This study aims to determine the antioxidant capacities (AC) and antidiabetic properties of
phenolic extracts (free and bound) from white Tambun pomelo peels, kaffir lime peels, lime
peels and calamansi peels. AC, total phenolic content (TPC) and antidiabetic properties of
selected citrus peels extracts were determined spectrophotometrically using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-
picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP),
Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assay, respectively. This
study found that the methanolic extract of kaffir lime showed the best AC with the lowest
IC50 value of DPPH radical (7.51 ± 0.50 mg/ml) and highest FRAP value [369.48 ± 20.15
mM Fe (II) E/g DW]. TPC of free phenolic extracts of all citrus peels were significantly (p<
0.05) higher compared to the bound phenolic extracts with extract of calamansi showed the
highest TPC. Free- and bound phenolic extract of calamansi also had the highest α-amylase
inhibition activity (61.79 ± 4.13%; 45.30 ± 5.35%) respectively. The highest inhibitory effect in
α-glucosidase inhibition assay of free- and bound phenolic extracts were white Tambun pomelo
(41.06 ± 10.94%) and calamansi (43.99 ± 22.03%) respectively. Hence, the citrus peels could
be furthered study for their potential in management and/or prevention of diabetes.
Bee pollen is considered as one of the functional foods due to its complex biochemical
properties. Bee pollen which is collected from pollen grains from various botanical sources
contains almost a complete nutrition such as carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, vitamins
and minerals. Its beneficial effect on health is thought to be due to the presence of phenolic
compounds with its antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activities of ethanolic bee pollen extract
(BPE) from three species of Malaysian stingless bee; Trigona thoracica, Trigona itama and
Trigona apicalis in this study were measured using DPPH-HPLC method and gallic acid (GA)
as a standard reference. The percentage of DPPH inhibition by T. apicalis BPE at 1 mg/mL
showed the highest inhibition (39%, GA equivalent to 0.3 mg/mL) compared with T. itama
(14.3%, GA equivalent to 0.1 mg/mL) and T. thoracica (6.7%, GA equivalent to 0.05 mg/mL).
Our result was the first in reporting antioxidant activity of BPE measured using DPPH-HPLC
method from three different species of Malaysian stingless bee.
The present study aims to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis condition and determine the
functional properties of eel (Monopterus albus) protein hydrolysate (EPH) at different
hydrolysate concentrations (0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%). The enzymatic hydrolysis (using alcalase)
condition; namely, temperature (°C), enzyme to substrate concentration (%) and pH on both
the yield and degree of hydrolysis (DH), as responses, was optimized using the response
surface methodology (RSM) by employing three factors, 3-level, Central Composite Design
(CCD). The optimum hydrolysis condition suggested was a temperature of 55.76 °C, enzyme
concentration of 1.80% and pH of 9. The experimental result for yield (9.45%) was higher while
the experimental result for DH (15.01%) was lower than the predicted values of the responses
using the quadratic model, which were 5.67% and 16.73%, respectively. The findings for the
functional properties showed that the Nitrogen Solubility Index (NSI) of EPH was 85%. The
emulsion stability index (ESI) of EPH was shown to decrease with the increase hydrolysate
concentration (0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%) while the foam expansion of EPH showed an increase with
the increase in concentration. High solubility and the ability of EPH to emulsify and form foam
show its potential for use as a natural binding and emulsifying agent.
Nowadays, the incidence rate of foodborne disease has increased and become one of the global burdens affecting all individual ages in South East Asia region. Foodborne disease is responsible for mortality and morbidity worldwide thus affecting socio-economic and quality of life. Major causes of foodborne hazards diseases include diarrheal and invasive infectious disease agent, helminthes and chemicals. However, in developing countries, data and record is insufficient with poor surveillance systems leading to incomplete information on the real burden of foodborne disease. The introduction of Actor Network Theory (ANT) as tools for assessing and analyzing the food safety issues has drawn attention from various researcher as it is proven to be able to point out and identify the human and non human actors which is directly and contingently involved. The interaction between the actors such as a worker in an organization, student in school, and peoples in public provide information that can be used to minimize the risk of foodborne disease. The ultimate use of ANT is it helps the researcher to draw a framework of the source of contamination, agent responsible, factors involved, and idea to control the spread.
Piper nigrum, commonly known as black pepper, is one of the most important spice crops
with high demand by the world market. However, diseases like foot rot and stem blight
cause by Phytophthora capsici have become the important production constraints in black
pepper industry. The frequent application of toxic fungicides to counter the diseases in pepper
plantations has raised certain environmental issues. In order to mitigate the use of fungicides,
biological approach to control P. capsici has been suggested. In this study, endophytic bacteria
were isolated from six P. nigrum roots and screened for in vitro antagonistic activity against P.
capsici through dual culture, mycelial growth, spore germination and double plate assay. The
antagonism testing involved the secretion of volatile and diffusible bioactive compounds by
the endophytic bacteria. Out of 19 isolates tested, two isolates DB(2)7 and SB(2)6 produced
volatile bioactive compounds and these two isolates showed highest antagonism against P.
capsici mycelia with the percentage of inhibition up to 47.63% and 43.33%, respectively.
Diffusible compounds from isolates DB(2)7, DB(2)9 and SB(2)6 produced clear zones in spore
germination test with radii measurements of 10.0-17.0 mm. Three isolates with promising
antifungal activity were further characterised through 16S rDNA sequencing. The analysis
of their sequences via National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) suggests close
identity towards Enterobacter cancerogenus, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter asburiae.
This research study demonstrated that these endophytic bacteria isolates are potentially to be
used as biocontrol agent in pepper cultivation.
This study evaluated the effects of Averrhoa bilimbi juice extract and storage temperature
on lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage of spent chicken meat. Ten, 80 weeks old spent
chickens were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h at 4oC. Thereafter, the Pectoralis
major muscles and right thighs were excised and marinated in either A. bilimbi juice extract,
pure distilled water, or no marination (control) for either 4 or 9 h at room temperature or 9 or 24
h at 4°C. Lipid oxidation was monitored on the Pectoralis major muscles while the right thighs
were assessed for Enterobacteriacea counts. Lipid oxidation was not significantly affected
by the type or duration of marination. Marination showed a temperature dependent effect on
Enterobacteriacea counts. At room temperature, samples that were marinated by distilled water
showed significantly higher Enterobacteriacea counts than the control while those that were
marinated with A. bilimbi juice extract showed no growth at both 4 and 9 h of marination. At
chilled temperature, marination had no significant effects on the growth of Enterobacteriacea
during the 9 or 24 h storage. These results indicated that A. bilimbi juice extract marinade has
some antibacterial activities but works better when combined with refrigerated storage.
Marine fungi are potential source of bioactive compounds as indicated by the increasing statistic
of research findings. However similar research in Malaysia is still lacking. Hence, this study
is undertaken to determine the antibacterial activity of four marine fungal isolates (PR1T4,
PP2L4, PR3T13 and PR5T4) from Pulau Redang and Pulau Payar Marine Parks, Malaysia
against Salmonella Typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia
coli. Fungal isolates were first macroscopically and microscopically characterized and later
molecularly identified as Penicillium citrinum, Sacroladium strictum, Aspergillus sydowii and
Aspergillus sp. respectively. Solid and broth fermentation of fungi were carried out to produce
crude extracts and these extracts were screened for antibacterial activity. In general, solid
fermentation extracts (SFE) showed significantly higher antibacterial activity (p
Bahulu, a popular traditional food in Malaysia is produced mainly by the Small and Medium
Entrepreneurs (SMEs) who are often micro in size and function as both producers and sellers
of the food in the marketplace. A problem usually faced by these enterprises is on matching
their bahulu offer with consumers’ preferences that eventually will lead to loss of sales volume,
loss of customers and stunted business growth. This study attempts to find out how consumers
evaluate bahulu using various aspects of the food product offer. A survey on 671 consumers
from three different states in Malaysia (Penang, Perlis and Kedah) revealed that consumers
in general prioritize the product aspect more than on how it is packaged, priced and branded.
Overall, halal (label) is the most critical component expected by consumers, followed by
its color and softness (product), and manufacturer’s address (label). Interestingly, branding,
packaging and health aspect of the food were amongst the lowest ranked by consumers for this
product. Some similarities and slight differences in how each consumer group evaluates the
bahulu components were also found. The findings provide some insights for the bahulu micro
entrepreneurs (BMEs) on what to focus on when marketing the food.
The aim of this study is to examine the consistency between the Balassa index and Vollrath
indices in measuring comparative advantages of the Malaysian shrimp products with other
major shrimp exporting nations as comparator. The study uses Balassa index and Vollrath
indices to measure comparative advantages of the Malaysian shrimp products. The indices then
are compared by consistency tests. Malaysia was generally not competitive in shrimp trade;
however, revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and relative export advantage (RXA) indices
show some extent of competitiveness on non-frozen shrimp product. Thailand had a remarkable
competitiveness in shrimp trade as compared to other major exporting countries. Although we
found that double-counting problem in the Balassa index is insignificant in measuring export
performance of the Malaysian shrimp sector, import could be an important variable in accessing
its trade competitiveness. Marginal import of a sector may lead to relative trade advantage (RTA)
index consistent with RCA and RXA indices. Considering exports and imports of a particular
commodity in measuring competitiveness is more consistent with the real world phenomenon
of two-way trade. Selecting measurement of comparative advantage should rigorously base
on trade behaviour of a sector as well as theoretical constructs. The competitiveness of the
Malaysian shrimp products remains unclear due to the lack of contemporary analyses backed
by formal testing procedures. The results and policy implications of this study provide
stakeholders insights into comparative advantage as well as trade position of the products.
Better measurement for revealed comparative advantage, particularly for shrimp products, is
discussed in this paper.
This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from
human and environmental surfaces in a research laboratory. A total of 320 samples from nostril
(n=80), hand (n=80), door knob (n=80) and table surface (n=80) were collected for 16 weeks,
before and after work. A total number of 256 samples were found positive for Staphylococcus
aureus. Out of 80 randomly selected isolates, 50 (62.5%) isolates were resistant to methicillin
(MRSA). Hence, the precautionary measures should be taken on self and environmental
hygiene as MRSA may be transferred from humans and environmental surfaces.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic Gram-negative bacterium that is considered among
gastrointestinal pathogens. Thirty isolates were tested for their susceptibility using 14 different
antibiotics. One V. parahaemolyticus isolate was resistant to 10 antibiotics (cefotaxime,
ceftazidime, tetracycline, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, ampicillin,
amoxicillin-calv-acid, and cefepime). The V. parahaemolyticus isolates were resistant to
ampicillin (90%), amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (63.3%), cefotaxime (60%), ceftazidime (46.7%),
cefepime (50%), tetracycline (36.6%), and amikacin (26.7%). However, the isolates were highly
susceptible to imipenem (100%), and piperacillin and gentamicin (96.7%). Approximately
55% of the isolates showed a multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of >0.2, thereby
indicating the high risk of sources where these isolates originated. The occurrence of MAR
asserted the importance of determining drug susceptibility and monitoring the antimicrobial
resistance profile to improve and ensure food safety and public health.
The halal food production industry is gaining greater attention among Muslim and non-Muslim
majority countries, particularly due to the increase of global market demand. One of the critical
areas in issuing halal certified food is the determination of allowable alcohol content in food
and drinks. The level of alcohol content has not standardized in several standards and fatwa of
Islamic scholars. In Islam, the alcohol in several fruit products is produced through fermentation
process such as takhammur (wine making) and takhallul (vinegar making). The fermentation
process gives an impact to the status of the food products either permissible or prohibited.
Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss on the determination of permissible alcohol
and vinegar by fermentation process content in selected food products from Shariah and science
perspectives. In doing so, the views of authentic of Islamic Law in this issue are supported by
lab work approached. As a result, in the first phase there are three types of by products from
takhammur, while two types of takhallul. All the products can be determine of the alcohol
content and give an implication of the status either permissible (halal) or prohibited (haram).
Hence, in juice considered as halal due to lower of alcohol content. While cider or alcoholic
beverage is haram due to above alcohol level permitted which is above of the 1%. Besides,
cider vinegar or vinegar is halal by the interpretation of hadith of permissible conversion from
alcoholic to vinegar itself.
Sheanut (Butyrospernum paradoxum) is an oil rich tropical tree crop, which is indigenous to
the West African savannah zone. In Nigeria, most of the sheanuts shelling are done manually
by rural women and children, which is labour demanding and tedious. This research work
was carried out to determine some physical and mechanical properties of sheanut in order
to minimize economic losses associated with its processing. The mean values recorded
for the physical properties at 25% moisture content (wb) are; major diameter (29.20 mm),
intermediate diameter (21.90 mm), minor diameter (15.00 mm), geometric mean diameter
(21.90 mm), arithmetic mean diameter (21.20 mm), angle of repose (30.280). The mean
values for the mechanical properties are; linear limit force (0.80 kN), linear limit deformation
(4.60 mm), bioyield point force (1.40 kN), bioyield point deformation (6.50 mm), rupture
point force (2.10 kN) and rupture point deformation (9.60 mm). Based on the physical and
mechanical properties, a sheanut shelling machine was developed that is capable of addressing
the aforementioned problems. Putting into consideration better shelling and efficient separation
of shea nuts so as to encourage more utilization and processing of shea nuts and its products.
The machine was designed to be powered by 5 hp electric motor. It was tested to shell, separate
and clean sheanuts. The result of the performance evaluation showed that the machine had
shelling efficiency of 96%; cleaning efficiency of the machine was 69.56% while the recovery
efficiency was 82.7%. The successful development of this machine will reduce drudgery and
time taken associated with the traditional method of sheanut shelling and therefore will increase
productivity and utilization.
Thermal imaging is widely utilized in agricultural applications such as examining plant
physiology, yield prediction, irrigation scheduling, bruises and pathogen determination in
fruits and vegetables. There is a need for a cost effective thermal device for this wide range
of applications. In this study, a low-cost prototype thermal device was used to measure the
temperature of FFBs at three maturity levels, that are under-ripe, ripe and over-ripe. The
experiment was repeated using a commercial thermal camera. Then, the mean temperature
obtained from both the prototype and commercial thermal sensors was compared. Our results
showed the prototype thermal device is capable of estimating the mean temperature of oil palm
FFBs with the values analogous to the mean temperature from commercial thermal camera
with R2 = 0.71.
Nanotechnology contribute to significant impacts in every way in our daily life. Recently,
the application of nanotechnology in biosensors has been a trend in developing a highly
sensitive, selective, quick response, inexpensive, high volume production, great reliability
and miniaturized sensors. High demands on the production of rapid sensors for food safety
and quality control purposes are increasingly become the interest for researchers all over the
world. This is because, in food sector, the quality of a certain product is based on their periodic
chemical and microbilogical analysis. The uses of nanomaterials in biosensors are very
promising because they mediate current flow. Surface modification of the electrode based on
various nanomaterials including nanoparticle, nanofiber, nanowire and nanotube significantly
increase the performance of the biosensor. Ultimately, this implementation will enhance the
sensor’s sensitivity and stability. This review explores the previous research and development
work on nanomaterials-based sensors for food applications.
The effect of microwave heating and conventional heating towards the physicochemical and
functional properties of corn and rice flour with 30% moisture content in water suspension at
temperature of 50°C and 60°C were investigated. Conventional heat treatment was carried out
at 50°C and 60°C respectively by direct heating the moisture treated flour. Microwave heating
treatment was carried out by using domestic microwave oven at 50°C and 60°C respectively.
The amylose content, particle size diameter, and gelatinization temperature are increasing in
microwave and conventional heat treated corn and rice flour. Decreasing of pasting temperature,
swelling power and solubility of all the heat-treated starches compared to control were detected.
X-ray diffraction pattern of all control and heat treated corn and rice flour exhibit typical A-type
pattern. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has revealed the heat treated corn and rice flour
showed rougher surface, porous granules and rupture granules. There are no significance effect
of temperature differences on corn and rice flour carried out at 50°C and 60°C. Evidently,
microwave heating was effective to alter the physicochemical and functional properties of corn
and rice flour.
Gelatin is one of the most widely used food ingredients, with wide applications in the food
industry. It was reported that 41% of the gelatin produced in the world is sourced from pig
skin, 28.5% from bovine hides and 29.5% from bovine bones. However, factors such as the
outbreak of BSE (a.k.a. mad cow disease) and increasing demand for non-mammalian gelatin
for halal and kosher food markets have revived interest in gelatin replacers from plant sources.
In this study, we have successfully extracted valuable pectin—as gelatin replacer--from various
types of plant wastes. Pectin is a high value functional food ingredient widely used as a gelling
agent and stabilizer. It is also an abundant, ubiquitous and multifunctional component of the
cell walls of all land plants. Mango peel was screened as the ideal source for high-yield (36.6%)
pectin of satisfactory quality. The results indicate that citric acid was the best solution for
recovery of pectin from mango peels. An extraction temperature of 90°C and pH 2 provided
the optimum conditions for maximum yield of pectin. The resulting crude mango peel pectin
(CMPP) was analyzed for physicochemical parameters. The results indicated values for ash
content (0.0412%), moisture content (0.303%), viscosity (45.18%), galacturonic acid content
(36.8-37.2-40%) and degree of esterification (38.3-41%). Following analysis of its gelling
properties and sensory evaluation, CMPP has good potential to be applied in the food industry
as a low-methoxyl pectin and a cheap source of gelatin replacer for jam preparations.
Meat quality is always subject to consumer scrutiny when purchasing from retail markets on
mislabeling as fresh meat. Repeated cycles of ‘freeze-thaw’ degrade the quality of meat. Existing
studies have primarily embarked on physical, chemical and biochemical changes induced by
variable storage conditions. The authentication of fresh versus thawed meat quality can be
further explored with the data involving a series of biochemical pathways that were largely
well-studied in living muscle tissues. However, these pathways are less predictable in postslaughter
condition where muscle turns to meat. In addition, there is far less known about how
various management or environmental stimuli impact these pathways, either by substrate load
or altered cellular environment during storage. Though the rate of post-slaughter metabolism
is quite important in driving meat quality development, it is also fairly well established.
Alternatively, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the cessation of postmortem
metabolism, or protracted carbohydrate metabolism are particularly puzzling. Likewise,
there is little information about the relationship between volatility profiles of biomolecules
with regards to functional groups, enzymatic activity, protein solubility and protein surface
properties in meat during storage. The studies of these changes could be used to distinguish
between fresh and thawed meat.
Pulsed light (PL) treatment is a non-thermal method for microbial decontamination on the
surfaces of fresh-cut produce. The effect of pulsed light fluencies on microbiological stability
and quality changes of fresh-cut yardlong beans were determined. Pulsed light treatments were
carried out using an automatic laboratory flash lamp system (Steribeam XeMaticA-2L Kehl,
Germany) at different fluencies (1.8 J/cm2, 5.4 J/cm2, 9.0 J/cm2 and 12.6 J/cm2). Microbiological
quality (colour changes and textural changes) of fresh-cut yardlong beans stored at 4±1°C were
monitored over 14 days. Results show that, the application of PL treatment at high fluencies
allowed extension of microbiological shelf life up to 3-7 days in comparison to untreated
samples. Apart from that, PL treated sample has no significant difference on the texture and
colour as compared to untreated sample of fresh-cut yardlong bean. As a conclusion, the
application of PL at dose 9.0 J/cm2 has increased the shelf life of fresh-cut yardlong bean while
maintaining the quality when stored at 4±1°C.
Palm olein has been commercially used as frying medium in batch deep-fat frying. During
frying, the oil usually deteriorates due to the exposure to high temperature. In this study, a
fluorescence spectroscopy technique was applied to monitor the deterioration of refined,
bleached, and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO) in batch deep-fat frying. 22.5 kg of French fries
were used as the frying material. In 30 batches, the french fries were intermittently fried at 185
± 5°C for eight hours a day over five consecutive days capturing 40 hours. The fluorescence
intensity of the RBDPO was recorded with excitation at 390 nm and resulting emission of 465
nm. The fluorescence intensity of the RBDPO over five days of frying decreased considering
the wavelength range of emission 430-640 nm and excitation 360-430 nm. The decreased in
intensity of fluorescence emission and excitation spectra were inversely correlated with the FFA
content of the oil samples. This study demonstrates the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy
in monitoring the deterioration of RBDPO during batch deep-fat frying.