Fifty-nine isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (S. enterica) isolated from indigenous vegetables, ‘selom’ (Oenanthe stolonifera) associated with 13 different serovars were obtained from Chemistry Department of Malaysia. The isolates encompass the common serovar, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden (S. Weltevreden) (39%) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Agona (S. Agona) (8.5%). Frequencies of the other 11 Salmonella serovars were ranged from 1.7% to 5.1%. All isolates were characterized by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), plasmid profiling and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The results demonstrated ERIC-PCR, RAPD and composite analysis of both are suitable typing methods for S. enterica by demonstrating good discriminative ability and can be utilize as a rapid approach of comparing S. enterica isolates for epidemiological investigation. From this study, ERIC-PCR is exhibited lower discriminatory power when compare with RAPD. On the other hand, plasmid profiles yielded 32 profiles with molecular size ranging from 1129 bp to 17911 bp. Thirteen antimicrobial agents were included in this study and all isolates showed 100% (59/59) resistant to erythromycin and showed Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance (MAR) indexes ranging from 0.08 to 0.68. Dendrogram generated from antimicrobial resistance profiling exhibited poor discriminatory capability at serovar level. Although poultry still remain as the common reservoir for multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella. The isolation of 13 Salmonella serovars from selom that showed high MDR in this study is alarming. These results supported the notion that indigenous vegetable (selom) are gaining more antimicrobial resistance and could be potential health hazards.
Sensory attributes of four different palm sugars were related to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis using partial least squares regression (PLS). The sweet caramel and burnt-like sensory attributes were strongly associated with 2-furfural and 2-furan methanol volatile compounds. The sensory scores for roasty and nutty were also associated with the GC/MS ratings for roasty and nutty-like aroma by its highest scores obtained from 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine, 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine and 2,3-dimethyl pyrazine volatile compounds along the PC1 dimension. PLS analysis did not show correlation for the character impact compound furaneol, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl pyrazine (EDMP) and 2,3-diethyl-5-methyl pyrazine (DEMP), which are perceived to be responsible for the sweet caramel-like and roasty/nutty attributes of palm sugars, respectively. This lack of relationship could partially be explained by covariance among the sensory ratings for the samples.
A total of 78 samples comprising different types of street foods, sold in different locations in Malaysia, were examined for the presence of Enterobacter cloacae. E. cloacae contamination was recorded in 9% of the samples examined. Tests for susceptibility to 12 different antibiotics showed that all were resistant to six or more antibiotics, but susceptible to chloramphenicol and gentamicin. Plasmids of four different sizes were detected from the three plasmid positive isolates. RAPD analysis using four primers yielded completely different banding patterns for all E. cloacae studied. In Malaysia, no published information on street foods in the epidemiological investigation of E.cloacae related disease is available. However, their occurrences have provided compelling evidence that the risk of disease transmission caused by E. cloacae through street foods is moderate.
The level of total lipid and oryzanol content, an important antioxidant compound in locally produced bran was investigated. Total lipid in rice bran was extracted using 3:2 chloroform:methanol mixture yielding 16.4% fat. Oryzanol content was determined without saponification using a reverse-phase HPLC. Four fractions of oryzanol were successfully separated and quantitated. The 4 isomers were cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campestryl ferulate and mixtures of β–sitosteryl ferulate and cycloartanyl ferulate. The oryzanol content of local mixed varieties ranged from 23.7–43.0 mg g-1. The oryzanol concentration may depend on factors such as plant varieties, processing methods employed, extracting solvent used and ratio of extracting solvent to bran as well as extracting solvent temperatures. This study showed the potential of oryzanol extract from rice bran as a source of antioxidant.
Antibiotic resistance in campylobacter is an emerging global public health problem after MRSA and VRE. Fluoroquinolone and macrolide resistance have been found to be more common in this world leading foodborne pathogen. A total of fifty-six isolates of Campylobacter jejuni obtained from raw vegetables
which are consumed as ulam (salad) in Malaysia, were tested with 12 antibiotics used clinically and
agriculturally. The resistance was determined using the disk diffusion method. Results were determined
by hierarchic numerical methods to cluster strains and antibiotics according to similarity profiles. Fifty
five C. jejuni isolates from different isolation sites were all clustered together into ten groups. This indicates that the commodities (raw salad vegetables/ulam) where the isolates originated might share a similar source of cross-contamination along the production route. All antibiotics tested correlated and there were four groupings reflecting their mode of actions. Generally, C. jejuni isolates were found to be highly resistant to erythromycin (91.1%) and tetracycline (85.7%). Both agents are popular antibiotics used clinically to treat bacterial infections. On the other hand, the C. jejuni isolates showed high percentage (80.4%) of resistance towards enrofloxacin, an extensively used antimicrobial agent in agriculture practices. This study showed that C. jejuni isolates were highly multi-resistance to as many as 10 antibiotics. Therefore, in terms of biosafety, the presence of antibiotic resistance strains in the food chain has raised concerns that the treatment of human infections will be compromised.
Evaluation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of wheat flour doughnuts substituted with banana flour (BF) was investigated. Wheat flour was substituted with green banana (Musa paradisiaca var. Awak) flour at 0% (control), 10%, 20% and 30% levels in yeast-raised doughnut prepared by the straight dough method. Chemical (moisture, fat, protein, ash, carbohydrate, crude fibre, total dietary fibre and caloric content), physical (volume, specific volume and colour) and sensory evaluation were conducted on all samples. Chemical analyses result indicated a higher percentage of total dietary fibre and caloric content in doughnut substituted with BF than the control. Colour evaluation showed that the dough, crust and crumb of doughnut with BF ranged from 68.97 ± 0.59 – 84.78 ± 0.16 (red – yellow quadrant). The change from light to darker colour correlated with the amount of BF added. Results also showed that the volume and specific volume was significantly affected (p < 0.05) by levels of BF substituted. Doughnut substituted with 20% BF showed the highest score in overall acceptability (6.71 ± 1.40).
In this study, acid-thinned starch was blended with konjac glucomannan or psyllium husk powder at a concentration of 3% w/w (starch basis). The blends were characterized by pasting analysis and rheological
properties evaluation. Jelly candy was made from the blends and textural characteristics were studied. Pasting analysis showed that both gums were found to significantly increase some of the pasting parameters, such as peak viscosity, trough, breakdown, final viscosity and setback values. From the frequency sweep, it was found that addition of konjac glucomanan or psyllium husk powder increased the storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G’’) values, with psyllium added sample showing more prominent effect than konjac added ones, when compared to the control samples. All samples were found to demonstrate thixotropic flow behaviour. Jelly candy texture profile analysis revealed that konjac glucomannan or psyllium husk powder addition, although decreasing chewability, but rendered the jelly candy less sticky.
Pitaya peel (Hylocereus polyrhizus), which consists approximately 22% of the whole fruit weight, is discarded during processing. Physico-chemical properties of the discarded pitaya peel were determined in
order to evaluate its potential for recovery of any value-added materials. The moisture content of the peel was approximately 92.7% and it was low in total soluble solids, protein, ash and fat content. Betacyanin pigment (150.46 ± 2.19 mg/100 g) and pectin (10.8%) were high in the peel. Glucose, maltose and fructose were detected in the peel but not sucrose and galactose. The peel also had very high insoluble and soluble dietary fibre which had exhibited a good ratio of insoluble dietary fibre to soluble dietary fibre (3.8: 1.0).
This study was aimed at improving the quality of fish oil. A synthetic filter aid (Magnesol XL) was used at various concentration (1, 3 and 5%) and time levels (5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes) to adsorb the polar compound products of the oil. Some physical and chemical properties (viscosity, colour, density, acid value, peroxide value and free fatty acid) of the treated oil were determined. Results indicate that Magnesol XL at 1 and 3% levels significantly reduced the acid value, peroxide value and free fatty acid contents of the treated oil.
Treatment of the fish oil with Magnesol XL at 1 and 3% levels was also better than treatment with 5% Magnesol XL on improving the fish oil quality. The fatty acid profile for Σ n3 at untreated and treatment adsorbent showed significant at 0.05 level but not significant at Magnesol XL adsorbent concentration 1-5%.
Physical properties of ripe banana flour were studied in Cavendish and Dream banana, in order to distinguish the two varieties. Flour was analyzed for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), water holding capacity
(WHC) and oil holding capacity (OHC) at 40, 60 and 80 °C, color values L*, a* and b*, back extrusion force
and viscosity. Physical properties data were analyzed by cluster analysis (CA) and discriminant analysis (DA). CA showed that the two types of flour were different in terms of selected physical properties. DA indicated that WHC at 60 °C was the main contributor in discriminating the two types of flour.
The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied to determine the effects of ethanol concentration (%), extraction temperature (oC), and extraction time (min) on total phenolic content (TPC) from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels. The independent variables were coded at five levels and their actual values were selected based on the results of single factor experiments. Results showed that ethanol concentration was the most significant (p
Salmonella enterica is one of the major causes of bacterial foodborne infection. The aims of this study were to determine the antibiotic resistance and the genetic diversity of Salmonella enterica isolated from street foods and clinical samples and to understand the correlation between the prevalence of serovars and genotypes with their source (street food and clinical samples) and geographic origin (Negeri Sembilan, Malacca and Selangor in Peninsular Malaysia). The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR analysis distinguished the Salmonella isolates into 19 ERIC types, with one untypable isolate. Dendrograms were specifically constructed for the S. Biafra and S. Typhi isolates. Identical or very similar ERIC types among the S. Biafra isolates from street food samples indicate transmission of the S. Biafra among the street foods, as well as possible cross-contamination of the street foods. In addition, the identical or very similar ERIC types among the S. Typhi isolates from human samples examined suggest possible similarity in their source of infection. All the twenty four isolates were resistant to rifampin and none were resistant to cefuroxime. Most isolates displayed multiple resistances. Dendrogram of antibiotic resistances produced six clusters, with similarity levels between 18.8% and 100%. Generally, street food and clinical isolates tend to cluster apart. Dendrogram to cluster the antibiotic groups showed that they could be grouped according to classes based on mode of inhibition. The findings suggest that street food contaminated with drug-resistant Salmonella enterica can be an important factor in the continuous emergence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica.
The fatty acid composition and trans fatty acids (TFA) contents of samples of five Malaysian cream crackers biscuit brands were determined by gas-liquid chromatography, using a 60 m Supelco SP2340 fused silica capillary column and flame ionization detection. The identities of the fatty acids were established by comparing their retention times with authentic standards from Supelco. The results were expressed as relative percentages. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the samples ranged from 48.90% to 54.87% of total fatty acids. As for the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the total PUFA in the samples ranged from 9.97% to 11.73% of total fatty acids. Total trans fatty acids (TFA) ranged from 0.17% to 0.77% of total fatty acids. The monotrans 18:2 tc or 18:2 ct isomer content ranged from 0.07% to 0.10% of total fatty acids and the ditrans 18:2 isomer (9t, 12t) was not detected. The results indicate that all the fat sources of the 5 sample crackers biscuit brands were palm oil based.
Microbiological quality analysis of freshwater prawns from three sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia viz: Site 1- Kg. Jumbang, Negri Sembilan; Site 2- Kg. Cangkat Tin, Perak and Site 3- Kg. Cenderiang, Perak for total mesophilic and psychrophilic aerobic counts, proteolytic bacterial counts, histamine producing bacteria, cadaverine producing bacteria and putrescine producing bacteria in the prawns and pond water for the three sites showed that the microbiological quality of freshwater prawns is related to the microflora of pond water in which they were grown. The initial bacterial counts indicated the values were in the range of log 4+ CFU/g for all samples. Total mesophilic and psychrophilic counts of the head regions were higher than that of the body regions for all prawn samples and types of growth media tested. All samples showed an increase in counts with time and temperature of storage up to log 7+ CFU/g for mesophilic counts after 12 hours at ambient, 6 days at 10 ± 2°C and 12 days at iced storage. The samples from Site 2 had relatively higher counts compared to the other two sites which correlated well with the levels determined in the pond water. Similar trends were observed for psychrophilic counts but at lower values for the different types of media studied.
Effects of preservatives on quality changes and shelf life of shrimp during iced storage indicated that boric acid, lactic acid and sodium metabisulphite managed to inhibit psychrophilic bacteria and biogenic amines formation in prawns while maintaining the mesophilic counts at lower levels during iced storage.
Xylitol is a high value sugar alcohol with anticariogenic properties that is used as an ideal sweetener for diabetic patients. Industrially, xylitol is manufactured by catalytic reduction of pure xylose, which has
some disadvantages. The fermentation process has been studied as an alternative, but its viability is dependent on the optimization of several variables. This fermentation process on an industrial-scale is not feasible due to decreased productivity. Compared to the fermentation process, enzymatic method is expected to make a substantial increase in productivity. Enzymatic xylitol production from xylose exist in lignocellulosics is an attractive and promising alternative method to the chemical process. The enzymatic method might be able to overcome the disadvantages of the chemical process. This article reviews the literature on the processes for xylitol production and identifies further ways for improved xylitol production to compete with the current chemical process.
The main source of E. coli 0157:H7 is cattle, but recent studies showed high percentage of outbreaks
contributed by contaminated water. The occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 in environmental water samples poses a potential threat to human health. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol for the detection of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli virulence genes (eaeA, rfbE, hly, stx1, and stx2) in a multiplex PCR protocol using six specific primer pairs. The target genes produced species-specific amplicons at 625 bp, 397 bp, 296 bp, 166 bp, 210 bp and 484 bp for E. coli O157:H7 (fliCh7 gene) and virulence genes (eaeA, rfbE, hly, stx1, and stx2) respectively. The results obtained show that the established PCR protocol is suitable for a rapid and specific analysis of the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 in environmental water samples for the assessment of microbiological risks.
This study was undertaken to characterize the antibiotic resistance and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from raw vegetable samples. A total of 46 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus recovered from raw vegetables samples and were confirmed by PCR were analyzed in this study. Most of the isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (93.48%) and were the least resistant towards imipinem (4.35%). The MAR index results also demonstrated high individual and multiple resistances to antibiotics among the isolates. From the RAPD analysis, the size for RAPD fragments generated ranged from 250 bp to 1,500 bp, with most of the strains contained three major gene fragments of 350, 1,000 and 1,350 bp. The RAPD profiles revealed a high level of DNA sequence diversity within the isolates. Antibiotic resistance and RAPD proved to be effective tools in characterizing and differentiating the V. parahaemolyticus strains.
Endotoxins (chemically known as Lipopolysaccharide) from gram-negative microorganisms initiates clot formation in blood when it is accidentally encountered by horseshoe crab blood stream. This property was extensively studied by various researchers as a result Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test was established. The LAL tests in general, 3 to 300 times more sensitive than the United States Pharmacopeial (USP) rabbit pyrogen test method. It is apparent that major differences among the LAL preparations lie in the area of sensitivity. Differences, up to 100-fold, exist in the sensitivity of the various LAL preparations to the same endotoxin. Based on the above perspective, a portable Kit (Endo sensor) was developed to detect the presence of bacterial endotoxin in liquid biological samples using Tachypleus Amebocyte Lysate (TAL) as a source. Sensitivity of the Kit was determined using various concentrations of prepared endotoxin standards and pyrogen free water samples. It was observed that Endo sensor could detect up to nano gram level of endotoxin in liquid biological samples which could be expressed in (EU/ml) and the labeled sensitivity of the lysated product was 0.125 EU/ml. The gel clotting principle method was utilized for the detection of bacterial endotoxin in liquid biological samples.
Media components such as wheat flour, MgSO4 and particle size were screened by Placket Burman design (PBD) while the operating range was fixed by one-factor-at-a-time method (OFAT), primarily for the enrichment of cassava peels as animal feed. Optimization of the selected media components was carried out using Face–Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD) of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the responses were measured in term of protein and lignin contents. Statistical analysis of the result showed that the quadratic term of wheat flour and the interaction between wheat flour and particle size were highly significant (P
This study investigated the protein quality of two sets of Roselle seeds processed differently (dried and boiled). Twenty weanling Sprague Dawley rats were used to conduct the growth and nitrogen balance studies. Rats were fed with 10% (w/w) protein from dried (DS) and boiled (BS) Roselle seeds powder for 4 weeks. Casein was used in this study as a standard reference protein. There was a significantly higher (p < 0.05) food intake and weight gain by rats fed with BS compared with DS. In the growth study, there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) of BS compared to DS, but it was significantly different with casein (CD). PER value of rats fed with DS was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than casein. In the nitrogen balance study, true nitrogen absorption (TNA) and nitrogen balance (NB) of BS group was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than DS group. However, apparent digestibility (AD), true digestibility (TD) and biological value (BV) for both diets was not significantly different. This study showed that the protein quality of dried Roselle seeds was similar to the Roselle seeds boiled at 100oC for 30 minutes.