaluated in a handful of studies with mixed results. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of a modular bed absence sensor device (M-BAS) in detecting bed exits among older inpatients in a middle income nation in East Asia.
  5. Chie QT, Tam CL, Bonn G
    Front Public Health, 2018;6:143.
    PMID: 29868548 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00143
    A brief survey asked Malaysians if they had searched for information about illegal drugs and their thoughts about the information available. Two hundred and eighty participants from four states: Selangor, Penang, Malacca, and Johor filled out a paper-and-pencil survey including both multiple choice and open-ended written questions. Quantitative analyses of closed-ended, and thematic analyses of open-ended data indicated the following: Half of participants had, at some point, actively searched for information about drug use; 28% reported searching at least once per month. Participants generally (79%) preferred to obtain information online, but 62% also reported sharing and obtaining information about drugs in face-to-face interactions with friends and others. Concerns regarding the reliability of information, such as the presence of conflicting or contradictory messages from multiple sources, was a common theme in open ended responses. Of those who searched for information, about 70% reported desiring more detailed information about different drugs, in particular about their various side effects and risks. It is suggested that drug information campaigns, particularly those aimed at university students, might better focus on providing accurate, detailed information about the risks and other issues involved in various types of drug use, rather than one-size-fits-all messages. Given the varied and confusing nature of information already available, overly simplistic anti-drug messages may be ineffective, if not counterproductive.
  6. Bukhsh A, Lee SWH, Pusparajah P, Khan AH, Khan TM
    Front Public Health, 2017;5:139.
    PMID: 28702453 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00139
    OBJECTIVE: Patient education is a key element in the treatment of diabetes. Assessment of diabetes knowledge is important for optimum treatment. For the assessment of diabetes knowledge, validated tool is essential. None of such validated tool is available in Urdu language. Therefore, the aim of this study was to translate and examine the psychometric properties of the 24-item Urdu version of Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ) among type 2 diabetes patients.

    METHODS: Standard "forward-backward" process was used to translate DKQ into Urdu language. Later, it was validated on a convenience sample of 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, between July and September 2016. Internal consistency was assessed by reliability analysis, one-way analysis of variance was applied for known group validity and multivariate linear logistic regression was applied for identifying significant predictors for patients' DKQ score.

    RESULTS: Good internal consistency was observed for DKQ (Cronbach's α = 0.702). The mean HbA1c of the patients was 8.55% (±1.91). DKQ scores of patients' with "good glycemic control" (14.22 ± 2.4) were observed significantly higher (P 
  7. Choudhry FR, Khan TM, Park MS, Golden KJ
    Front Public Health, 2018;6:187.
    PMID: 30065918 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00187
    The Kalasha are a religious, ethnic, and linguistic minority community in Pakistan. They are indigenous people living in remote valleys of the Hindu Kush Mountains in northern Pakistan, neighboring Afghanistan. The Kalasha are pastoral, as well as agricultural people to some extent, although they are increasingly facing pressures from globalization and social change, which may be influencing youth and community development. Their traditional world view dichotomizes and emphasizes on the division of the pure (Onjeshta) and the impure (Pragata). There remains a scarcity of literature on mental health and resilience of indigenous communities in South Asia and Pakistan generally, and the polytheistic Kalasha community specifically. Thus, the current study was conducted with the aim to explore the cultural protective factors (resilience) of the Kalasha youth (adolescents and emerging adults) and to explore their perceived etiological understandings and preferred interventions for mental health support systems. The theoretical framework of Bronfenbrenner's (1, 2) ecological systems model was used. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was conducted, considering the advantage of its idiographic approach and the "double hermeneutic" analytic process. This methodology was consistent with the aim to understand and make sense of mental health and resilience from the Kalasha indigenous perspective. A total of 12 in-depth interviews were conducted with adolescents and emerging adults (5 males, 7 females), along with ethnographic observations. The analysis revealed 3 superordinate themes of mental health perceptions and interventions, each with more specific emergent themes: (1) Psychological Resilience/Cultural Protective Factors Buffering Against Mental Health Problems (Intra-Communal Bonding & Sharing; Kalasha Festivals & Traditions; Purity Concept; Behavioral Practice of Happiness and Cognitive Patterns); (2) Perceived Causes of Mental Health Issues (Biological & Psychosocial; Supernatural & Spiritual; Environmental); and (3) Preferred Interventions [Shamanic Treatment; Ta'awiz (Amulets); Communal Sharing & Problem Solving; Medical Treatment; Herbal Methods]. The overall findings point to the need for developing culturally-sensitive and indigenous measures and therapeutic interventions. The findings highlighted the Kalasha cultural practices which may promote resilience. The findings also call for indigenous sources of knowledge to be considered when collaboratively designing public health programs.
  8. Ali I, Ijaz M, Rehman IU, Rahim A, Ata H
    Front Public Health, 2018;6:173.
    PMID: 29998091 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00173
    Objective: This study intends to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and awareness of medical doctors toward influenza vaccination and the reasons for not getting vaccinated. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among medical doctors in three major tertiary care health settings in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. A web-based, pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: A total of (n = 300) medical doctors were invited, however only (n = 215) participated in the study with a response rate of 71.7%. Among the participants, 95.3% (n = 205) were males with a mean age of 28.67 ± 3.89 years. By designation, 121(56.3%) were trainee medical officers and 40 (18.6%) were house officers. The majority 102(47.4%) had a job experience of 1-2 years. Of the total sample, 38 (17.7%) doctors reported having received some kind of vaccination, whereas only 19 (8.84%) were vaccinated against influenza. The results identified that the major barriers toward influenza vaccinations included (1) Unfamiliarity with Influenza vaccination availability (Relative Importance Index RII = 0.830), (2) Unavailability of Influenza vaccines due to lack of proper storage area in the institution (RII = 0.634), (3) Cost of vaccine (RII = 0.608), and (4) insufficient staff to administer vaccine (RII = 0.589). Additionally, 156 (72.6%) of doctors were not aware of the influenza immunization recommendation and guidelines published by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Physicians obtained a high score (8.27 ± 1.61) of knowledge and understanding regarding influenza and its vaccination followed by medical officers (8.06 ± 1.37). Linear Regression analysis revealed that gender was significantly associated with the knowledge score with males having a higher score (8.0± 1.39) than females (6.80 ± 1.61 β = -1.254 and CI [-2.152 to -0.355], p = 0.006). Conclusion: A very low proportion of doctors were vaccinated against influenza, despite the published guidelines and recommendations. Strategies that address multiple aspects like increasing awareness and the importance of the influenza vaccine, the international recommendations and enhancing access and availability of the vaccine are needed to improve its coverage and health outcomes.
  9. Jamshed SQ, Siddiqui MJ, Rana B, Bhagavathula AS
    Front Public Health, 2018;6:244.
    PMID: 30234088 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00244
    Objectives: To analyze the studies encompassing the involvement of pharmacists in diabetes self-care.
    Method: We reviewed studies conducted from 2005 to 2017 on the involvement of pharmacists in diabetes self-care. The keywords mainly used in this search are pharmacoeconomic analysis, diabetes self-care, pharmacist involvement,cost-effectiveness analysis, cost of utilization, cost of illness, cost of minimization and cost-benefit analysis. PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link and Medline searched for the relevant studies. These databases searched for full text articles ranging from 2007 to 2017. We tried to limit the search with the inclusion of studies having any sort of pharmacoeconomically relevant component.
    Key Findings: Cost of illness varied among the countries in managing diabetes mellitus, and the cost of managing diabetes complications were twice the cost of management of diabetes. Continuous involvement of the pharmacist in primary health care is a cost-effective strategy and pronounced to be essential for helping diabetes patient in controlling and managing their disease. Implementation of diabetes self-care by pharmacists such as lifestyle intervention rendered improved quality of life of patient without any increase in health care cost. Self-care management generates intensive blood glucose control and improved quality of life.
    Conclusions: Implementation of diabetic self-care intervention including intensive lifestyle intervention, education, self-monitoring of blood glucose and adherence toward medication-initiated reduction in the overall healthcare cost of diabetic patients compared to patients relying on only any one of the interventions. Impact of diabetes self-care intervention by pharmacist reported to significantly reduce the HbA1C levels of diabetic patients along with the reduction of yearly healthcare cost. This review showed that pharmacist involvement in diabetes self-care interventions prove to be cost-effective and can significantly affect the condition of the diabetic patients and reduces the risk of complications.
  10. Mallhi TH, Khan YH, Khan AH, Tanveer N, Khan OH, Aftab RA
    Front Public Health, 2017;5:261.
    PMID: 29034228 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00261
  11. Rajah R, Hassali MA, Lim CJ
    Front Public Health, 2017;5:281.
    PMID: 29098146 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00281
    Introduction: Patients' health literacy (HL) has emerged as a critical determinant of health outcomes and becoming one of the core competencies of health-care providers. Therefore, this study aimed to assess among Malaysian physicians, pharmacists, and nurses, their HL-related knowledge, attitude, and perceived barriers, and also to determine the associated factors.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to enroll 600 eligible respondents using stratified sampling from 6 public hospitals in Penang, Malaysia. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive and inferential analysis was performed with statistical significance defined as p 

  12. Kotirum S, Muangchana C, Techathawat S, Dilokthornsakul P, Wu DB, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Front Public Health, 2017;5:289.
    PMID: 29209602 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00289
    Current study aimed to estimate clinical and economic outcomes of providing the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination as a national vaccine immunization program in Thailand. A decision tree combined with Markov model was developed to simulate relevant costs and health outcomes covering lifetime horizon in societal and health care payer perspectives. This analysis considered children aged under 5 years old whom preventive vaccine of Hib infection are indicated. Two combined Hib vaccination schedules were considered: three-dose series (3 + 0) and three-dose series plus a booster does (3 + 1) compared with no vaccination. Budget impact analysis was also performed under Thai government perspective. The outcomes were reported as Hib-infected cases averted and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in 2014 Thai baht (THB) ($) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. In base-case scenario, the model estimates that 3,960 infected cases, 59 disability cases, and 97 deaths can be prevented by national Hib vaccination program. The ICER for 3 + 0 schedule was THB 1,099 ($34) per QALY gained under societal perspective. The model was sensitive to pneumonia incidence among aged under 5 years old and direct non-medical care cost per episode of Hib pneumonia. Hib vaccination is very cost-effective in the Thai context. The budget impact analysis showed that Thai government needed to invest an additional budget of 110 ($3.4) million to implement Hib vaccination program. Policy makers should consider our findings for adopting this vaccine into national immunization program.
  13. Lin Y, Hu Z, Alias H, Wong LP
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:236.
    PMID: 32574305 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00236
    Objectives: Sufficient knowledge and positive attitudes are crucial to the prevention of COVID-19. However, little is known about public awareness and attitudes regarding COVID-19 in China. The impact of COVID-19 on the societal well-being and anxiety levels of the public has never been documented. The aim of this study was to survey the knowledge, attitudes, impact, and anxiety levels of the people of China in relation to the COVID-19 outbreak. Method: A cross-sectional population survey using an online questionnaire was undertaken between Jan 24 and Feb 24, 2020. The study participants were residents of mainland China over the age of 18 years. The attitude items in this study measured the perceived threat of COVID-19 based on the Health Belief Model. Anxiety was measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), a self-reported questionnaire that measure both state (STAI-S), and trait anxiety (STAI-T) Results: A total of 2,446 completed responses were received. The mean and standard deviation (SD) for the total knowledge score was 20.3 (SD ± 2.9) out of a possible score of 23. The social disruption and household economic impact were notable, particularly in provinces with higher cumulative confirmed cases. The majority of responses indicated a low perceived susceptibility of being infected (86.7% [95%CI 85.4-88.1]), with a fair proportion of respondents perceiving a higher severity (62.9% [95% CI 61.0-64.8]). The mean total impact score was 9.9 (SD ± 3.8) out of a possible score of 15. The mean score for STAI-S was 48.7 (SD ± 10.8), whereas the mean STAI-T score was 45.7 (SD ± 8.5). By demographics, women reported significantly higher odds for higher levels of both STAI-S (OR = 1.67) and STAI-T (OR = 1.30) compared to men. People of a younger age were also more likely to experience higher STAI-S and STAI-T. Higher perceived susceptibility and severity and impact were strong predictors of higher levels of STAI-S and STAI-T. Conclusion: Our findings can assist in tailoring public communication to change people's knowledge and attitudes. The present study also underlined the importance of the promotion of mental health during infectious disease outbreaks to help in moderating the perceived threat, social and household economic impact, targeting the vulnerable segment of the population.
  14. Muhammad Nur Amir AR, Binti Amer Nordin A, Lim YC, Binti Ahmad Shauki NI, Binti Ibrahim NH
    Front Public Health, 2021;9:574135.
    PMID: 33643985 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.574135
    The COVID-19 pandemic that emerged in 2019 has inflicted numerous clinical and public health challenges worldwide. It was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization and activated response teams at almost all Malaysian healthcare facilities. Upon activation of the National Crisis Preparedness and Response Center in January 2020, the National Institutes of Health Malaysia established a COVID-19 operation room at the facility level to address the rise in COVID-19 infection cases each day. The National Institutes of Health COVID-19 operation room committee formed a workforce mobilization team for an effective and efficient mobilization system to fulfill requests received for human resource aid within the Ministry of Health Malaysia facilities. Selected personnel would be screened for health and availability before mobilization letters and logistics arrangements if necessary. The workforce from the National Institutes of Health, consisting of various job positions, were mobilized every week, with each deployment cycle lasting 2 weeks. A total of 128 personnel from the six institutes under the National Institutes of Health were mobilized: tasks included fever screening, active case detection, health management at quarantine centers, and management of dead bodies. A well-organized data management system with a centralized online system integration could allow more rapid deployment and answer some of the key questions in managing a similar pandemic in the future. With improving infected COVID-19 cases throughout the country, the National Institutes of Health COVID-19 operation room was effectively closed on June 15, 2020, following approval from the Deputy Director-General of Health.
  15. Mat Dawi N, Namazi H, Hwang HJ, Ismail S, Maresova P, Krejcar O
    Front Public Health, 2021;9:609716.
    PMID: 33732677 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.609716
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still evolving and affecting millions of lives. E-government and social media have been used widely during this unprecedented time to spread awareness and educate the public on preventive measures. However, the extent to which the 2 digital platforms bring to improve public health awareness and prevention during a health crisis is unknown. In this study, we examined the influence of e-government and social media on the public's attitude to adopt protective behavior. For this purpose, a Web survey was conducted among 404 Malaysian residents during the Recovery Movement Control Order (RMCO) period in the country. Descriptive and multiple regression analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS software. Social media was chosen by most of the respondents (n = 331 or 81.9%) as the source to get information related to COVID-19. Multiple regression analysis suggests the roles of e-government and social media to be significantly related to people's attitudes to engage in protective behavior. In conclusion, during the COVID-19 outbreak, public health decision makers may use e-government and social media platforms as effective tools to improve public engagement on protective behavior. This, in turn, will help the country to contain the transmission of the virus.
  16. Hambali NL, Mohd Noh M, Paramasivam S, Chua TH, Hayati F, Payus AO, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:584552.
    PMID: 33304877 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.584552
    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is one of the markers of immune system activation indicating existent infection and inflammation. We present here a case of a 55-year-old male COVID-19 patient with an unusual high level of interleukin 6 (IL-6). Further investigation revealed he had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with underlying hepatitis B. He did not present with respiratory symptoms although a baseline chest x-ray showed changes, and the patient was categorized as Class 3A of COVID-19. Routine investigations proceeded with high-resolution computed tomography and IL-6 to monitor for progression to severe COVID-19. Notably, there was a high IL-6 level but other parameters did not show he was in severe COVID-19. In this report, we conclude that elevated IL-6 level in a COVID-19 patient is not necessarily associated with severe COVID-19.
  17. Sun Z, He G, Huang N, Chen H, Zhang S, Zhao Z, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:609974.
    PMID: 33344408 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.609974
    Background: COVID-19 developed into a global pandemic in 2020 and poses challenges regarding the prevention and control capabilities of countries. A large number of inbound travelers from other regions could lead to a renewed outbreak of COVID-19 in the local regions. Globally, as a result of the imbalance in the control of the epidemic, all countries are facing the risk of a renewed COVID-19 outbreak brought about by travelers from epidemic areas. Therefore, studies on a proper management of the inbound travelers are urgent. Methods: We collected a total of 4,733,414 inbound travelers and 174 COVID-19 diagnosed patients in Yunnan province from 21 January 2020 to 20 February 2020. Data on place of origin, travel history, age, and gender, as well as whether they had suspected clinical manifestations for inbound travelers in Yunnan were collected. The impact of inbound travelers on the local epidemic was analyzed with a collinear statistical analysis and the effect of the control measures on the epidemic was evaluated with a sophisticated modeling approach. Results: Of the 174 COVID-19 patients, 60.9% were not from Yunnan, and 76.4% had a history of travel in Hubei. The amount of new daily cases in Yunnan was significant correlated with the number of inbound travelers from Hubei and suspected cases among them. Using Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model analysis, we found that the prevention and control measures dropped the local R0 down to 1.07 in Yunnan province. Conclusions: Our preliminary analysis showed that the proper management of inbound travelers from outbreak areas has a significantly positive effect on the prevention and control of the virus. In the process of resettlement, some effective measures taken by Yunnan province may provide an important reference for preventing the renewed COVID-19 outbreak in other regions.
  18. Zawiah M, Al-Ashwal FY, Saeed RM, Kubas M, Saeed S, Khan AH, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:419.
    PMID: 32850608 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00419
    Background: In the past decade, Yemen has witnessed several disasters that resulted in a crumbled healthcare system. With the declaration of COVID-19 a global pandemic, and later the appearance of first confirmed cases in Yemen, there is an urgent need to assess the preparedness of healthcare facilities (HCFs) and their capacities to tackle a looming COVID-19 outbreak. Herein, we present an assessment of the current state of preparedness and capabilities of HCFs in Yemen to prevent and manage the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: An online survey for HCFs was developed, validated, and distributed. The questionnaire is divided into five main sections: (1) Demographic variables for participants. (2) HCFs capabilities for COVID-19 outbreak. (3) Support received to face the emergence and spread of COVID-19. (4). Current practices of infection prevention and control measures in the HCFs. The last section focused on the recommendations to ensure effective and timely response to this outbreak in Yemen. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze data using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), version 23. Results: Responses were received from healthcare workers (HCWs) from 18 out of 22 governorates in Yemen. Out of the 296 HCWs who participated in the study, the vast majority (93.9%) believed that the healthcare system in Yemen does not have the resources and capabilities to face and manage a COVID-19 outbreak. Approximately 82.4% of participants rated the general preparedness level of their HCFs as very poor or poor. More specifically, the majority of HCWs rated their HCFs as very poor or poor in term of availability of the following: an adequate number of mechanical ventilators (88.8%), diagnostic devices (88.2%), ICU rooms and beds (81.4%), and isolation rooms (79.7%). Conclusions: The healthcare facilities in Yemen are unprepared and lack the most basic resources and capabilities to cope with or tackle a COVID-19 outbreak. With the current state of a fragile healthcare system, a widespread outbreak of COVID-19 in Yemen could result in devastating consequences. There is an urgent need to provide support to the healthcare workers and HCFs that are on the frontline against COVID-19.
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