Preliminary findings of a survey on the influences of institutional facilities on mothers in the post-partum period in hospital that affect breast-feeding were reported. It was observed that although advice on breast-feeding is now given, there is a conflict between advice and practice so that the advice has been ritualistic. There is a lack of follow-up on advice, and the mother is not helped and encouraged to breast-feed and to overcome her initial disappointment and difficulties. It was also pointed out that the artificial milk-food industry exercises a negative influence through maternity ward staff by provision of milk samples to maternity units and by visits of their sales staff to the mothers. It was emphasised that the hospital factor could be an important cause of failure of the mother to breast-feed.
Pharyngeal carriage of group A streptococcus was determined in 432 primary school children between the ages of 6 and 8 years. Beta-haemolytic streptococci were isolated from throat swab culture of 71 pupils, with a carrier rate of 16.4% (71/432) of which 9.4% (39/432) belonged to Lancefield's group A. Serogrouping of the isolates was determined by the coagglutination method and Lancefield's hot acid extraction method. 54.9% (39/71) of the total beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated belonged to group A , 25.3% (18/71) to group G, 15.4% (11/71) to group C and 1.4%(1/71) to group F. T typing pattern of group A streptococcus was determined by the standard agglutination method. Sensitivity to antibiotics was determined by the disc diffusion technique (comparative method). All group A streptococcal isolates were sensitive to penicillin and erythromycin, 6 strains (15.4%) were resistant to tetracycline and 1 strain (2.5%) was resistant to cephaloridine.
Group A streptococcus is an important cause of pharyngitis, skin infection and or its non-suppurative sequelae, i.e. rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. The National Streptococcus Reference Laboratory was established in 1982 to collect data on various aspects of this infection.
The management of schizophrenias has undergone a revolution with the advent of Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and a whole range of psycho-pharmaceuticals this century. Along with these, the newer trends towards more humane, and psycho-oriented patient-care have resulted in the management of patients in srnall general hospital units hardly different from a surgical or medical ward. The different areas of treatment of the schizophrenic cannot all be accomplished in a general practice clinic but a surprising number of these patients are successfully managed as out-patients. This paper aims to outline the modern methods used in the management of the schizophrenias and their suitability in general practice.
The result of the opiate (notably heroin) epidemic in Malaysia has been one of an excessive overload on existing medical and social services. The immediate problem of detoxification and rehabilitation is likely to continue for a while before planned and purpose-built and staffed centres take over to bring the problem, hopefully, to manageable proportions.