Tinospora crispa Miers (Menispermaceae) is a climbing vine with stems rich in warts. The plant is called Akar Seruntum or Patawali in Malaysia and is widely used for treating skin complaints, malaria, bacterial abscess, high blood pressure and diabetes. In the present study, the stems of T. crispa were collected from the locality and succesively extracted with petroleum ether, followed by chloroform and ethanol. The insecticidal active extract (ethanol extract) was subjected to column chromatography of silica gel eluted with a gradient mobile phase containing hexane, chloroform and ethanol. Among the chemical constituents isolated are n-tetracosyl trans-ferulate and n-octacosyl alcohol, along with three known aporphine alkaloids; N-formylnornuciferine, N-acetylnornuciferine and lysicamine. All compounds were identified by comparing their spectroscopic data (UV, IR, 1H NMR, MS) with data from corresponding values in the literature. Isolation of n-tetracosyl trans-ferulate and noctacosyl alcohol is reported the first time for T. crispa.
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a second messenger molecule involved in the intracellular signalling mechanism which is important in a wide range of cellular process including metabolism, gene expression, cell proliferation and cell death. This study was conducted to determine the effect of fresh (FCC)) and thermoxidized carotino oil (TCO) on erythrocyte cGMP levels from Sprague dawley rats. A total of 30 Sprague dawley rats were randomly segregated into three groups: the first of which was placed on a Fresh Carotino Oil (FCO) diet, the second on a Thermoxidized Carotino Oil (TCO) diet and the control group on commercial rat chow only for a period of 6 and 9 weeks. The two oil diets comprised of 20% (w.10 of each oil mixed with commercial rat,feed. The enzyme immunoassays, performed in week 6, revealed that the erythrocytes cGMP levels for the FCO and TCO groups were 66.198±3.193 pmol/mL and 61.990±6.318 ptnol/mL respectively, and were significantly (p
Mercury emission into the atmosphere is a global concern due to its detrimental effects on human health in general. The two main sources of mercury emission are natural sources and anthropogenic sources. Mercury emission from natural sources include volcanic activity, weathering of rocks, water movement and biological processes which are obviously inevitable. The anthropogenic sources of mercury emission are from coal combustion, cement production and waste incineration. Thus, in order to reduce mercury emission it is appropriate to investigate how mercury is released from the anthropogenic sources and consequently the mercury removal technology that can be implemented in order to reduce mercury emission into the atmosphere. Many alternatives have been developed to reduce mercury emission and the recent application of activated carbon showed high potential in the adsorption of elemental mercury. This paper discusses the ability of activated carbon and variable parameters that influence mercury removal efficiency in flue gas.
Collagen was extracted from catfish (Clarias gariepnus) waste using 0.5M acetic acid and its subsequent precipitation in 2.6M NaCl. The resultant collagen was analysed with respect to its moisture content and physicochemical properties including yield, pH, protein content, colour, odour and thermal stability. A yield of 16.4% and positive collagen attributes indicate that catfish waste has potential as a collagen source. The snowy white, crystal-like and light textured collagen comprises of 5.97% protein and 0.46% moisture, and exhibits a pH of 4.75. Sensory evaluation indicates that the collagen has a slight fishy odour. Viscosity analysis indicates a steady decrease with increasing temperature over the range considered (20-50°C). The pale colour exhibited and limited odour emitted by the extracted collagen indicate that catfish waste collagen could be applied in the food industry without resulting in any undesirable food products attributes. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated that the collagen exhibits good thermal stability and denatures at a high temperature in a similar manner to mammalian collagen.
Silver catfish (Pangasius sutchi) skin gelatin was extracted to determine the effects of extraction time on the functional properties of the gelatin in terms of solubility, protein solubility as a function of pH and sodium chloride concentration, emulsifying capacity and stability, water holding capacity, fat binding capacities and foaming properties. Silver catfish skins were washed in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution prior to pre-treatment in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and acetic acid solution. Gelatin was extracted at 50ºC for 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours extraction time followed by freeze drying. The extraction of silver catfish skin gelatin at 50 ºC for 12 hours was more effective than extraction at 6, 8 and 10 hours where the gelatin was characterized by higher emulsifying capacity (52.63%), emulsifying stability (47.83%), water holding capacity (31.78 mL/g), fat binding capacities (54.76%), foaming capacity (41.47 mL) and foaming stability (56.42%) than gelatins extracted at other extraction time. The longer the extraction time, the better the functional properties of the gelatin. Based on its good functional properties, silver catfish skin gelatin may be useful in various food applications such as soups, sauces and gravies.
Mixed microbial culture used in this study was developed from sludge that was taken from local textile wastewater treatment tank. Acclimatization process was performed before starting the biodegradation experiment to obtain a microbial culture with high degradation properties. Kinetic studies by the mixed microbial culture were determined quantitatively for the model pollutant, Reactive Black 5 (RB 5). By using Michaelis-Menten model, the constants were found to be 11.15 mg l-1 h -1 and 29.18 mg l-1 for Vm and Km respectively. The values of kinetic constants for Monod model were found to be 33.11 mg l-1 cell h-1 for the maximum specific microbial growth rate, µm and 86.62 mg l-1 for Monod constant, Ks. The effects of process parameters such as pH, inoculum size and initial dye concentration on the biodegradation of azo dye, RB 5 were systematically investigated. Maximum removal efficiencies observed in this study were 75% for pH 6, 100% for 15% inoculum concentration and 75% for 20 ppm of initial dye concentration.
Molecular self-assembly is ubiquitous in nature and has emerged as a new approach to produce new materials in chemistry, engineering, nanotechnology, polymer science and materials. Molecular self-assembly has been attracting increasing interest from the scientific community in recent years due to its importance in understanding biology and a variety of diseases at the molecular level. In the last few years, considerable advances have been made in the use of peptides as building blocks to produce biological materials for wide range of applications, including fabricating novel supra-molecular structures and scaffolding for tissue repair. The study of biological self-assembly systems represents a significant advancement in molecular engineering and is a rapidly growing scientific and engineering field that crosses the boundaries of existing disciplines. Many self-assembling systems are range from bi- and tri-block copolymers to DNA structures as well as simple and complex proteins and peptides. The ultimate goal is to harness molecular self-assembly such that design and control of bottom-up processes is achieved thereby enabling exploitation of structures developed at the meso- and macro-scopic scale for the purposes of life and non-life science applications. Such aspirations can be achieved through understanding the fundamental principles behind the selforganisation and self-synthesis processes exhibited by biological systems.
Unripe and ripe bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi. L) were ground and the extracted juices were partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation at the concentrations of 40 and 60% (w/v). The collected proteases were analysed for pH, temperature stability, storage stability, molecular weight distribution, protein concentration and protein content. Protein content of bilimbi fruit was 0.89 g. Protease activity of both the unripe and ripe fruit were optimum at pH 4 and 40ºC when the juice were purified at 40 and 60% ammonium sulfate precipitation. A decreased in protease activity was observed during the seven days of storage at 4°C. Molecular weight distribution indicated that the proteases protein bands fall between 10 to 220 kDa. Protein bands were observed at 25, 50 and 160 kDa in both the unripe and ripe bilimbi proteases purified with 40% ammonium sulfate, however, the bands were more intense in those from unripe bilimbi. No protein bands were seen in proteases purified with 60% ammonium sulfate. Protein concentration was higher for proteases extracted with 40% ammonium sulfate at both ripening stages. Thus, purification using 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation could be a successful method to partially purify proteases from bilimbi especially from the unripe stage.
Lattice Boltzmann Model for Shallow Water Equation with Turbulence Modeling (LABSWETM) is used to study the flow patterns of sidewall friction effects. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) approach in recovery the macroscopic governing equation which is shallow water equation from the microscopic flow behavior of particle movement as described by kinetic theory is explored. With the solution of force term to be used in lattice Boltzmann equation, the boundary condition of LBM is explored. With the use of bed and wall friction coefficients, the importance of Manning’s coefficient in determining the outcome of flow patterns simulation is explained. For model verification, the model represents a straight channel with a circular cavity attached to it. The result of this simulation includes the water circulation patterns, cross-section of average velocity distribution, and water depth. For validation, the cross-sections of the model in term of velocity vectors are compared against alternative numerical and experimental data.
In this study, the rice husk flour-plastic waste composites (RPC) was produced from polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) wastes with 30 and 50% rice husk flour (RHF) contents. RPC was made by melt compounding and compression moulding processes. The electrical resistivity, thermal stability and tensile strength of RPC were determined. The RPC was tested in electrical resistivity and tensile strength according to the ASTM D-257 and ASTM D-638 respectively, while thermal stability was tested using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method. From the results, high content of RHF reduces all properties, except for tensile modulus of elasticity (TMOE) in tensile strength test. The ability of moisture absorption and the presence of hemicelluloses, cellulose and silica in RHF reduce the electrical resistivity and thermal stability behaviour of RPC from 50% RHF. The good binding elements and filler agglomeration in RPC from 50% RHF improve only TMOE. Insufficient stress transfer and rigid interphase occurred between RHF and plastics during tensile maximum load and elongation at break (Eb) in tensile strength test. In general, RPC from HDPE indicates better thermal stability, tensile modulus of rupture and Eb (in tensile strength test) compared to PP, based on the good behaviour of thermal conductivity, low water absorption, high molecular weight and good elongation properties of HDPE. However, RPC from PP shows good electrical resistance due to the low thermal expansion coefficient of PP.
Natural fiber is incompatible with hydrophobic polymer due to its hydrophilic nature. Therefore, surface modification of fiber is needed to impart compatibility. In this work,superheated steam (SHS)-alkali was introduced as novel surface treatment method to modify oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) for fabrication of biocomposites. The OPMF was first pre-treated with SHS and subsequently treated with varying NaOH concentration (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%) and soaking time (1, 2, 3 and 4h) at room temperature. The biocomposites were then fabricated by melt blending of 70 wt% SHS-alkali treated-OPMFs and 30 wt% poly(butylene succinate) in a Brabender internal mixer followed by hot-pressed moulding. The combination treatment resulted in fiber with rough surface as well as led to the exposure ofmicrofibers. The tensile test result showed that fiber treated at 2% NaOH solution and 3h soaking time produced biocomposite with highest improvement in tensile strength (69%) and elongation at break (36%) in comparison to that of untreated OPMF. The scanning electron micrographs of tensile fracture surfaces of biocomposite provide evident for improved adhesion between fiber and polymer after thetreatments.This work demonstrated that combination treatments of SHS and NaOH could be a promising way to modify OPMF for fabrication of biocomposite.
Crab meat is widely consumed in several countries around the world. However, when consumed, crab meat are frequent cause of allergic reactions throughout the world. Scylla serrata is among the most common mud crab in Malaysia. In a previous study two major allergens of mud crab at 36 and 41 kDa was identified. Thus, the aim of this study is to further identify these major allergens by a proteomic approach. Protein extract was prepared and resolved by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Immunoblotting was then performed using reactive sera from patients with crab allergy. Major allergenic spots were then excised from the 2-DE gel and analysed by mass spectrometry. The 2-DE profile of the extract revealed approximately >100 protein spots between pH of 4.00 to 8.00. Mass spectrometry analysis has identified the 36 and 41 kDa proteins as tropomyosin and arginine kinase, respectively. Our findings indicated that tropomyosin and arginine kinase play a major role in allergic reaction to mud crab meat among local patients with crab meat allergy, and should be included in diagnostics and therapeutic strategies of this allergy.
A polystyrene (PS)-anchored Pd(II) metal complex was synthesized on cross-linked polymer by heating a mixture of chlorometylated polystyrene with phenyldithiocarbazate and carbon disulfide in the presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in dimethylformamide (DMF). The reaction mixture was heated at 80 °C to form the corresponding phenyldithiocarbazate-functionalized polymer. Then, it was treated with bis(benzonitrile)palladium(II) chloride. The properties of dark colored polymer, impregnated with the metal complex was then characterized by various spectroscopic technique such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX), CHNS elemental analysis, BET surface area, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric (TGA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission (ICP-OES) spectroscopy.
The crystal structure of the title compound has been determined. The compound crystallized in the triclinic space group P -1, Z = 2, V = 1839.42(18) Å3 and unit cell parameters a = 11.0460(6) Å, b = 13.3180(7) Å, c = 13.7321(8) Å, a = 80.659(3)°, ß = 69.800(3)° and ? = 77.007(2)° with one disordered dimethylsulfoxide solvent molecule with the sulfur and oxygen atoms are distributed over two sites; S101/S102 [site occupancy factors: 0.6035/0.3965] and O130/O131 [site occupancy factor 0.3965/0.6035]. The C22-S21 and C19-S20 bond distances of 1.779(7) Å and 1.788(8) Å indicate that both of the molecules are connected by the disulfide bond [S20-S21 2.055(2) Å] in its thiol form. The crystal structure reveals that both of the 5-bromoisatin moieties are trans with respect to the [S21-S20 and C19-N18] and [S20-S21 and C22-N23] bonds whereas the benzyl group from the dithiocarbazate are in the cis configuration with respect to [S21-S20 and C19-S44] and [S20-S21 and C22-S36] bonds. The crystal structure is further stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonds of N9-H35···O16 formed between the two molecules and N28-H281···O130, N28-H281···O131 and C41-H411···O131 with the solvent molecule.
Industrial heat pumps are heat-recovery systems that allow the temperature of waste-heat stream to be increased to a higher, more efficient temperature. Consequently, heat pumps can improve energy efficiency in industrial processes as well as energy savings when conventional passive-heat recovery is not possible. In this paper, possible ways of saving energy in the chemical industry are considered, the objective is to reduce the primary energy (such as coal) consumption of power plant. Particularly the thermodynamic analyses of integrating backpressure turbine of a power plant with distillation units have been considered. Some practical examples such as conventional distillation unit and heat pump are used as a means of reducing primary energy consumption with tangible indications of energy savings. The heat pump distillation is operated via electrical power from the power plant. The exergy efficiency of the primary fuel is calculated for different operating range of the heat pump distillation. This is then compared with a conventional distillation unit that depends on saturated steam from a power plant as the source of energy. The results obtained show that heat pump distillation is an economic way to save energy if the temperature difference between the overhead and the bottom is small. Based on the result, the energy saved by the application of a heat pump distillation is improved compared to conventional distillation unit.
From earliest cities to the present, spatial division into residential zones and neighbourhoods is the universal feature of urban areas. This study explored issue of measuring neighbourhoods through spatial autocorrelation method based on Moran’s I index in respect of achieving to best neighbourhoods’ model for forming cities smarter. The research carried out by selection of 35 neighbourhoods only within central part of traditional city of Kerman in Iran. The results illustrate, 75% of neighbourhoods’ area in the inner city of Kerman had clustered pattern, and it shows reduction in Moran’s index is associated with disproportional distribution of density and increasing in Moran’s I and Z-score have monotonic relation with more dense areas and clustered pattern. It may be more efficient for urban planner to focus on spatial autocorrelation to foster neighbourhood cohesion rather than emphasis on suburban area. It is recommended characteristics of historic neighbourhoods can be successfully linked to redevelopment plans toward making city smarter, and also people’s quality of life can be related to the way that neighbourhoods’ patterns are defined.
α-Mangostin was extracted from the pericarp of the Malaysian local Garcinia mangostana linn., The structure was characterised by Infrared red, UV-Visible and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic data. The fluorescence peak at 500nm in ethanol was not observed in PNIPAM microgel solution. The increase of colloidal size of the gel in the presence of α-mangostin was studied by Dynamic Light Scattering and Transmission Electron Microscope. The size of the particle also increases with increasing temperature up to 45⁰C after which it began to shrink. The TEM micrograph at 45°C showed a uniformly structured pattern of the gel occurs in the range of the lowest solution critical temperature.
Metakaolin is a manufactured pozzolan produced by thermal processing of purified kaolinitic clay using electrical furnace. This study has examined the effect of Metakaolin on the properties of cement and concrete at a replacement level of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. The parameters studied were divided into two groups which are chemical compositions, water requirement, setting time and soundness test were carried out for cementitous properties. Workability, compressive strength and bending strength were test for concrete properties. Hardened concrete was cured under different type of curing conditions and tested.. The result showed that the inclusions of Metakaolin as cement replacement minerals have change some of the cementitous and concrete properties. This research reveals, the optimum effect for cementitous and concrete properties for metakaolin was 10%.
Recently, research and development in the field of drug delivery systems (DDS) facilitating site-specific therapy has reached significant progression. DDS based on polymer micelles, coated micro- and nanoparticles, and various prodrug systems including water-soluble polymer have been prepared and extensively studied as novel drugs designed for cancer chemotherapy and brain delivery. Since polymers are going to be used in human, this study has the interest of testing two types of polymer, polyimides (PI) and polyphenylenevinylene (PPV) on neuronal cells. The objective of this study was to determine the possible neurotoxicity and potential neuroprotective effects of PI and PPV towards SH-SY5Y neuronal cells challenged by hydrogen peroxide (1120) as an oxidant. Cells were pretreated with either PI or PPV for 1 hour followed by incubation for 24 hour with 100 ,uM of 11201. MTS • assay was used to assess cell viability. Results show that PI and PPV are not harmful within the concentration up to 10 pM and 100 pM, respectively. However, PI and PPV do not protect neuronal cells against toxicity induced by H2O, or further up the cell death.
Malaria parasites, Plasmodium can infect a wide range of hosts including humans and rodents. There are two copies of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in Plasmodium, namely MAPK1 and MAPK2. The MAPKs have been studied extensively in the human Plasmodium, P. falciparum. However, the MAPKs from other Plasmodium species have not been characterized and it is therefore the premise of presented study to characterize the MAPKs from other Plasmodium species-P. vivax, P knowlesi, P berghei, P chabaudi and P.yoelli using a series of publicly available bioinformatic tools. In silico data indicates that all Plasmodium MAPKs are nuclear-localized and contain both a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a Leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES). The activation motifs of TDY and TSH were found to be fully conserved in Plasmodium MAPK1 and MAPK2, respectively. The detailed manual inspection of a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) construct revealed a total of 17 amino acid stack patterns comprising of different amino acids present in MAPK1 and MAPK2 respectively, with respect to rodent and human Plasmodia. It is proposed that these amino acid stack patterns may be useful in explaining the disparity between rodent and human Plasmodium MAPKs.