Nowadays, the incidence rate of foodborne disease has increased and become one of the global burdens affecting all individual ages in South East Asia region. Foodborne disease is responsible for mortality and morbidity worldwide thus affecting socio-economic and quality of life. Major causes of foodborne hazards diseases include diarrheal and invasive infectious disease agent, helminthes and chemicals. However, in developing countries, data and record is insufficient with poor surveillance systems leading to incomplete information on the real burden of foodborne disease. The introduction of Actor Network Theory (ANT) as tools for assessing and analyzing the food safety issues has drawn attention from various researcher as it is proven to be able to point out and identify the human and non human actors which is directly and contingently involved. The interaction between the actors such as a worker in an organization, student in school, and peoples in public provide information that can be used to minimize the risk of foodborne disease. The ultimate use of ANT is it helps the researcher to draw a framework of the source of contamination, agent responsible, factors involved, and idea to control the spread.
Quality degradation is normally judge by monitoring independently the loss of a certain quality
attribute during storage. However, the rate of degradation for each of the quality attributes
present in a food product is not the same. This study focus on deterioration of vitamin C,
lycopene, total phenolics and antioxidant activity of ready-to-drink pink guava juice (PGJ)
during storage at elevated temperatures. Kinetic order, rate constant (k), activation energy
(Ea) and temperature coefficient (Q10) of the degradation were derived by applying Arrhenius
equation. The results obtained showed that freshly made PGJ contain 39.79±2.18 mg/100 mL
of vitamin C, 3.17±0.27 mg/L of lycopene, 28.08±4.11 mgGAE/100 mL of total phenolic
content (TPC) and 13.20±1.91 mMTE/100 mL of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP).
All quality attributes measured in this study showed zero-order kinetic reaction. The results
also showed that FRAP has the highest Ea of 49.52 KJ/mol and Q10 of 1.80, followed by
vitamin C (Ea=41.49 KJ/mol; Q10=1.64), lycopene (Ea=31.75 KJ/mol; Q10=1.46), and lastly
TPC (Ea=14.11 KJ/mol; Q10=1.18). The predicted total depletion of each quality attribute
at refrigerated storage (5o
C) were 266 days for antioxidant activity, 158 days for vitamin C
and lycopene, and 63 days for total phenolics. This study provide useful information on the
degradation rate and availability of health beneficial and bioactive compounds present in fruit
juice beverage during storage.
The increasing amount of food waste in Malaysia in recent years has brought many environmental
issues in the country where it affects the nation’s solid waste management framework. At the
moment, the government is limited to other alternatives of food waste disposal besides the
conventional landfill and incineration methods. This paper provides information on the current
status of food waste handling, management, regulations, and policies in Malaysia. It helps
to draw the problem and challenge to a clearer view in efforts of achieving sustainable and
integrative food waste handling in the country.
The physiochemical characteristics and microbiological study of spray-dried papaya powder
kept in aluminium laminated polyethylene (ALP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) at
accelerated storage (38 ± 2°C, 90% relative humidity (RH)) for 7 weeks were evaluated. The
final water activity (Aw) of the spray-dried papaya powder did not exceed 0.6 for both packaging
materials, which showed that the powder was shelf-stable. The overall adsorbed moisture of
spray-dried powder was significantly (p
The effects of squid ink at concentration of 0.10 and 0.25% on the total bacteria count and
chemical spoilage indicator; total volatile basis nitrogen (TVBN) and trimethylamine (TMA)
of squid (Loligo duvauceli) were analysed. The analysis were performed at interval of 5 days
during 15 days of chilled storage (4°C). This studies also investigate the antioxidant capacity
of the squid ink. The melanin-free squid ink were subjected to ferric reducing power (FRAP)
and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) analysis. The FRAP values found in squid ink were
0.04±0.01 µmole TE g-1 meanwhile DPPH values were recorded at 0.81±0.00 µmole TE g-1.
The squid ink at both 0.10 and 0.25% concentration showed a significantly (p
Heat exchanger H.X.s is the equipment used to transfer the thermal energy between two or more
fluids at varying temperatures. The nature of this paper is an experimental study of the optimum
design for shell and tube heat exchanger as a condenser with high productivity of drinking
water for portable solar water distiller. The elaboration covers the aspects of considerations,
design, fabrication, and test of the shell and tube H.X. as a portable condenser for solar water
distiller system. The system consists of a portable stainless steel condenser, which is able to be
dismantled and assembled without tools. The experimental result establishes that the condenser
is able to produce 3.8 liter /hour of distilled water from vapor at 99.7˚C of inlet temperature and
4 liter/hour vapor flow rate, with 130 liter /hour as a condenser coolant water flow rate. The heat
efficiency of the condenser can be increased by means of minimizing the tube’s thickness and
vapor inlet pressure. There is no back pressure effect on the system and the pressure drop in
both sides of the condenser is reportedly of very low value and negligible, therefore, no need
for a pressure pump is to be eliminated.
The evaluation of a dryer performance in terms of energy consumption, drying capacity and
quality of final product is the main concern of rice milling industry at any time. A study was
implemented to investigate on the benefits of common drying practices by studying the drying
performances of flat-bed and inclined-bed dryers which are popular in rice industry in Malaysia
and neighbouring countries. For this purpose, flat-bed dryer (FBD) and inclined-bed dryer
(IBD) were designed, fabricated and operated in the laboratory based on actual industrial
drying conditions. The results revealed that inclined-bed drying significantly increased drying
capacity (ton m-2 h-1) of up to 25 % at drying temperature of 42-43°C and almost 29 % at 38-
39°C drying air temperature compared to flat-bed drying. Furthermore, overall drying energy
consumption in IBD was found to vary between 78.6 to 91.97 kW.h ton-1, while for FBD the
energy consumption was more than 200 kW.h ton-1 for both levels of drying air temperatures.
Both dryers were found to produce rice with desired/ acceptable commercial quality index,
even though the head rice yields of FBD were higher than that of IBDs.
Seed purity is a crucial seed quality parameter in the Malaysian rice seed standard. The use of
high quality cultivated rice seed, free of any foreign seeds, is the prerequisite to sustaining high
yield in rice production. The presence of foreign seeds such as weedy rice in the cultivated rice
seeds used by the farmers can adversely affect growth and yield as it competes for space and
nutrients with the cultivated rice varieties in the field. Being the most dominant and competitive
element compared to the cultivated rice seeds, the Malaysian seed standard prescribed that the
maximum allowable of weed seeds in a 20-kilogram certified rice seed bag produced by local
rice seed processors is 10 weed seeds per kilogram. The current cleaning processes that rely
mostly on the difference in physical traits do not guarantee effective separation of weedy rice
seeds from the lots. Seed bags found to contain more than 10 weed seeds upon inspection by
the enforcing agency will not be approved for distribution to farmers. The paper describes a
study carried out to explore the use of machine vision approach to separate weedy rice seed
from cultivated rice seeds as a potential cleaning technique for the rice seed industry. The mean
classification accuracies levels of the extracted morphological feature model were achieved at
95.8% and 96.0% for training and testing data sets respectively.
It is well known that there is a significant increased in the quantity of Municipal Solid Waste
(MSW) generated every year. Therefore, the management of MSW must be handled carefully
by experts. Malaysia as one of the developing country with population nearly 30 millions
also facing problems related to MSW management and this issue is quite critical. Even though
various programmes were established and few model technologies were introduced by the
government to manage MSW effectively, but the impact remain unsatisfaction. For example,
the energy facility recovery project which use MSW gathered around Kajang as an alternative
fuel still not successful to provide energy according to the design capacity of that particular
facility. This failure was observed due to the impact composition of MSW collected which
consists huge amount of food waste (57%), 16% plastic, 15% diaper, 9% mixed papers and
the remaining 3% textile. The existing process technology at Refused Derived Fuel (RDF)
facility is no designed to create a new economic benefit from abundant incoming food waste
to the facility. Therefore in this paper, the analysis and suggestion of technology on existing
RDF recovery energy facility will be discussed especially on how to overcome the abundant
composition of food waste.
Halal is a term that describes substances that are deemed ‘pure and clean’ which Muslims are
allowed to consume according to Islamic law. The industrialization of food processing in the
20th and 21st centuries has exposed Muslims community to various ingredients such as blood
plasma, transglutaminase and gelatin introduced in meatballs and surimi product. Muslims
are facing difficulties to ascertain which products are permitted or not under the Islamic law.
Thus, this paper is to give knowledge of non-halal ingredients being introduced in meatballs
and surimi products for consumers, researchers and policy makers. Local halal logo issued by
Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM) is needed to imply that all ingredients
used in the food production and processing are Syariah compliance. The scientific evidence
to substantiate any claim on Halal issue was developed based on several methods including
PCR-based methods with different mitochondria and chromosomal DNA (MtDNA and cDNA)
primers, real-time PCR with different probes and DNA binding agent, loop-mediated isothermal
amplification (LAMP) with different primers developed, PCR- RFLP, ELISA and etc.
Nanotechnology contribute to significant impacts in every way in our daily life. Recently,
the application of nanotechnology in biosensors has been a trend in developing a highly
sensitive, selective, quick response, inexpensive, high volume production, great reliability
and miniaturized sensors. High demands on the production of rapid sensors for food safety
and quality control purposes are increasingly become the interest for researchers all over the
world. This is because, in food sector, the quality of a certain product is based on their periodic
chemical and microbilogical analysis. The uses of nanomaterials in biosensors are very
promising because they mediate current flow. Surface modification of the electrode based on
various nanomaterials including nanoparticle, nanofiber, nanowire and nanotube significantly
increase the performance of the biosensor. Ultimately, this implementation will enhance the
sensor’s sensitivity and stability. This review explores the previous research and development
work on nanomaterials-based sensors for food applications.
The effect of microwave heating and conventional heating towards the physicochemical and
functional properties of corn and rice flour with 30% moisture content in water suspension at
temperature of 50°C and 60°C were investigated. Conventional heat treatment was carried out
at 50°C and 60°C respectively by direct heating the moisture treated flour. Microwave heating
treatment was carried out by using domestic microwave oven at 50°C and 60°C respectively.
The amylose content, particle size diameter, and gelatinization temperature are increasing in
microwave and conventional heat treated corn and rice flour. Decreasing of pasting temperature,
swelling power and solubility of all the heat-treated starches compared to control were detected.
X-ray diffraction pattern of all control and heat treated corn and rice flour exhibit typical A-type
pattern. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has revealed the heat treated corn and rice flour
showed rougher surface, porous granules and rupture granules. There are no significance effect
of temperature differences on corn and rice flour carried out at 50°C and 60°C. Evidently,
microwave heating was effective to alter the physicochemical and functional properties of corn
and rice flour.
Gelatin is one of the most widely used food ingredients, with wide applications in the food
industry. It was reported that 41% of the gelatin produced in the world is sourced from pig
skin, 28.5% from bovine hides and 29.5% from bovine bones. However, factors such as the
outbreak of BSE (a.k.a. mad cow disease) and increasing demand for non-mammalian gelatin
for halal and kosher food markets have revived interest in gelatin replacers from plant sources.
In this study, we have successfully extracted valuable pectin—as gelatin replacer--from various
types of plant wastes. Pectin is a high value functional food ingredient widely used as a gelling
agent and stabilizer. It is also an abundant, ubiquitous and multifunctional component of the
cell walls of all land plants. Mango peel was screened as the ideal source for high-yield (36.6%)
pectin of satisfactory quality. The results indicate that citric acid was the best solution for
recovery of pectin from mango peels. An extraction temperature of 90°C and pH 2 provided
the optimum conditions for maximum yield of pectin. The resulting crude mango peel pectin
(CMPP) was analyzed for physicochemical parameters. The results indicated values for ash
content (0.0412%), moisture content (0.303%), viscosity (45.18%), galacturonic acid content
(36.8-37.2-40%) and degree of esterification (38.3-41%). Following analysis of its gelling
properties and sensory evaluation, CMPP has good potential to be applied in the food industry
as a low-methoxyl pectin and a cheap source of gelatin replacer for jam preparations.
Meat quality is always subject to consumer scrutiny when purchasing from retail markets on
mislabeling as fresh meat. Repeated cycles of ‘freeze-thaw’ degrade the quality of meat. Existing
studies have primarily embarked on physical, chemical and biochemical changes induced by
variable storage conditions. The authentication of fresh versus thawed meat quality can be
further explored with the data involving a series of biochemical pathways that were largely
well-studied in living muscle tissues. However, these pathways are less predictable in postslaughter
condition where muscle turns to meat. In addition, there is far less known about how
various management or environmental stimuli impact these pathways, either by substrate load
or altered cellular environment during storage. Though the rate of post-slaughter metabolism
is quite important in driving meat quality development, it is also fairly well established.
Alternatively, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the cessation of postmortem
metabolism, or protracted carbohydrate metabolism are particularly puzzling. Likewise,
there is little information about the relationship between volatility profiles of biomolecules
with regards to functional groups, enzymatic activity, protein solubility and protein surface
properties in meat during storage. The studies of these changes could be used to distinguish
between fresh and thawed meat.
Pulsed light (PL) treatment is a non-thermal method for microbial decontamination on the
surfaces of fresh-cut produce. The effect of pulsed light fluencies on microbiological stability
and quality changes of fresh-cut yardlong beans were determined. Pulsed light treatments were
carried out using an automatic laboratory flash lamp system (Steribeam XeMaticA-2L Kehl,
Germany) at different fluencies (1.8 J/cm2, 5.4 J/cm2, 9.0 J/cm2 and 12.6 J/cm2). Microbiological
quality (colour changes and textural changes) of fresh-cut yardlong beans stored at 4±1°C were
monitored over 14 days. Results show that, the application of PL treatment at high fluencies
allowed extension of microbiological shelf life up to 3-7 days in comparison to untreated
samples. Apart from that, PL treated sample has no significant difference on the texture and
colour as compared to untreated sample of fresh-cut yardlong bean. As a conclusion, the
application of PL at dose 9.0 J/cm2 has increased the shelf life of fresh-cut yardlong bean while
maintaining the quality when stored at 4±1°C.
Piper nigrum, commonly known as black pepper, is one of the most important spice crops
with high demand by the world market. However, diseases like foot rot and stem blight
cause by Phytophthora capsici have become the important production constraints in black
pepper industry. The frequent application of toxic fungicides to counter the diseases in pepper
plantations has raised certain environmental issues. In order to mitigate the use of fungicides,
biological approach to control P. capsici has been suggested. In this study, endophytic bacteria
were isolated from six P. nigrum roots and screened for in vitro antagonistic activity against P.
capsici through dual culture, mycelial growth, spore germination and double plate assay. The
antagonism testing involved the secretion of volatile and diffusible bioactive compounds by
the endophytic bacteria. Out of 19 isolates tested, two isolates DB(2)7 and SB(2)6 produced
volatile bioactive compounds and these two isolates showed highest antagonism against P.
capsici mycelia with the percentage of inhibition up to 47.63% and 43.33%, respectively.
Diffusible compounds from isolates DB(2)7, DB(2)9 and SB(2)6 produced clear zones in spore
germination test with radii measurements of 10.0-17.0 mm. Three isolates with promising
antifungal activity were further characterised through 16S rDNA sequencing. The analysis
of their sequences via National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) suggests close
identity towards Enterobacter cancerogenus, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter asburiae.
This research study demonstrated that these endophytic bacteria isolates are potentially to be
used as biocontrol agent in pepper cultivation.
This study evaluated the effects of Averrhoa bilimbi juice extract and storage temperature
on lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage of spent chicken meat. Ten, 80 weeks old spent
chickens were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h at 4oC. Thereafter, the Pectoralis
major muscles and right thighs were excised and marinated in either A. bilimbi juice extract,
pure distilled water, or no marination (control) for either 4 or 9 h at room temperature or 9 or 24
h at 4°C. Lipid oxidation was monitored on the Pectoralis major muscles while the right thighs
were assessed for Enterobacteriacea counts. Lipid oxidation was not significantly affected
by the type or duration of marination. Marination showed a temperature dependent effect on
Enterobacteriacea counts. At room temperature, samples that were marinated by distilled water
showed significantly higher Enterobacteriacea counts than the control while those that were
marinated with A. bilimbi juice extract showed no growth at both 4 and 9 h of marination. At
chilled temperature, marination had no significant effects on the growth of Enterobacteriacea
during the 9 or 24 h storage. These results indicated that A. bilimbi juice extract marinade has
some antibacterial activities but works better when combined with refrigerated storage.
Marine fungi are potential source of bioactive compounds as indicated by the increasing statistic
of research findings. However similar research in Malaysia is still lacking. Hence, this study
is undertaken to determine the antibacterial activity of four marine fungal isolates (PR1T4,
PP2L4, PR3T13 and PR5T4) from Pulau Redang and Pulau Payar Marine Parks, Malaysia
against Salmonella Typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia
coli. Fungal isolates were first macroscopically and microscopically characterized and later
molecularly identified as Penicillium citrinum, Sacroladium strictum, Aspergillus sydowii and
Aspergillus sp. respectively. Solid and broth fermentation of fungi were carried out to produce
crude extracts and these extracts were screened for antibacterial activity. In general, solid
fermentation extracts (SFE) showed significantly higher antibacterial activity (p
The aim of this study is to examine the consistency between the Balassa index and Vollrath
indices in measuring comparative advantages of the Malaysian shrimp products with other
major shrimp exporting nations as comparator. The study uses Balassa index and Vollrath
indices to measure comparative advantages of the Malaysian shrimp products. The indices then
are compared by consistency tests. Malaysia was generally not competitive in shrimp trade;
however, revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and relative export advantage (RXA) indices
show some extent of competitiveness on non-frozen shrimp product. Thailand had a remarkable
competitiveness in shrimp trade as compared to other major exporting countries. Although we
found that double-counting problem in the Balassa index is insignificant in measuring export
performance of the Malaysian shrimp sector, import could be an important variable in accessing
its trade competitiveness. Marginal import of a sector may lead to relative trade advantage (RTA)
index consistent with RCA and RXA indices. Considering exports and imports of a particular
commodity in measuring competitiveness is more consistent with the real world phenomenon
of two-way trade. Selecting measurement of comparative advantage should rigorously base
on trade behaviour of a sector as well as theoretical constructs. The competitiveness of the
Malaysian shrimp products remains unclear due to the lack of contemporary analyses backed
by formal testing procedures. The results and policy implications of this study provide
stakeholders insights into comparative advantage as well as trade position of the products.
Better measurement for revealed comparative advantage, particularly for shrimp products, is
discussed in this paper.
The halal food production industry is gaining greater attention among Muslim and non-Muslim
majority countries, particularly due to the increase of global market demand. One of the critical
areas in issuing halal certified food is the determination of allowable alcohol content in food
and drinks. The level of alcohol content has not standardized in several standards and fatwa of
Islamic scholars. In Islam, the alcohol in several fruit products is produced through fermentation
process such as takhammur (wine making) and takhallul (vinegar making). The fermentation
process gives an impact to the status of the food products either permissible or prohibited.
Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss on the determination of permissible alcohol
and vinegar by fermentation process content in selected food products from Shariah and science
perspectives. In doing so, the views of authentic of Islamic Law in this issue are supported by
lab work approached. As a result, in the first phase there are three types of by products from
takhammur, while two types of takhallul. All the products can be determine of the alcohol
content and give an implication of the status either permissible (halal) or prohibited (haram).
Hence, in juice considered as halal due to lower of alcohol content. While cider or alcoholic
beverage is haram due to above alcohol level permitted which is above of the 1%. Besides,
cider vinegar or vinegar is halal by the interpretation of hadith of permissible conversion from
alcoholic to vinegar itself.