The main component of most building materials in Malaysia is rocks. These rocks have been found to naturally contain U-238, Th-232 and K-40. In order to estimate the radiological impact to the dweller, the level of radionuclides present in various building materials available in Malaysia were analyzed using gamma spectrometry. The radiation hazard indexes were calculated based on the above results. The results showed that the activity concentration of natural radionuclides U-238, Th-232, K-40 were between 19.0 Bq/kg – 42.2 Bq/kg, 16.5 Bq/kg –28.8 Bq/kg and 243.3 Bq/kg – 614.2 Bq/kg respectively. On the whole the radionuclides concentrations were still below the global average of 50 Bq/kg, 50 Bq/kg and 500 Bq/kg for U-238, Th-232 and K-40 respectively. The radiation hazard indexes of the building materials were also lower than the maximum value suggested.
The studies of ¹³⁷Cs content in the seawater surrounding Peninsular Malaysia had been carried out as part of the Malaysia Marine Radioactivity Database Project. The results of the measurement will serve as the baseline data and reference level to Malaysia. A numbers of sampling locations, including coastal and offshore at the East Coast (South China Sea) and West Coast (Straits of Malacca) of Peninsular Malaysia had been selected for the study. From each location at the coastal area, water samples were collected from the surface of the seawater. Meanwhile, for the offshore area, water samples have been collected at three different depths. Due to usual low concentration of ¹³⁷Cs in the marine environment, large volumes of seawater were collected and the co precipitation technique was employed to concentrate the ¹³⁷Cs. The activity of ¹³⁷Cs was determined by measuring the peak area under photo peak of the gamma spectrum at 661 keV, which is equivalent to the gamma intensity corrected to the HpGe detection efficiency and percentage of gamma ray abundance of the ¹³⁴Cs. At each study location, there were no significant differences for ¹³⁷Cs activities at 95% confidence interval. The activities of ¹³⁷Cs found to be quite uniformly distributed in the range of 2.33 to 5.00 Bq/m3and 1.76 to 4.76 Bq/m3for the South China Sea and the Straits of Malacca, respectively.
A laboratory scale test rig to treat simulated flue gas using electron beam technology was installed at the Alurtron EB-Irradiation Center, MINT. The experiment test rig was proposed as a result of feasibility studies conducted jointly by IAEA, MINT and TNB Research in 1997. The test rig system consists of several components, among others, diesel generator sets, pipe ducts, spray cooler, ammonia dosage system, irradiation vessel, bag filter and gas analyzers. The installation was completed and commissioned in October 2001. Results from the commissioning test runs and subsequent experimental work showed that the efficiency of flue gas treatment is high. It was proven that electron beam technology might be applied in the treatment of air pollutants. This paper describes the design and work function of the individual major components as well as the full system function. Results from the initial experimental works are also presented.
Various palm oil (RBD Palm Olein) based urethane acrylate prepolymers (UPs) having different structures and molecular weights were synthesised from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following established synthesis procedures described elsewhere. The products (UPs) were compared with each other in terms of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities and UV curing performances of pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) UP based formulations. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethane acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the coatings and adhesive properties of UV curable UP based PSA.
Radiotherapy causes various complications including low immunity. Past research has shown that the low immunity is due to the low amount of lymphocytes and consumption of citrullus vulgaris will alleviate this problem. Based on this a study was conducted to identify how citrullus vulgaris was able to produce radioprotection on the lymphocyte membrane. A total of 30 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into three equals groups of positive control, negative control and treatment. For seven days, positive control and negative control were force fed with normal saline of 40 ml/kg animal weight while the treatment group received 40 g/kg animal weight fresh juice of citrullus vulgaris daily. After a week positive control and treatment group were irradiated with 0.9 Gy gamma ray. Viable lymphocyte were determined using propidium iodine and acridine orange stain. Results clearly shows that positive control, negative and treatment group were significantly different at 34 3% , 80 2% and 71 2% respectively. SEM results shows that pores were present on the membrane of the positive control while the negative control had none. Similar results were also found on the treatment group. Based on the result it had shown that citrullus vulgaris had radioprotection properties and lymphocytes were destroyed by the formation of pores on their membrane. It is very likely that the radioprotection properties could be due to the presence of antioxidants particularly vitamin A, C and lycopene. In conclusion, citrullus vulgaris could be used as a safe radioprotection agent.
Neutron aperture is one of the collimator components in a neutron radiography facility. The optimum design of neutron aperture is very importance in order to obtain largest L/D ratio with highest thermal neutron flux and low gamma-rays at the image plane. In this study, the optimization of neutron aperture parameters were done using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code, version five (MCNP5). This code has a capability to simulate the neutron, photon, and electron or coupled of neutron/photon/electron transport, including the capability to calculate eigen values for critical system. The aperture parameters concerned in this study are the selection of best aperture material, aperture thickness, aperture position and aperture center hole diameter. In these simulations, vacuum beam port medium was applied.
Even though a lot of new advanced materials have been developed nowadays, steel remains a major material in construction, automobiles, appliances, industrial machinery as well as in the nuclear industry. Due to steel easily corroded, a proper surface protection is required to avoid any failures and extended the life cycle of the components. Surface coating is an efficient and economical method to obtain desirable material surfaces properties. Hot dip aluminizing technique was utilized in this study. Experiments have been conducted on the mild steel substrates with 12mm diameter. Prior to hot dipping process, observation on grain growth at three different temperatures had also been conducted to understand the behaviour of steel under application of heat. The substrates were heated at 700ºC, 800ºC and 900ºC for 1 hour and the microstructure was analyzed. The temperature of 800C was chosen for hot dipping. The substrates were dipped into the molten aluminum maintained at temperature 800ºC for 2,4,6,8,10,15 and 20 minutes. Optical microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used in this investigation. From the microstructure observation, it showed the appearance of intermetallic layer covered by the top layer of Al on the mild steel substrate increased with the increase in dipping time ranging from 36 to 282μm. The result of EDX analysis revealed the existence of Fe and Al in form of Fe2Al5 phase for all the dipping time.
Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) velocimetry technique was utilized in this study to quantify the flow structure of gas-liquid based on the ECT images. A new 8 electrodes sensor ECT has been successfully developed to provide 2D images in a cross section of pipeline. The ECT has been attentively applied in the test section of the flow rig for imaging the gas-liquid distribution. The inside diameter of ECT pipeline sensor is 100mm. Meanwhile, the flow rig consists of close loop of “CPVC” pipes that includes a pipe test section, two tanks of oil and water respectively and allows the working pressure up to 5 bars. Transparent pipe is used for visual monitoring. A portable Doppler flow meter that utilizes the ultrasonic signal has also been placed at the test section to measure the velocity. The images obtained by ECT show that the different flow patterns have been observed in the horizontal pipe during the experiment. The technique enables realization of the time and position at which particle density fluctuations with respect to dominant time-space levels pass through the pipeline.
The existence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) such as K-40 was studied all over the world for their characteristics and effects on human and environment. K-40 exist in the earth crust with the concentration about 1.8 mg/kg or 481 Bq/g.. In this study, the level of K-40 in soil samples were measured using gamma spectrometer equipped with hyper pure germanium detector. The samples were collected from an oil palm cultivated area of Jengka 15, in Maran District, Pahang. The results show the level of K-40 activities at various locations. The activities of K-40 are in the range 52.9-150.5 Bq/kg and total potassium concentrations are 1.60-4.50%. There are no correlation between activities of K-40 with elevation i.e. R2= 0.0885.
The objective of this study is to compare low-contrast detectability of computed radiography (CR) and screen/film (SF) mammography systems. The Nijimegen contrast detail test object (CDMAM type 3.4) was imaged at 28 kV, in automatic exposure control mode separately. Six medical imaging physicists read each CDMAM phantom image. Contrast detail curves were plotted to compare lowcontrast detectability of CR (soft copy and hard copy) and SF mammography systems. Effect of varying exposure parameters, namely kV, object position inside the breast phantom, and entrance surface exposure (ESE) on the contrast detail curve were also investigated using soft copy CR. The significance of the difference in contrast between CR and SF, and for each exposure parameter, was tested using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. The low- contrast detectability of the CR (soft copy and hard copy) system was found to be not significantly different to that of the SF system (p>0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test). For CR soft copy, no significant relationship (p>0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test) was seen for variation of kV, object position inside the breast phantom and ESE. This indicates that CR is comparable with SF for useful detection and visualization of low-contrast objects such as small lowcontrast areas corresponding to breast pathology.
An instrumental neutron activation analytical (INAA) technique is used for the determination of thirty elements in five coal samples collected from Kapar power station, imported from Indonesia and Australia. Analyses of the samples are being associated with standards. All irradiations were performed in the nuclear reactor of Malaysia Nuclear Agency (MNA). Samples were counted by Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector for short period irradiations at MNA, while for the long period irradiations the samples were counted at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The concentrations of thirty elements have been determined: The major components are Cl, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Ti and Na with the mean concentrations in the range between 70±69 ppm- 6100±1639 ppm; and the trace elements are Zr, V, Mn , Sc, Cr, Co, As ,Br ,Rb ,Sb ,Ba , La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Th, U and Ta with the mean concentrations in the range between 0.1381±0.0202 - 69.0±2.8 ppm. The results have been compared to the reported data of eight coal samples from the United States and the reported data of Australian bituminous coal.
Developments of computer technology and image processing have shifted conventional industrial radiography application to industrial digital radiography (IDR) system. In this study, two types of IDR modules for non destructive testing (NDT), namely drum- and laser- type film digitizer with 50 μm pixel pitch have been evaluated for NDT applications. The modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectrum (NPS) measurement were adapted to evaluate the image quality of IDR images. Results shown the averaged MTF for drum- and laser- type film digitizer at 20% modulation were 6.15 cycles/mm and 6.55 cycles/mm respectively. For NPS measurement and calculation, the result obtained shows that drum type film digitizer produced higher noise then laser type film digitizer. The study shows that the laser type film digitizer is the best system to be used for film digitization purposes because the MTF result shows that it modulates better than drum type and has the lowest and stable NPS.
A study to measure the concentrations of long-lived radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) wastes was carried out using gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis methods. It was found that radionuclides in the NORM wastes of the oil/gas production and ores/minerals processing industries were not in equilibrium. The 226 Ra/ 238 U and 228 Ra/ 232 Th ratios were between 0.001 and 2220 indicating that the concentrations of daughters radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra) were very low or very high compared to the parent radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th) in the NORM wastes.
Al-Si/SiC composites with the fraction of 5 and 15 wt. % fine SiC particles were fabricated using stir casting process by which SiC powders were poured into aluminium melt and cast in a stainless steel mould to form ingot. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the presence of constituent and intermetallic materials in the composites. Microstructure study revealed that both fine and course particles scattered in the Al-Si matrix. The characterization of thermal properties showed that the thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion decreased with the increase in SiC content. The conductivity and expansion behavior is correlated to the microstructure and weight fraction of the SiC particles. Meanwhile, the hardness of the composite increased with the increasing of SiC particles in the composites.
Atmospheric Pollution due to airborne particle is a major concern to many cities in the Southeast Asian region, including Kuala Lumpur. Within the last six years air particulate samples have been collected from a site in Kuala Lumpur and measured for their PM10, PM2.5 and elemental concentrations. The results showed that the daily PM10 (
XRF analysis was done on a local zircon samples and the result shows it has a high Fe, Th and U content. The high Fe content in Malaysian zircon had made the mineral to be classified as of a low-grade zircon. Presence of Fe in this mineral may be resulted from clay mineral coating found on the zircon surface. Chemical leaching technique was used for the removal of this Fe and the study also shows that a 600 o C heat pretreatment stage is important for the effectiveness of this process. Other parameters studied are the HCl concentration, leaching temperature and time. By using the optimum leaching parameters, the Fe content had been reduced to 0.049% and thus qualified it to be categorised as a premium grade zircon.
The interference of 235 U on 226 Ra concentration measured directly using the γ-ray energy of 186 keV and the interference of 228 Ac on the 40 K analysis by gamma-spectrometry system were highlighted and discussed. The interference of 235 U was demonstrated to be very significant, i.e. 45% of the 226 Ra concentration measured directly at 186 keV in natural samples containing uranium series in equilibrium. The interference of 228 Ac on 40 K concentration was particularly significant for samples containing high concentration of 228 Ac ( 228 Ra) such as radioactive minerals. Another important aspect discussed is the assignment of the right emission probability of the 583 keV and 2614 keV of the 208 Tl for the purpose of estimating the concentration of 232 Th or other radionuclides in the thorium series. Extra cautions are required in the interpretation of the measured 208 Tl concentration in samples of various natures. It is suggested that the emission probability used for 208 Tl be reported for comparison and verification.
A Monte Carlo simulation of the Malaysian nuclear reactor has been performed using MCNP Version 5 code. The purpose of the work is the determination of the multiplication factor (k eff ) for TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Malaysia based on Monte Carlo method. This work has been performed to calculate the value of k eff for two cases, which are the control rod either fully withdrawn or fully inserted to construct a complete model of the TRIGA Mark II PUSPATI Reactor (RTP). The RTP core was modeled as close as possible to the real core and the results of k eff from MCNP5 were obtained. When the control-fuel rods were fully inserted, the k eff value indicates the RTP reactor was in the subcritical condition with a value of 0.98370 ± 0.00054. When the control-fuel rods were fully withdrawn the value of k eff value indicates the RTP reactor is in the supercritical condition, that is 1.10773 ± 0.00083.
The measurements of absorbed dose rate in air around amang plant buildings were carried out using a scintillation detector. It was found that the mean radiation levels at seven amang plants were in the range of 1.6 – 5.5 µGy h -1. The individual maximum value measured was 56 µGy h -1. The annual dose to a worker transporting the minerals to the plant was estimated to be 1.5 mSv y -1.
β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powders were synthesized by using various particles sizes (40 nm – 780 μm) calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) at room temperature (25 ˚C). The synthesized powders were characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) method. The purity of β-TCP powders were determined from XRD pattern while the crystallite size of β-TCP powders were calculated by using Scherrer equation. Results shows that the purity of β-TCP powders were ranged from 20.33 % to 81.94 % while the crystallite size of β- TCP powders were ranged from 0.04391 μm to 0.06751 μm. From this work, particle size of CaCO3 will influenced the purity but not the mean crystallite size of synthesized β-TCP.