Keropok Lekor or frankfurter-like snack has long existed in Malaysia and has been sold in commercial retail shops as well as on the streets. The aims of this study were to analyze consumer’s perception and attitude towards keropok lekor and to determine consumer’s behavior on the product. Survey questionnaire was employed as a data collection tool. A total of 212 respondents from a university participated in this study. Results showed that more than 70% of the respondents chose to eat keropok lekor because of the taste. Half of the respondents chose black pepper as an innovative supplementary flavor of keropok lekor. This study also explores and analyses preliminary consumer behavior about keropok lekor such as satisfaction level, factors that drive consumption, product’s image from consumer perspectives and etc.
This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and energetic value of selected marine fish and shellfish from the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This study has included 20 species of fish (10 pelagic fish and 10 demersal fish) and 4 species of shellfish. For pelagic fish, Longtail shad (terubuk) was found to contain significantly lower moisture (59.31+0.00%), but significantly higher fat content (23.15+0.00%) compared to other fish species. For demersal fish, moisture and ash contents ranged between 74-82%, and 0.9-2.1%, respectively. Long-tailed butterfly ray contained the highest protein (22.22+1.24%) compared to other fish studied. The highest fat content of demersal fish was in Moonfish at 6.89+2.76%. For shellfish, prawn contained the highest protein (19.12+1.44%). The fat content of shellfish ranged between 1-2%. Oyster contained significantly higher carbohydrate at 6.45+0.00%, compared to other shellfish. Longtail shad contained the highest energetic value of 13.34 kJ g-1 of all samples. These values are useful references for consumers in order to choose fish and shellfish based on their nutritional contents.
This paper is interested in exploring the interrelatedness of some accompanying policy changes and
initiatives in the selected Asian countries as well as reviewing the Malaysian National Food Security Policy. Actions taken in response to the food crisis in the selected Asian countries have worked out well and produced promising outcomes from a combination of availability, accessibility, utilization, and stability aspects in food security. Malaysia weighted more on availability aspect in food security by introducing more short- and longterm policy measures for boosting paddy and rice production, particularly in Sabah and Sarawak under the National Food Security Policy. However, much of the unhappiness and disequilibrium in the local paddy and rice market were created due to irrational extensive intervention of the Miller Subsidy and Beras Nasional programmes in the nation. Many of the policy measures targeted at area expansion and productivity but it was suggested that the dominant path to achieve the targeted self-sufficiency level is through research and development at specialized and committed paddy and rice research centre. Trade oriented self-reliance approach that strategized with multiple and diversified sources of rice import was tipped to be superior of current selfsufficiency approach.
Five different brands of Malaysian commercial beef frankfurters were analyzed for quality characteristics. The proximate contents showed significant differences among the samples. The range of moisture content was 63.0-73.9%; the protein content was 10.63-16.43% while the fat content was 1.71-12.22%. The lightness value (L*) of the uncooked frankfurters, which was in the range of 47.02-52.28, was significantly different among the samples. The lightness of the cooked frankfurters, showed a decrease in all the samples compared to the uncooked samples. No significant differences were observed for the folding test; where all samples showed no cracks after they were folded in half. However, significant differences were observed for the texture analysis. The hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, springiness, gumminess and shear force ranged between 4.59-10.30 kg, 0.26-0.35, 16.15-51.72 kgmm, 12.73-14.79 mm, 1.17-3.49 kg and 1.67-7.08 kg respectively. The results of the study showed that Malaysian commercial beef frankfurters were significantly different in their physicochemical properties.
The activities of lipase produced by five lipases-producing thermophilic bacteria strains (SY1, SY5, SY6, SY7 and SY9) isolated from Selayang Hot Spring in the western part of Peninsular Malaysia were analyzed and compared. SY7 and SY9 had considerably higher lipolytic activities than those of SY1, SY5 and SY6. Thermostabilities of lipase produced by all strains were determined after heating at 80°C for 30 minutes. Strain SY7 retained the highest lipolytic activity of 77%, while others had infinitesimally low thermostability (retaining less than 34% of their original activity) at the same temperature and time. SY7 was chosen for further characterization because it showed exceptionally high lipase activity and thermostability. It was identified as belonging to Bacillus species by the conventional Gram-staining technique, Biochemical tests and Biolog Microstation system. By using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, strain SY7 generated the same expected PCR product with molecular weight of 1500 base pair. It displayed 98% sequence similarity to Bacillus cereus strain J-1 16S rRNA gene partial sequence with accession number: AY305275 and has been deposited in the database of Genbank.
Vibrio cholerae still represents a significant threat to human health worldwide despite the advances in hygiene, consumer knowledge, food treatment and food processing. In Malaysia, statistics in year 2009 have shown that among the food and water borne diseases, food poisoning has the highest incidence rate of 36.17 per 100,000 populations and with a mortality rate of 0.01 per 100,000 populations. In this study, 22 seafood samples comprising of fish, squid, crustacean and mollusks purchased from wet market and supermarket were analyzed. The Most Probable Number (MPN) and real time PCR was used to enumerate the Vibrio cholerae in seafood sample. The results showed that MPN-real time PCR of the samples from wet market had a maximum of >1100 MPN/g compare to 93 MPN/g enumerated from the MPN plate. The MPN-real time PCR in the samples from supermarket indicated 290 MPN/g as compared to 240 MPN/g enumerated from the MPN plate. The standard curves showed that there was a good linear correlation between the Ct values. The minimum level of detection of Vibrio cholerae standard DNA at targeted gene was 3 x 10-5 ng/μl.
Salmonella has caused foodborne illnesses globally and it has been a rising threat on fresh produce. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and concentration of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium in freshly prepared fruit juice sold at hawker stalls. Analysis was conducted by employing most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). A total of 50 freshly prepared fruit juices were examined and the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium in the fruit juices were 34%, 20% and 10%, respectively, with an estimated microbial load varying from 0 to 42 MPN/g. Of the five different fruits, carrot juice had the highest prevalence of Salmonella spp. (60%) and Salmonella Typhi (40%). However, Salmonella Typhimurium was detected in apple (30%), orange (10%) and starfruit juice (10%). Factors contributing to the presence of Salmonella were cross-contamination and poor sanitation practice. Besides, negligence on temperature and storage time also led to the growth of Salmonella. Proper monitoring and risk assessment are needed in order to establish control measures to ensure the quality and safety of fruit juices in Malaysia.
Lycopene and total phenolics of pink guava puree industry by-products (refiner, siever and decanter)
were evaluated after steam blanching at selected temperatures and times. Lycopene content was in the order of decanter > siever > refiner (7.3, 6.3 and 1.5 mg/100 g, respectively), and the content of total phenolics was in the order of refiner > siever > decanter (4434.1, 2881.3 and 1529.3 mg GAE/100 g, respectively). Regression coefficients for temperatures (x1) and times (x2) from multiple linear regression models of siever and decanter showed significant (p
Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) is the most widely used method for determining protein quality. The studies involved a few category of products as raw materials namely poultry products, beef burger products, fish and fish products, soy products and palm kernel cake in animal diet preparation were compiled to compare the data. Data from the proximate analysis showed that protein content in soy protein isolate (SPI) was the highest (95.00%) followed by meat such as mackerel fish (89.09%) and beef (88.60%). Results from feed consumption and total protein consumed showed that the rats fed with mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) products (excluding broiler back) consumed more feed, ranging from 469.2g to 422.3g during the study while the lowest total feed consumed (157.7g) was recorded in the rat fed a diet of fermented palm kernel cake (fPKC). The total protein consumed by rat for diets of fish and fish products such as canned sardine was 62.36g, mackerel 61.76g and anchovy at 58.91g, followed by MDPM products. Tempeh (14.72g) and fPKC diet (16.3g) were among the lowest total protein consumed by the rats. Growth and PER data for rats fed a diet of canned sardine, anchovy and mackerel, as well as mechanically deboned turkey meat (MDTM) and mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) had higher mean body weight (154.80g, 145.20g, 144.81g, 148.7g and 142.5g respectively) compared to rats fed with plant protein diet such as SPI, tempeh and PKC (34.79g, 16.34g and 16.60g respectively) whereas rats fed diets containing fPKC had a mean body weight loss of 24.4g. MDPM showed higher PER value (ranging from 3.01 to 3.34) compared to hamburger group, pure beef and fish group. Tempeh and SPI had lower PER of 1.02 and 1.52 respectively while the lowest PER of 0.50 and -1.50 were shown in PKC and fPKC. The highest digestibility was shown in mackerel (96.99%), followed by canned sardine (96.88%), tempeh (91.41%), meat (90.79%) and pure beef burger (90.04%) while digestibility of PKC and fPKC were much lower (45.70% and 22.60%). Lipid profile of rats fed with palm based fat beef burger showed that palm fat(PF) and red PF did not affect the total cholestrol concentration but resulted in higher high density lipoprotein (HDL)- cholesterol concentration in their blood serum. In summary, the utilization of PF and red PF in beef burger increased the HDL-cholesterol and has no effect on the concentration of total cholesterol in rat blood serum.
The aims of this research were to investigate the present beverage choice preference of school
children and to examine the most preferred type of milk that is available in the market. As well as to determine the effect of personal and environmental factors on children’s intention to consume milk and its comparison between rural and urban area of Selangor. A total of 389 of 5th grade primary school children were selected in this study. This research was supported by social cognitive theory. Multiple linear regression, Pearson productmoment correlation, and cross-tabulation were used for forecasting the factors affecting to consumption of milk. It was found that the preferred beverages of children were: Mineral water, Milo, fruit juice, milk, yoghurt, Ribena, tea and soft drinks and it was the same amongst children in urban and rural areas. Among different types of milk, children preferred flavored milk rather than plain milk. Based on the findings, personal factors were more effective than environmental factors. To increase milk intake among children, marketers need to focus and strengthen the acceptability of milk and increase consumption by altering perception of milk advertisements. This article also profiled the children who are likely to drink milk based on personal and environmental factors in different areas.
Although the Halal concept has not been a major element among non-Muslim consumers living in an Islamic country, whether the non-Muslim consumers are aware of the underlying advantages that come with Halal food products or their viewpoints arising from their religious belief, are some intriguing questions that need to be answered. Thus the objective of the study explore the underlying determinants that are likely to influence non-Muslim consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards Halal concept and Halal food products in Malaysia in lieu of new paradigm in emerging global issues on sustainability, environmental, food safety and animal welfare. A survey was conducted in the Klang Valley where 400 non-Muslim respondents were interviewed via structured questionnaires to gather information on their awareness and attitude towards Halal food products in the Malaysian food market. Descriptive statistic was used to identify the socio-economic/ demographic characteristics and attitudes of the respondents toward the Halal food principles. The logit model
was used to determine the extent to which selected socio-economic/demographic characteristics influenced
the respondents’ attitude and understanding on Halal principles and Halal food products. The results of this
study suggest that non-Muslim consumers are aware of the existence of Halal food, Halal principles and the
advantages of Halal way in slaughtering the animals. This can be shown by their significant awareness that
Halal is not only the way Muslim slaughter their animals but also relates to environmental, sustainability,
animal welfare and food safety. In general, various socio-economic/demographic factors such as education
level, older generation, those who are more religious and the urban dweller seem to more likely to be aware of the advantages of Halal principles.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram negative bacterium and causes gastrointestinal illness in humans. In this study, twenty five out of fifty cockle samples from Padang, Indonesia produced purple colonies when they were grown on selective medium, CHROMagarTM Vibrio. Specific–PCR for toxR gene detection gave positive results in which a band with 368 base pairs size appeared on the gel for all the isolates that confirmed the presence of V. parahaemolyticus. In the virulence properties test, all the isolates showed negative results for tdh and trh genes detection. The results indicate that the isolates under this study do not contain virulence properties that correlate to the ability of infection and diseases, which means that they are nonpathogenic.
The mode of action and activities of guava leaf extracts against various food pathogens were studied. The killing kinetics, viability and cell leakage of Kocuria rhizophila, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, measured after exposure to guava methanolic extracts (GME) revealed a significantly higher (p≤0.05) release of bacterial nucleic acids, K+ ions and protein than that of untreated microbes, indicating disruption of the bacterial membrane. GME caused a significantly higher (p≤0.05) release of RNA in gramnegatives compared to gram-positives. GME caused a relatively small but significant release of pyrines and pyrimidines in all organisms investigated. GME probably disrupted the integrity of the Gram-negative microorganism lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer. Unlike all the other microorganisms tested, E. coli O157:H7, demonstrated the lowest protein leakage, the highest K+ leakage, the highest pyrines and pyrimidines leakage within the first 10 min of extract exposure, but the lowest after 30 minutes, which may indicate their good homeostasis ability or adaptability. Understanding the mode of action of this flavonoid rich guava leaf extract, would help develop it as an alternative biodegradable and safe, antimicrobial for food and medicine, and as a by-product of the guava industry.
Palm pressed fiber (PPF) is a by-product from oil extraction of oil palm fruits. It has unique characteristics resulting from the combination of palm mesocarp fiber, kernel shell and crushed kernel. The present study on different extraction methods for PPF indicated that conventional hexane cold extraction would be the more preferable method compared to soxhlet and reflux method due to the yield recovered (4.35%) and diacylglycerol (19.93% ± 0.07) obtained. Acylglycerol composition using cold extraction gave high Diaclyglycerol and Triacylglycerol (67.04% ± 0.05) with reasonable amount of Monoaclyglycerol / Free Fatty Acid (13.02% ± 0.02). Lauric acid which was not present in crude palm oil were found to be significant in PPF (5.89 to 9.09%), thus making this oil suitable for application in the food industry in products such as shortening and margarine.
This study aims to determine the combined effects of hydrolysis time, temperature, pH and ratio of enzyme to substrate on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of silver catfish frame using Response Surface Methodology. The proximate compositions of silver catfish frame and silver catfish hydrolysate powder were determined as well. The effects of independent factors were described using a three-level factors Face Centered Central Composite design. The suggested hydrolysis conditions for obtaining the optimum DH using Alcalase® were – temperature of 55oC, hydrolysis time of 163 min, pH of substrate at 9.45 and an enzyme concentration of 2.0%. The generated model showed a quadratic fit with experimental data. Proximate analyses revealed that silver catfish frame contained 25.02% protein, 68.21% fat and 7.08% ash. While silver catfish frame hydrolysate powder contained 65.05% protein, 32.92% fat and 0.86% ash. The protein recovery in silver catfish frame hydrolysate was as high as 71.6%.
This study aimed to determine the biofilm formation ability by Salmonella Typhi on cucumber, mango and guava surface, as well as to determine the relationship between time contact and biofilm formation. Crystal violet assay was performed to quantify the biofilm formation based on the value of optical density at 570 nm of the destaining crystal violet at the specific interval time. The result showed that the attachment of the bacterial cells on the fresh produce surface increased with the contact time. The readings of OD570at time 12 h for cucumber, mango and guava surfaces were 0.824, 0.683 and 0.598, respectively, indicating that the biofilm formation by Salmonella Typhi on different fresh produce surface varied with time. Since the result showed that Salmonella Typhi formed biofilm on fresh produce surfaces, hygienic practice from farm to fork including handling, processing, distribution and storage of the fresh produce should be of concern.
The objective of this study is to investigate the demand for quality vegetables in Malaysia. This study estimates quality elasticities from the difference between expenditure and quantity elasticities in order to show the demand for quality vegetables in Malaysia. By using the Household Expenditure Survey 2004/2005, expenditure and quantity Engel equations are estimated via two stage least square. The positive estimated quality elasticities (except root and tuberous vegetable) show that Malaysian consumers tend to increase their demand for quality vegetables in response to their incomes rise. To be more specific, urban consumers are expected to demand more of higher quality vegetables (except root and tuberous vegetable) than rural consumers.
The effects of washing treatments and washing cycles on the thermal gelation properties and quality
characteristics of duckrimi (duck-base surimi-like material) were evaluated. Minced spent layer duck (4.5 mm orifice diameter) were washed by using either tap water, 0.1M NaCl, 0.5% NaHCO3 and 0.04M sodium phosphate in one, two or three washing cycles, respectively. Washing with 0.04M sodium phosphate in three washing cycles significantly increased (P
FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate calibrations, i.e. partial least square (PLS) and principle component regression (PCR) was developed for quantitative analysis of cod liver oil (CLO) in binary mixture with corn oil (CO). The spectra of CLO, CO and their blends with certain concentrations were scanned using horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HATR) accessory at mid infrared (MIR) region of 4,000 – 650 cm-1. The optimal spectral treatments selected for calibration models were based on its ability to provide the highest values of coefficient of determination (R2) and the lowest values of root mean error of calibration (RMSEC). PLS was slightly well suited for quantitative analysis of CLO compared to PCR. FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate calibration offers rapid, no excessive chemical reagent, and easy in operational to be applied for determination of CLO in binary mixture with other oils.
Chicken breast muscle powder (CBMP) was treated as a function of heating temperature, heating time and amount of alkali added. The pre-treated CBMP was then blended with modified waxy corn starch (MWCS) and characterized by flow analysis and temperature sweep. Flow analysis revealed that the blend behaved as a shear thickening and time dependent fluid with a yield stress. Statistical analysis showed that only linear and quadratic effects of heating temperature and heating time caused significant effects on flow behaviour index, consistency index and yield stress (p