Polymers and organic materials that are exposed to sunlight undergo photooxidation, which leads to deterioration of their physical properties. To allow adequate performance under outdoor conditions, synthetic polymers require additives such as antioxidants and UV absorbers. A major problem with optimising polymer formulations to maximise their working life span is that accelerated weathering tests are empirical. The conditions differ significantly from real weathering situations, and samples require lengthy irradiation period. Degradation may not be apparent in the early stages of exposure, although this is when products such as hydroperoxides are formed which later cause acceleration of oxidation. A simple way of quantifying the number of free radicals presents in organic materials following exposure to light or heat is by measuring chemiluminescence (CL) emission. Most polymers emit CL when they undergo oxidative degradation, and it originates from the bimolecular reaction of macroperoxy radicals which creates an excited carbonyl.
This paper outlines the application of chemometrics and pattern recognition tools to classify palm oil using Fourier Transform Mid Infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR). FT-MIR spectroscopy is used as an effective analytical tool in order to categorise the oil into the category of unused palm oil and used palm oil for frying. The samples used in this study consist of 28 types of pure palm oil, and 28 types of frying palm oils. FT-MIR spectral was obtained in absorbance mode at the spectral range from 650 cm -1 to 4000 cm -1 using FT-MIR-ATR sample handling. The aim of this work is to develop fast method in discriminating the palm oils by implementing Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), Learning Vector Quantisation (LVQ) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Raw FT-MIR spectra were subjected to Savitzky-Golay smoothing and standardized before developing the classification models. The classification model was validated through finding the value of percentage correctly classified by test set for every model in order to show which classifier provided the best classification. In order to improve the performance of the classification model, variable selection method known as t-statistic method was applied. The significant variable in developing classification model was selected through this method. The result revealed that PLSDA classifier of the standardized data with application of t-statistic showed the best performance with highest percentage correctly classified among the classifiers.
Soil properties are very crucial for civil engineers to differentiate one type of soil from another and to predict its mechanical behavior. However, it is not practical to measure soil properties at all the locations at a site. In this paper, an estimator is derived to estimate the unknown values for soil properties from locations where soil samples were not collected. The estimator is obtained by combining the concept of the ‘Inverse Distance Method’ into the technique of ‘Kriging’. The method of Lagrange Multipliers is applied in this paper. It is shown that the estimator derived in this paper is an unbiased estimator. The partiality of the estimator with respect to the true value is zero. Hence, the estimated value will be equal to the true value of the soil property. It is also shown that the variance between the estimator and the soil property is minimized. Hence, the distribution of this unbiased estimator with minimum variance spreads the least from the true value. With this characteristic of minimum variance unbiased estimator, a high accuracy estimation of soil property could be obtained.
Natural fiber is incompatible with hydrophobic polymer due to its hydrophilic nature. Therefore, surface modification of fiber is needed to impart compatibility. In this work,superheated steam (SHS)-alkali was introduced as novel surface treatment method to modify oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) for fabrication of biocomposites. The OPMF was first pre-treated with SHS and subsequently treated with varying NaOH concentration (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%) and soaking time (1, 2, 3 and 4h) at room temperature. The biocomposites were then fabricated by melt blending of 70 wt% SHS-alkali treated-OPMFs and 30 wt% poly(butylene succinate) in a Brabender internal mixer followed by hot-pressed moulding. The combination treatment resulted in fiber with rough surface as well as led to the exposure ofmicrofibers. The tensile test result showed that fiber treated at 2% NaOH solution and 3h soaking time produced biocomposite with highest improvement in tensile strength (69%) and elongation at break (36%) in comparison to that of untreated OPMF. The scanning electron micrographs of tensile fracture surfaces of biocomposite provide evident for improved adhesion between fiber and polymer after thetreatments.This work demonstrated that combination treatments of SHS and NaOH could be a promising way to modify OPMF for fabrication of biocomposite.
A polystyrene (PS)-anchored Pd(II) metal complex was synthesized on cross-linked polymer by heating a mixture of chlorometylated polystyrene with phenyldithiocarbazate and carbon disulfide in the presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in dimethylformamide (DMF). The reaction mixture was heated at 80 °C to form the corresponding phenyldithiocarbazate-functionalized polymer. Then, it was treated with bis(benzonitrile)palladium(II) chloride. The properties of dark colored polymer, impregnated with the metal complex was then characterized by various spectroscopic technique such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX), CHNS elemental analysis, BET surface area, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric (TGA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission (ICP-OES) spectroscopy.
The performance and operational characteristics of a laboratory scale modified anaerobic hybrid baffled (MAHB) reactor were studied using recycled paper mill effluent (RPME) wastewater. MAHB reactor was continuously operated at 35°C for 90 days with organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.14 to 0.57 g/L/dy. This present study demonstrated that the system was proficient in treating low strength RPME wastewater. Highest carbon oxygen demand (COD) removal were recorded up to 97% for an organic loading of 0.57 g /L/dy while effluent alkalinity assured that the system pH in the MAHB compartments were of great advantages to acidogens and methanogens respectively. Methane and biogas production rate shows increment as the load increases, which evidently indicated that the most significant approach to enhance gas production rates involves the increment of incoming substrate moderately. Variations of biogas and volatile fatty acid (VFA) in different compartments of MAHB reactor indicated the chronological degradation of substrate. The compartmental structure of MAHB reactor provided its strong ability to resist shock loads. From this present study, it shows the potential usage of MAHB reactor broadens the usage of multi-phase anaerobic technology for industrial wastewater treatment.
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based nanocomposites filled with graphene nanoplatelets (xGnP) that contains epoxidized palm oil (EPO) as plasticizer were prepared by melt blending method. PLA was first plasticized by EPO to improve its flexibility and thereby overcome its problem of brittleness. Then, xGnP was incoporated into plasticized PLA to enhance its mechanical properties. Plasticized and nanofilled PLA nanocomposites (PLA/EPO/xGnP) showed improvement in the elongation at break by 3322% and 61% compared to pristine PLA and PLA/EPO, respectively. The use of EPO and xGnP increases the mobility of the polymeric chains, thereby improving the flexibility and plastic deformation of PLA. The nanocomposites also resulted in an increase of up to 26.5% in the tensile strength compared with PLA/EPO blend. XRD pattern showed the presence of peak around 26.5° in PLA/EPO/xGnP nanocomposites which corresponds to characteristic peak of graphene nanoplatelets. Plasticized PLA reinforced with xGnP showed that increasing the xGnP content triggers a substantial increase in thermal stability. Crystallinity of the nanocomposites as well as cold crystallization and melting temperature did not show any significant changes upon addition of xGnP. However, there was a significant decrease of glass transition temperature up to 0.3wt% of xGnP incorporation. The TEM micrograph of PLA/EPO/xGnP shows that the xGnP was uniformly dispersed in the PLA matrix and no obvious aggregation was observed.
In this study, Hydrolysate from angelwing clam (Pholas orientalis) was produced at 0, 1, 2 and 3 hrs and E/S ratio of 0.5 and 3% using alcalase where the pH and temperature were kept constant at pH 8.5 and 60°C, respectively. The hydrolysates were analysed for antioxidant and functional properties such as solubility, emulsifying properties and water and oil holding capacity. Degree of hydrolysis (DH), yield, functional and antioxidant properties were influenced by the hydrolysis time and E/S ratio. Higher enzyme concentration (E/S 3%) and longer hydrolysis time increased the DH. Yield was higher at E/S 3% but reduced with hydrolysis time. Longer hydrolysis time produced more soluble hydrolysate and higher metal chelating activity but lower in emulsifying properties and DPPH activity. Higher enzyme concentration resulted in increase only in solubility and metal chelating activity. This study revealed that enzymatic hydrolysis using alcalase should be performed at shorter hydrolysis time using intermediate concentration of enzyme (E/S between 0.5 to 3%) in order to produce angelwing clam hydrolysate with collectively good functional and antioxidant properties
Trees planted from agroforestry practices can become valuable resources in meeting the wood requirements of many nations. Gliricidia sepium is an exotic species introduced to the agricultural sector in Malaysia mainly for providing shade for cocoa and coffee plantations. This study investigates its wood physical properties (specific gravity and moisture content) and fibre morphology (length, lumen diameter and cell wall thickness) of G.sepium at three intervals according to age groups (three, five and seven years of ages). Specific gravity (0.72) was significantly higher at seven years of age as compared to five (0.41) and three (0.35) years age group with a mean of 0.43 (p0.05). Mean moisture content was 58.3 % with no significant difference existing between the tree age groups. fibre diameter (22.4 m) was significantly lower (p0.05) for the trees which were three years of age when compared to five and seven years age groups (26.6 m and 24.7 m), respectively. Means of fibre length, lumen diameter and cell wall thickness was 0.83 m, 18.3 m, and 6.2 m, respectively, with no significant differences detected between trees in all age groups in this study. Further calculation on the coefficient of suppleness and runkel ratio suggest that wood from G. sepium may have the potential for insulation board manufacture and paper making. However, future studies should experiment the utilization of this species for these products to determine its full potential.
Industrial heat pumps are heat-recovery systems that allow the temperature of waste-heat stream to be increased to a higher, more efficient temperature. Consequently, heat pumps can improve energy efficiency in industrial processes as well as energy savings when conventional passive-heat recovery is not possible. In this paper, possible ways of saving energy in the chemical industry are considered, the objective is to reduce the primary energy (such as coal) consumption of power plant. Particularly the thermodynamic analyses of integrating backpressure turbine of a power plant with distillation units have been considered. Some practical examples such as conventional distillation unit and heat pump are used as a means of reducing primary energy consumption with tangible indications of energy savings. The heat pump distillation is operated via electrical power from the power plant. The exergy efficiency of the primary fuel is calculated for different operating range of the heat pump distillation. This is then compared with a conventional distillation unit that depends on saturated steam from a power plant as the source of energy. The results obtained show that heat pump distillation is an economic way to save energy if the temperature difference between the overhead and the bottom is small. Based on the result, the energy saved by the application of a heat pump distillation is improved compared to conventional distillation unit.
The crystal structure of the title compound has been determined. The compound crystallized in the triclinic space group P -1, Z = 2, V = 1839.42(18) Å3 and unit cell parameters a = 11.0460(6) Å, b = 13.3180(7) Å, c = 13.7321(8) Å, a = 80.659(3)°, ß = 69.800(3)° and ? = 77.007(2)° with one disordered dimethylsulfoxide solvent molecule with the sulfur and oxygen atoms are distributed over two sites; S101/S102 [site occupancy factors: 0.6035/0.3965] and O130/O131 [site occupancy factor 0.3965/0.6035]. The C22-S21 and C19-S20 bond distances of 1.779(7) Å and 1.788(8) Å indicate that both of the molecules are connected by the disulfide bond [S20-S21 2.055(2) Å] in its thiol form. The crystal structure reveals that both of the 5-bromoisatin moieties are trans with respect to the [S21-S20 and C19-N18] and [S20-S21 and C22-N23] bonds whereas the benzyl group from the dithiocarbazate are in the cis configuration with respect to [S21-S20 and C19-S44] and [S20-S21 and C22-S36] bonds. The crystal structure is further stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonds of N9-H35···O16 formed between the two molecules and N28-H281···O130, N28-H281···O131 and C41-H411···O131 with the solvent molecule.
Protease was extracted from two maturity stages of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia L.), unripe (stage 1) and ripe (stage 5). The crude extract was partially purified by acetone precipitation method followed by dialysis, gel filtration chromatography and freeze drying. Protein concentrations, proteolytic activity, molecular weight distribution, pH stability, temperature stability and storage efficiency of the resulting protease were evaluated. The unripe and ripe noni fruit contains 0.65 and 0.35% protein, respectively. Molecular weight of the proteases from both stages ranged approximately between 3 to 28 kDa based on the SDS-PAGE results. The optimum activity were at pH 7s and 6, temperatures of 40 and 50°C, respectively for proteases obtained from the unripe and ripe fruit. Analysis from the freeze dried protease indicated that protease from ripe noni fruits had higher protein concentration and specific activity compared to those from unripe fruit. However, it is more sensitive to pH and temperature and less stable during storage as it shows lower proteolytic activity compared to protease from unripe fruit. Based on its high proteolytic activity reaching up to 70.31 U/mg and storage stability (30% lost of activity), noni fruit could be an alternative source of plant protease.
This research investigates and analyzes wear properties of 316 stainless steel before and after applying paste boronizing process and to investigate the effect of shot blasting process in enhancing boron dispersion into the steel. In order to enhance the boron dispersion into 316 stainless steel, surface deformation method by shot blasting process was deployed. Boronizing treatment was conducted using paste medium for 8 hours under two different temperatures which were 8500 C and 9500 C. Wear behaviour was evaluated using pin-on-disc test for abrasion properties. The analysis on microstructure, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and density were also carried out before and after applying boronizing treatment. Boronizing process that had been carried out on 316 stainless steel increases the wear resistance of the steel compared to the unboronized 316 stainless steel. The effect of boronizing treatment together with the shot blasting process give a greater impact in increasing the wear resistance of 316 stainless steel. This is mainly because shot blasted samples initiated surface deformation that helped more boron dispersion due to dislocation of atom on the deformed surface. Increasing the boronizing temperature also increases the wear resistance of 316 stainless steel. In industrial application, the usage of the components that have been fabricated using the improved 316 stainless steel can be maximized because repair and replacement of the components can be reduced as a result of improved wear resistance of the 316 stainless steel.
Metakaolin is a manufactured pozzolan produced by thermal processing of purified kaolinitic clay using electrical furnace. This study has examined the effect of Metakaolin on the properties of cement and concrete at a replacement level of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. The parameters studied were divided into two groups which are chemical compositions, water requirement, setting time and soundness test were carried out for cementitous properties. Workability, compressive strength and bending strength were test for concrete properties. Hardened concrete was cured under different type of curing conditions and tested.. The result showed that the inclusions of Metakaolin as cement replacement minerals have change some of the cementitous and concrete properties. This research reveals, the optimum effect for cementitous and concrete properties for metakaolin was 10%.
In this study, the rice husk flour-plastic waste composites (RPC) was produced from polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) wastes with 30 and 50% rice husk flour (RHF) contents. RPC was made by melt compounding and compression moulding processes. The electrical resistivity, thermal stability and tensile strength of RPC were determined. The RPC was tested in electrical resistivity and tensile strength according to the ASTM D-257 and ASTM D-638 respectively, while thermal stability was tested using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method. From the results, high content of RHF reduces all properties, except for tensile modulus of elasticity (TMOE) in tensile strength test. The ability of moisture absorption and the presence of hemicelluloses, cellulose and silica in RHF reduce the electrical resistivity and thermal stability behaviour of RPC from 50% RHF. The good binding elements and filler agglomeration in RPC from 50% RHF improve only TMOE. Insufficient stress transfer and rigid interphase occurred between RHF and plastics during tensile maximum load and elongation at break (Eb) in tensile strength test. In general, RPC from HDPE indicates better thermal stability, tensile modulus of rupture and Eb (in tensile strength test) compared to PP, based on the good behaviour of thermal conductivity, low water absorption, high molecular weight and good elongation properties of HDPE. However, RPC from PP shows good electrical resistance due to the low thermal expansion coefficient of PP.
From earliest cities to the present, spatial division into residential zones and neighbourhoods is the universal feature of urban areas. This study explored issue of measuring neighbourhoods through spatial autocorrelation method based on Moran’s I index in respect of achieving to best neighbourhoods’ model for forming cities smarter. The research carried out by selection of 35 neighbourhoods only within central part of traditional city of Kerman in Iran. The results illustrate, 75% of neighbourhoods’ area in the inner city of Kerman had clustered pattern, and it shows reduction in Moran’s index is associated with disproportional distribution of density and increasing in Moran’s I and Z-score have monotonic relation with more dense areas and clustered pattern. It may be more efficient for urban planner to focus on spatial autocorrelation to foster neighbourhood cohesion rather than emphasis on suburban area. It is recommended characteristics of historic neighbourhoods can be successfully linked to redevelopment plans toward making city smarter, and also people’s quality of life can be related to the way that neighbourhoods’ patterns are defined.
α-Mangostin was extracted from the pericarp of the Malaysian local Garcinia mangostana linn., The structure was characterised by Infrared red, UV-Visible and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic data. The fluorescence peak at 500nm in ethanol was not observed in PNIPAM microgel solution. The increase of colloidal size of the gel in the presence of α-mangostin was studied by Dynamic Light Scattering and Transmission Electron Microscope. The size of the particle also increases with increasing temperature up to 45⁰C after which it began to shrink. The TEM micrograph at 45°C showed a uniformly structured pattern of the gel occurs in the range of the lowest solution critical temperature.
Unripe and ripe bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi. L) were ground and the extracted juices were partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation at the concentrations of 40 and 60% (w/v). The collected proteases were analysed for pH, temperature stability, storage stability, molecular weight distribution, protein concentration and protein content. Protein content of bilimbi fruit was 0.89 g. Protease activity of both the unripe and ripe fruit were optimum at pH 4 and 40ºC when the juice were purified at 40 and 60% ammonium sulfate precipitation. A decreased in protease activity was observed during the seven days of storage at 4°C. Molecular weight distribution indicated that the proteases protein bands fall between 10 to 220 kDa. Protein bands were observed at 25, 50 and 160 kDa in both the unripe and ripe bilimbi proteases purified with 40% ammonium sulfate, however, the bands were more intense in those from unripe bilimbi. No protein bands were seen in proteases purified with 60% ammonium sulfate. Protein concentration was higher for proteases extracted with 40% ammonium sulfate at both ripening stages. Thus, purification using 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation could be a successful method to partially purify proteases from bilimbi especially from the unripe stage.
Aluminium (Al) is a low cost, lightweight and corrosion resistant material, which corrodes when exposed to pitting agents. Palm olein exhibits characteristics, which indicate its suitability as a corrosion inhibitor. Tween 20, hexane and diethyl triamine were used as additives to Palm olein to form the inhibitor formulation POT2OHA. The inhibition efficiency (IE) and behaviour of the POT2OHA were determined using potentiodynamic polarization in which Al 6061 samples were immersed in a 1 M HC1 solution at 26, 50 and 70 °C in the presence of different POT2OHA concentrations: 0, 0.03, 0.07, 0.10, 0.13 and 0.17 M The IE increased with increasing POT2OHA concentration, but decreased with increasing temperature. The work presented indicates that POT2OHA is a mixed-type inhibitor capable of inhibiting both corrosive anodic and cathodic reactions. According to the Langmuir isotherm results POT2OHA adsorbs on the A16061 surface through semiphys iosorption and/or semi-chemisorption. The POT2OHA adsorption mechanism on Al 6061 takes through the protonation of micelles by the HC1 solution, whereby protonated micelles in the presence of chloride ions adsorb on both cathodic and anodic surface corrosion sites.
Malaria parasites, Plasmodium can infect a wide range of hosts including humans and rodents. There are two copies of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in Plasmodium, namely MAPK1 and MAPK2. The MAPKs have been studied extensively in the human Plasmodium, P. falciparum. However, the MAPKs from other Plasmodium species have not been characterized and it is therefore the premise of presented study to characterize the MAPKs from other Plasmodium species-P. vivax, P knowlesi, P berghei, P chabaudi and P.yoelli using a series of publicly available bioinformatic tools. In silico data indicates that all Plasmodium MAPKs are nuclear-localized and contain both a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a Leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES). The activation motifs of TDY and TSH were found to be fully conserved in Plasmodium MAPK1 and MAPK2, respectively. The detailed manual inspection of a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) construct revealed a total of 17 amino acid stack patterns comprising of different amino acids present in MAPK1 and MAPK2 respectively, with respect to rodent and human Plasmodia. It is proposed that these amino acid stack patterns may be useful in explaining the disparity between rodent and human Plasmodium MAPKs.