This study aimed to develop and validate whole grain KAP questionnaire among children. A
guided self-administered questionnaire was developed. In this cross sectional study, a total
of 207 children aged 9 to 11 years in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were recruited. Knowledge
domain was considered as optimal level of difficulty and able to discriminate performance of
good and poor children. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis with
principle components method and varimax rotation. Four factor-solutions emerged for attitude
domain whereas 3 factor-solutions were constructed for practice domain. Internal consistency
was acceptable for knowledge (KR20=0.70), attitude (CA=0.72) and practice (CA=0.73).
Test-retest reliability intra-class correlation coefficients for knowledge, attitude and practice
domains were 0.80, 0.78 and 0.79 (p
In the present work, the influence of microwave power and heating times on the quality
degradation of corn oil was evaluated. Microwave heating test was carried out using a domestic
microwave oven for different periods at low- and medium-power settings for the corn oil sample.
The changes in physicochemical characteristics related to oil degradation of the samples during
heating were determined by standard methods. In this study, refractive index, free fatty acid
content, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOX value, viscosity and total polar compound
of the oils all increased with increasing heating power and time of exposure. In GLC analysis,
the percentage of linoleic acid tended to decrease, whereas the percentage of palmitic, stearic
and oleic acids increased. The C18:2/C16:0 ratio decreased in all oil samples with increasing
heating times. Exposing the corn oil to various microwave power settings and heating periods
caused the formation of hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products. The heating reduced
the various tocopherol isomers in corn oil and highest reduction was detected in γ-tocopherol.
Longer microwave heating times resulted in a greater degree of oil deterioration. Microwave
heating caused the formation of comparatively lower amounts of some degradative products in
the oil samples heated at low-power setting compared to medium-power setting. The present
analysis indicated that oil quality was affected by both microwave power and heating time.
The study aimed to isolate and elucidate the chemical compounds that are found in banana
(Musa balbisiana cv. Saba) inflorescences. Banana inflorescence buds were extracted using
methanol and the resulted methanolic extract was partitioned using chloroform, ethyl acetate
and butanol against deionized water. The chloroform partition was further separated into
fractions using column chromatography assisted by thin layer chromatography. The structure
elucidation was performed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). Three
triterpenes were isolated namely 31-norcyclolaudenone (1), cycloartenol (2) and (24R)-4a,24-
trimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,25(27)-dien-3b-ol (3). This is the first report on the isolation of these
triterpenes from Musa balbisiana inflorescence. The discovery of new triterpenes from banana
inflorescence should be further explored to open a new perspective that banana by-products
might serve as new source of natural products for food and pharmaceutical applications.
The attention on genetically modified (GM) food industry is increasing due to the flourishing
of biotechnology. However, there are some debates on the associated benefits and risks of
employing modification technology in food industry. This study strives to examine the causes
that determine consumers’ benefit and risk perceptions on GM foods. Besides, the influence of
perceived benefit and risk of GM food on consumers’ attitude is investigated. The empirical
results of this study showed that GM food knowledge, and GM food characteristics have been
acting as important predictors of both benefits and risks perceptions. Further, it is also found
that perceived benefits showed significant positive influence on attitude, and attitude affects
purchase intention towards GM food. Research implications to policy makers, scientists, and
market practitioners are covered, in which suggestions and recommendations are provided
to these parties. Lastly, research implications and recommendations to future research are
Biological amines are nitrogenous compounds that occur naturally in wide variety of food. Histamine, putrescine, cadavarine, tyramine, spermine, spermidine, tryptamine and β-phenylethylamine are the biogenic amines that are normally present in foods. Although the biogenic amines play some important physiological functions but high level of amines can cause toxicological effects. High amount of amines can be produced by bacteria during amino acids decarboxylation and have been identified as one of the important agent causing seafood intoxication. Temperature is the major factor for controlling the biogenic amines formation in food. The effects of other alternatives are also discussed including salting, packaging, irradiation, high pressure processing and the use of starter culture. A variety of techniques can be combined together to control the microbial growth and enzyme activity during processing and storage for better shelf life extension and food safety.
The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial of Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus niruri and Phyllanthus urinaria. P. niruri was found to possess the highest antioxidant activity, the activity decreased in the order P. niruri > P. amarus > P. urinaria for water extract. However, the activity decreased in the order P. niruri > P. urinaria > P. amarus for methanol extract. The result correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content revealed a positive correlation of 0.954 < r 2 < 1.000 for both water and methanol extract. Methanol extract showed higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity as compared with water extract. Lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value for water extract against the selected microorganism was >2.5 mg/mL meanwhile, for methanol extract was 2.5 mg/mL and >0.625 mg/mL were the value for water and methanol extract. Methanol extract showed better inhibition potential than water extract
This study aims to determine the frequency and density of potentially pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus, defined as those possessing thermostable-direct hemolysin (tdh) and/or tdh-related hemolysin (trh) genes, in raw salad vegetables at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia. A combination of Most Probable Number - Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPN-PCR) method was applied to detect the presence of tdh and/or trh gene-possessing V. parahaemolyticus and to enumerate their density in the samples. A total of 276 samples of vegetables commonly eaten raw in Malaysia (Cabbage = 30; Carrot = 31; Cucumber = 28; Four winged bean = 26; Indian pennywort = 17; Japanese parsley = 21; Lettuce = 16; Long bean = 32; Sweet potato = 29; Tomato = 38; Wild cosmos = 8) were analyzed. The samples were purchased from two supermarkets (A and B) and two wet markets (C and D). With the MPN-PCR technique, about 12.0% of the samples were positive for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus tdh-positive, with maximum densities of up to 39 MPN/g. The total frequency of V. parahaemolyticus trh-positive in the samples was 10.1%, with maximum concentration 15 MPN/g. V. parahaemolyticus tdh-positive was most prevalent in samples from Wet Market C (20.78%) and also in vegetable type Oenanthe stolonifera (Japanese parsley) with 19.0%, while V. parahaemolyticus trhpositive was predominant in samples from Wet Market D (16.7%) and was most frequent in both Oenanthe stolonifera (Japanese parsley) and Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) with 14.3% prevalence for each type. The results highlighted the fact that raw vegetables could be contaminated with virulent V. parahaemolyticus and could act as a transmission route, thus poses risk to consumers from the consumption of raw vegetables. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first assessment of V. parahaemolyticus carrying tdh and trh genes in raw
vegetables from retail outlets in Malaysia.
This study evaluates the sanitary and physico-chemical quality of Sg. Jarum Mas shellfish waters in order to establish its suitability as a model farm. Seawater and shellfish from nine stations (4 shellfish harvesting waters, 4 surrounding waters and 1 control site) were collected and analyzed monthly from September 2004 - September 2005. The results show that shellfish harvesting waters in Sg. Jarum Mas can be classified as ‘approved’ and ‘conditionally approved’. Hepatitis A virus was not detected in any of the shellfish examined. Dinophysis caudata and Pseuodonitzshia spp. were the most common harmful alga species observed. Harmful species that are known to produce toxins and cause shellfish poisoning such as Alexandrium spp., Gymnodinum spp., Pyrodinium sp. and Prorocentrum spp. were not detected. The physico-chemical characteristics of shellfish waters in Sg. Jarum Mas imply that they are suitable for aquaculture activity of moderately tolerant species such as shellfish.
Antibiotic susceptibility and genetic diversity of E. coli isolated from cultured catfish and their surrounding environment were determined. The levels of resistance of the E. coli isolates towards six different antibiotics tested differed considerably. Though the isolates displayed resistance towards some of the antibiotics tested, none of the isolates showed resistant towards norfloxacin, sulphametoxazole/trimethoprim and chloramphenicol. RAPD-PCR analysis using single primer and primers combination clustered the E. coli isolates into 3 and 5 groups, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the E. coli isolates from the catfish and their surrounding environment derived from a mixture of sensitive and resistant strains with diverse genetic contents. The use of the RAPD analysis is sufficiently discriminatory for the typing of the E. coli isolates.
Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the concentrations of chitosan and glycerol for coating Berangan banana (Musa sapientum cv. Berangan). The effects of main edible coating components, chitosan (0.5-2.5%, w/w) and glycerol (0-2%, w/w) on weight loss, firmness, total colour difference, total soluble solids content (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA) of coated banana were studied during 10 days of storage at 26±2°C and 40-50% relative humidity. Results showed that the experimental data could be adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model with coefficient of determination (R 2 ) ranging from 0.745 to 0.930 for all the variables studied. In general, the chitosan concentration appeared to be the most significant (P< 0.1) factor influencing all variables except for TSS. The optimum concentration of chitosan and glycerol were predicted to be 2.02% and 0.18%, respectively. Statistical assessment showed insignificant difference between experimental and predicted values.
This study was performed to enumerate the total viable cell count of probiotic in five brands (A to E) of commercially cultured milk drinks that are available in the Malaysian market as well as to test their tolerance to various pH and bile concentrations by simulating the human gastrointestinal pH and bile concentration. The acid tolerance test was studied under pH 1.5 and 3.0 with 7.2 as control. The cell count for the acid tolerance test was obtained at an interval of 0, 1.5 and 3 hours respectively and was plated onto duplicate MRS agars to be incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. All cells recovered after 3 hours of pH treatment were selected for bile tolerance test in MRS broth containing bile concentrations of 0% (control), 0.3% and 2.0% and cell counts were recorded after 24 hours of incubation. The probiotic strains in products A, B, C & D met the suggested initial count of 106 CFU/ml with brand C recording the highest at 9.19 ± 0.14 log CFU/ml. Strains in product A, B & C showed good tolerance to pH 3.0 and 7.2 recording a count of >106 CFU/ml after 3 hours with a range of 6.60 – 9.04 log CFU/ml. The higher bile concentrations resulted in lower growth of strains in all the brands. Upon pH 1.5 treatment, only brand C recorded growth in all bile concentrations. After pH 3.0 treatment, all brands except brand E met the requirement of survival at 0.3% bile concentration. Results showed probiotics in product A, B & C met the initial count requirement, and exhibited good acid and bile tolerance therefore being a potentially good source of probiotic.
A total of 49 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus and 8 isolates of V. cholerae isolated from freshwater fish of patin (Pangasius hypopthalmus) and red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) were purchased from different retail level in Selangor, Malaysia. All of the isolates showed a multiple resistances towards all 15 antibiotics tested. Some of the isolates show a high resistance to different antibiotics including bacitracin, vancomycin, tetracycline, furazididone, cephalothin and erythromycin. However, both species was susceptible towards imipenem. Overall antibiotics resistance patterns of all isolates were resistant from 2 to 14 resistance patterns with multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index ranging from 0.13 to 0.93 respectively. As the results obtained in the dendrogram produced from both species had indicates that these antibiotics were intensively used whether in the aquaculture farm through feeds during culture or at the hatchery production of seed. Thus, this study will provides an essential information of the MAR index and also the clustering analysis in order to determine the biosafety of Vibrio spp. in freshwater aquaculture fish sold at different retail level in Malaysia.
The agricultural industry scenario in many industrialized countries has adopted an image processing system as a solution to automate the grading process in order to provide accurate, reliable, consistent and quantitative information in addition to the large volumes, which human graders are not able to perform. In Malaysia, the grading of palm oil Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) is still performed manually through visual inspection using the surface color as the main quality attribute. It is the intention here to introduce an automated grading system for palm oil FFB using a computer assisted photogrammetric methodology which correlate the surface color of fruit bunches, not the fruitlets, to their ripeness and eventually sorts the fruit to two predefined fruit categories. The methodology consists of five main phases, i.e. image acquisition, image pre-processing, image segmentation, calculation of color Digital Numbers (DN) (data manipulation) and finally the classification of ripeness. This computerized photogrammetric image processing technique using MATLAB® package which is integrated to a sorting system differs in various aspects from other digital imaging technique or machine vision system adopted for classifying fruit ripeness. A comprehensive discussion will be presented based on the results achieved through actual fruit testing on the prototype grading system. The main concern was to ensure the reliability of the computerized photogrammetric technique achievable and the system’s mechanism working as intended. The fruit classification ability of the system yields above 90% accuracy and taking not more than 25 seconds to classify and sort each fruit.
Extract of mengkudu was heated using a bench-top tube heat exchanger at 30, 50, 70 and 90 o C for 0, 5, 10 and 15 min residence time. The treated mengkudu extract was then measured for pH, L * , a * , b * color parameters, clarity, viscosity and total polyphenol content. Results show that heating using temperature of 30 to 90 o C for 5 to 15 mins significantly (p
Momordica charantia is known to contain with antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds to lower of diabetic diseases. Objective this study was investigate the influence of ripening stages on the phenolic bioactive substances and the corresponding antioxidant activity of bitter melon (Momordica charantia). The ripening of bitter melon fruit divided to four stages (RS1, RS2, RS3 and RS4). The results of this study were more ripened the fruit, lightness (L * ), yellowish (b * ) and chroma increased. Other ways, more ripened the fruit, the pH value and titratable acidity decreased. Total phenolic content and FRAF of RS 4 was highest compared other samples but DPPH of RS 4 was lowest among all the samples. However DPPH and FRAP value of bitter gourd on ripening stages showed no significant difference (p>0.05) among samples.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition properties of stems and leaves of hexane and methanolic extracts of Pluchea indica. Methanolic extract of leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 24.45 ± 0.34 µg/ml) and total phenolic contents (573.52 ± 6.2 mg GAE/100 g crude extract), in DPPH radical scavenging and Folin-Ciocalteu assays respectively, however, it failed to inhibit acetylcholinesterase in TLC bioautographic detection. The rest of plant extracts, including methanolic extract of stems, hexane extract of both leaves and stems, were detected to have acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties. Hexane extract of both leaves and stems exhibited lower or negligible level of antioxidant activity and phenolic contents. Pluchea indica may provide a potential natural source of bioactive compounds, and maybe beneficial to the human health.
Ten selected brands of commercial chicken burgers were analysed for their proximate composition, texture profiles, colour and sensory properties. Results show commercial chicken burgers consisted of moisture, proteins, fat and ash in the range of 46.72-69.37%, 11.08-18.77%, 9.08-20.54%, and 1.50-2.96%, respectively. Meanwhile, texture profiles comprised of hardness ranging from 8003.25-19038.15g, while chewiness had the value ranging from 650.78-1275.78 g. On the other hands, cohesiveness had the value ranging from 0.223-0.371, while springiness recorded the value in the range from 0.141-0.443. Colour analysis of cooked burgers resulted in lightness (L*) ranging from 48.21-73.59, redness (a*) from 0.75-9.08, and yellowness (b*) from 21.56-31.24. In sensory evaluation, the most acceptable colour of chicken burger was the one which had the medium lightness (L*) with the value of 63.96), medium redness (a*) with the value of 7.00) and the highest yellowness (b*) intensity value at 31.24. In addition, the most acceptable texture was the one with medium hardness value of 12590 g, high chewiness value of 1195.42 g, high cohesiveness value of 0.371, and medium springiness value of 0.254. It can be concluded that the Malaysian commercial chicken burgers complied with the Food Act of Malaysia and contained different levels of chemical compositions, textural characteristics and colour properties.
Malaysia, Biosafety Bill 2006 was approved by Parliament in July 2007, and labeling legislation will be implemented soon. In this study, duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to detect
endogenous soybean lectin gene and exogenous cp4-epsps (5’-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phospate synthase) gene simultaneously. Additionally, real-time PCR utilizing SYBR Green fluorescence dye were established for the quantitative analysis of Roundup Ready soybean (RRS), which is based on the two established calibration curve from cloned fragment of cp4-epsps gene and lectin gene respectively. Approximately, 39.5% (45/114) of the samples examined in this study contain RRS, animal feeds (31), processed food (13) and raw soybean (1). Additionally, 75.6% (34/45) of the positive samples were found contained RRS above 0.9%. The sensitive GMO quantitative approach described in this study enable the analysis of various samples and this will facilitate the labeling process.
The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied to determine the effects of acetone concentration (%), extraction time (mins), and extraction temperature ( o C) on total phenolic content (TPC) from neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves. The independent variables were coded at five levels and their actual values were selected based on the results of single factor experiments. Results showed that acetone concentration and extraction time were the most significant (p
The extraction of phenolics from Citrus hystrix leaf was carried out using supercritical fluid extraction and was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of CO2 flow rate, extraction pressure and extraction temperature on yield, total phenolic content and diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl-IC50 were evaluated and compared with ethanol extraction. The extraction pressure was the most significant factor affecting the yield, TPC and DPPH-IC50 of the extracts, followed by CO2 flow rate and the extraction temperature. The optimum conditions of pressure, CO2 flow rate and temperature were at 267 bars, 18 g/min and 50°C, respectively. The yield, TPC and DPPH-IC50 obtained were 5.06%, 116.53 mg GAE/g extract and IC50 of 0.063 mg/ml, respectively. These values were not significantly different (p