Food insecurity, the inability to have sufficient, safe and nutritious food for an active and healthy life, was found to be closely associated with adverse health outcomes. However, limited studies can be found that clearly explains lipid profile and inflammatory events among food secure and insecure individuals, especially among young adults in university, thus creating the need for further research. This study investigated both groups including their gender distribution to determine lipid profile such as total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and inflammatory marker, high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP), with waist circumference (WC), fat mass index (FMI) and waist-to-height-ratio (WHTR). A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among participants aged between 18 to 25 years old (N=124) who were selected through the Adults Food Security Survey Module (AFSSM) and participated in blood draw procedures. Well-established blood markers of lipid profile and inflammatory marker were measured. Percentage of food secure individuals (56.5%) was slightly higher than food insecure (43.5%). Although mean (M) of Hs-CRP for male and female (M=1.000, M=0.645) was higher in food secure group, all other variables showed higher measurements among the food insecure groups. Lipid profiles, TC (M=5.175, M=5.062) and LDL (M=3.100, M=2.914) were high for both male and female respectively, while TG is high for male (M=0.817) (p=0.037) and HDL for female (M=1.826). For body composition such as FMI (M=4.494, M=5.452), WC (M=77.46, M=76.82) and WHtR (M=0.471, M=0.497), male and female respectively, in food insecure group showed higher results but only FMI showed a significant difference (p = 0.016). Statistics showed an association between food security status and lipid profile (TG) and with FMI. However, no significant association was found with inflammatory marker. This study will continue further in depth in gene expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-y) and endothelial dysfunction to better understand this issue. Regardless, current data provides knowledge and understanding of food insecurity experienced by young adults in university campus and may help them in making healthier food choices and be appreciative of the risk of chronic illnesses.
In the present work, the influence of microwave power and heating times on the quality
degradation of corn oil was evaluated. Microwave heating test was carried out using a domestic
microwave oven for different periods at low- and medium-power settings for the corn oil sample.
The changes in physicochemical characteristics related to oil degradation of the samples during
heating were determined by standard methods. In this study, refractive index, free fatty acid
content, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOX value, viscosity and total polar compound
of the oils all increased with increasing heating power and time of exposure. In GLC analysis,
the percentage of linoleic acid tended to decrease, whereas the percentage of palmitic, stearic
and oleic acids increased. The C18:2/C16:0 ratio decreased in all oil samples with increasing
heating times. Exposing the corn oil to various microwave power settings and heating periods
caused the formation of hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products. The heating reduced
the various tocopherol isomers in corn oil and highest reduction was detected in γ-tocopherol.
Longer microwave heating times resulted in a greater degree of oil deterioration. Microwave
heating caused the formation of comparatively lower amounts of some degradative products in
the oil samples heated at low-power setting compared to medium-power setting. The present
analysis indicated that oil quality was affected by both microwave power and heating time.
The study aimed to isolate and elucidate the chemical compounds that are found in banana
(Musa balbisiana cv. Saba) inflorescences. Banana inflorescence buds were extracted using
methanol and the resulted methanolic extract was partitioned using chloroform, ethyl acetate
and butanol against deionized water. The chloroform partition was further separated into
fractions using column chromatography assisted by thin layer chromatography. The structure
elucidation was performed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). Three
triterpenes were isolated namely 31-norcyclolaudenone (1), cycloartenol (2) and (24R)-4a,24-
trimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,25(27)-dien-3b-ol (3). This is the first report on the isolation of these
triterpenes from Musa balbisiana inflorescence. The discovery of new triterpenes from banana
inflorescence should be further explored to open a new perspective that banana by-products
might serve as new source of natural products for food and pharmaceutical applications.
This study aimed to develop and validate whole grain KAP questionnaire among children. A
guided self-administered questionnaire was developed. In this cross sectional study, a total
of 207 children aged 9 to 11 years in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were recruited. Knowledge
domain was considered as optimal level of difficulty and able to discriminate performance of
good and poor children. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis with
principle components method and varimax rotation. Four factor-solutions emerged for attitude
domain whereas 3 factor-solutions were constructed for practice domain. Internal consistency
was acceptable for knowledge (KR20=0.70), attitude (CA=0.72) and practice (CA=0.73).
Test-retest reliability intra-class correlation coefficients for knowledge, attitude and practice
domains were 0.80, 0.78 and 0.79 (p
The attention on genetically modified (GM) food industry is increasing due to the flourishing
of biotechnology. However, there are some debates on the associated benefits and risks of
employing modification technology in food industry. This study strives to examine the causes
that determine consumers’ benefit and risk perceptions on GM foods. Besides, the influence of
perceived benefit and risk of GM food on consumers’ attitude is investigated. The empirical
results of this study showed that GM food knowledge, and GM food characteristics have been
acting as important predictors of both benefits and risks perceptions. Further, it is also found
that perceived benefits showed significant positive influence on attitude, and attitude affects
purchase intention towards GM food. Research implications to policy makers, scientists, and
market practitioners are covered, in which suggestions and recommendations are provided
to these parties. Lastly, research implications and recommendations to future research are
A new patent pending process is proposed in this study to produce edible film directly from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii). Seaweed together with other ingredients has been used to produce the film through casting technique. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on the edible films to examine the thickness, colour, transparency, solubility, tensile strength,
elongation at break, water permeability rate, oxygen permeability rate and surface morphology. Produced film was transparent, stretchable, sealable and have basic properties as a film for food packaging. This study suggests that the edible film could be used as novel materials in food industry as sachet/pouch/bag for instant coffee, breakfast cereals drinks, seasoning powder,
candies etc; as wrapper for seasoning cube and chocolate; as interleaf for frozen foods such as burger patties to avoid the patties from sticking together; and also as material for edible logo in bakeries products. Other than that, the edible film also could be used in pharmaceutical industry as functional strips such as oral freshener strips and drug strips. In cosmetic and toiletries industries, the edible film could be used to produce facial mask and bag for pre-portioned detergent. Compared with edible film developed earlier using alginate and carrageenan, film developed in this research used seaweed directly. The developed film reduced the need to extract the alginate and carrageenan, making material preparation easier and cheaper.
In this study, physicochemical and sensory qualities of substituting jering seed flour into wheat chapatis (unleavened Indian flat bread) were evaluated at different proportions (5, 10, 15, 20 and 100% of jering seed flour). Chapati prepared with 100% of wheat flour was served as control. Results showed wheat-jering composite chapatis had significantly higher protein (12.68-15.55%), ash (1.78-2.32%) and carbohydrate contents (50.78-54.50%) than that of wheat chapatis which served as control (11.49, 1.77% and 51.62%, respectively). As for the fat content, this ranged from 1.19% to 1.03%, corresponding to the levels of jering seed flour substitution. In terms of physical characteristics, the puffed height and extensibility of the composite chapatis decreased progressively as the level of jering seed flour substitution increased. On the other hand, the peak load required to rupture chapatis showed an inverse trend. It increased significantly from 3.26 to 15.96 N. Further, the colour values of composite chapatis showed significant changes when the level of jering seed flour substitution was increased. The L* and b* values decreased while a* value increased. Regarding sensory properties, control wheat chapatis had better acceptability than the composite chapatis. However, all the composite chapatis had significantly higher nutritional values. Based on the generated results, novel chapatis could be formulated by substituting wheat with jering seed flour.
The effects of methanolic extract of Javanese turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) at different level of concentrations on the inactivation of Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. This study was conducted principally for the achievement on the best combination between the
susceptibility of C. xanthorrhiza extract on natural microflora and foodborne pathogenic bacteria with the sensory acceptability of the soaked oyster mushroom. Three different concentrations (g/ml), 0.05%, 0.50% and 5.00%, of C. xanthorrhiza extract prepared with dilution method were designed as sanitizing agent in treating the oyster mushroom at 5 minutes and 10 minutes.
There was significance reduction in the survival of microbial load between the untreated fresh oyster mushroom and those soaked with 0.05%, 0.50% and 5.00% rhizome extract (P
Salmonella remains to be a major foodborne pathogen for animals and humans and is the
leading cause of foodborne infections and outbreaks in various countries. Salmonella Enteritidis
is one of the most frequently isolated serotypes in poultry and poultry products from human
food poisoning cases. It can cause mild to acute gastroenterititis as well as other common
food poisoning symptoms when infection takes place in human. Nucleic acid amplification
technologies such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a tool that is rapid and sensitive
for detection of bacterial pathogen. We report the successful detection of S. Enteritidis by
PCR in raw chicken meat artificially-contaminated with serial concentration of S. Enteritidis
using crude DNA extracts as DNA template. PCR primers, ENT-F and ENT-R targeted on sdfI
gene were used to amplify DNA region unique to S. Enteritidis with crude DNA extract of the
samples, yielded product with the size of 303 bp. These primers were specific to S. Enteritidis
when tested by in-silico simulation against genome database of targeted bacterial species and
confirmed in PCR as amplification bands were observed with S. Typhimurium, S. Polarum and
S. Gallinarum. The established PCR can detect as few as 9.4 X 101
CFU/ml of inoculated S.
Enteritidis concentration and proved that pre-enrichment effect have significant effect on PCR
detection by increasing 1000-fold of the sensitivity limit compared to the non pre-enriched
samples. The PCR technique indicated that it can be successfully coupled with pre-enrichment
step to offer advantage in routine screening and surveillance of bacterial contamination in food
Threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicas) muscle was hydrolysed using protease extracted from
bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) fruit. This study was performed in order to compare the efficiency of bilimbi protease in producing threadfin bream protein hydrolysate with the commercial protease; alcalase 2.4 L. Initially, protease was extracted and then purified using 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation method. The proteolytic activity of the crude extract and purified protease was determined. Precipitation using 40% ammonium sulfate resulted in bilimbi protease specific activity of 2.36 U/mg and 23.13% recovery. Threadfin bream hydrolysate was prepared based on the pH-stat method by hydrolysis for 2 hrs. Hydrolysis using bilimbi protease produced 34.76% degree of hydrolysis (DH) and 3.75% yield while hydrolysis using alcalase resulted in 86.6% DH with 22.78% yield. Alcalase hydrolysate showed higher solubility than bilimbi protease hydrolysate at pH 7 with 70.87 and 32.16% solubility, respectively. Results also showed that protein content of threadfin bream hydrolysate produced using alcalase was higher (86.86%) than those produced using bilimbi protease (22.12%). However, both hydrolysates showed low moisture content between 3.93 to 7.00%. The molecular weight distribution analysis using SDS–PAGE indicated the distribution of smaller peptides especially in alcalase hydrolysate. Overall, the results showed that alcalase is more efficient enzyme choice than bilimbi protease for preparing threadfin bream hydrolysates. However, both hydrolysates could play an important role thus contribute to the food industry.
This study is to report the proximate compositions as well as tetrodotoxin (TTX) content in the muscles of yellow puffer fish Xenopterus naritus that collected from Kg. Manggut and Kabong, Sarawak. The internal organs of 26 and 20 specimens from Kg. Manggut and Kabong respectively were removed by the local people that had skills and experiences with the preparation of yellow puffer fish. In general, the moisture contents were ranging between 75.2% and 80.6%. X. naritus from Kabong showed higher crude protein contents (88.2% dry weight) than the same species from Kg. Manggut (87.9% dry weight) and not significantly different (p>0.05). X. naritus from Kg. Manggut demonstrated a significantly higher (p
Collagen was isolated from threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicas) waste (mixture of scale and fin) by using 0.5 M citric acid or calamansi juice (Citrofortunella microcarpa) for 12 and 24 hrs at 4°C. The physico-chemical characteristics of the collagens were then compared with the commercial collagen. Shorter extraction time (12 hrs) and extraction using calamansi juice resulted in higher yield. The yield was 22% (12 hrs) and 20.37% (24 hrs) for collagen extracted using calamansi juice and 8.3% (12 hrs) and 6.9% (24 hrs) for collagen extracted using citric acid. Collagen extracted using calamansi juice were light yellow (L = 93.70, a = -1.84, b = 13.44) while citric acid collagens were white (L = 94.82, a = 0.31, b = 0.20). Sensory evaluation on odor recognition test showed that collagen extracted with calamansi juice has a pleasant
natural fragrance which is sweet citrus. Electrophoresis profile indicated that the collagen were of type I comprising of α1 and α2 chains. Threadfin bream collagen contained higher amount of imino acids proline (254.72 to 275.50/1000 residues) and hydroxyproline (7.56 to 13.50/1000 residues) than commercial collagen which is 21.25 and 5.16/1000 residues, respectively. Maximum transition temperature (Tmax) falls within a close range for all the collagens ranging from 24.81 to 25.91°C. Calamansi juice collagens were more viscous compared to others. The extraction of threadfin bream collagen for 12 hrs using calamansi juice generally leads to collagen characterised by pleasant odor, reasonably high yield and more viscous. Therefore, natural source such as calamansi juice could be an alternative medium for collagen extraction.
Cassava chips that exist in the current market have no standardisation and cannot be stacked
nicely into cylindrical container. The objectives of this work are to determine the different dimension of cassava chips produced with different thickness and to develop stackable chips during mass production. Fresh cassava tubers were harvested, washed, peeled and sliced. The thickness measurements used were 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.75 mm and 2.0 mm and 1.27 mm thickness was measured from commercial potato chips as a controlled sample. Then, it was fried in deep fat fryer with the temperature of 170°C. For each thickness studied, different
numbers of slice (10, 20, 30 and 40 slices) were fried simultaneously. Results showed that there
are 6 shapes of fried chips produced during the frying. To conclude, thickness of the slice and
number of slices fried simultaneously give impact towards the shape of fried chip.
This study was conducted to investigate the sensitivity and detection of porcine DNA in raw materials, ingredients and finished bakery products by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - southern hybridization on chip analysis. A total of 20 samples (n=20* 3) with three replicates for each samples were obtained from a bakery factory located in Bangi, Selangor from January to December 2012. The sensitivity level of PCR-southern hybridization on chip was 0.001 ng. The species-specific oligonucleotide primers used in PCR-southern hybridization were targeted on the mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequence, namely cty b biotin-labeled oligonucleotide primers. The amplicon from PCR amplification was 276 bp in size. None of the raw materials, ingredients and finished bakery product samples was positive towards porcine DNA, except for the positive control. The results in the present study demonstrated that the PCR- southern-hybridization technique on the gene chip (OliproTM Porcine gene chip) is a sensitive tool for monitoring the porcine component in highly processed ingredients and finished bakery products.
The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stability, antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of 2 minutes microwave pre-treated kenaf seed oil (MKSO) in comparison with the untreated kenaf seed oil (KSO) under accelerated storage for 24 days. Results obtained on oxidative stability for both KSO and MKSO by the end of storage with PV were 9.83 meq O2 /kg and 8.97 meq O2 /kg, respectively; p-Anv were 17.28 and 13.48, respectively; TOTOX value of 36.94 and 31.42, respectively; IV value were measured 84.50 g of I2 / 100 g and 84.34 g of I2 / 100 g oil, respectively; FFA value of 5.67 mg KOH/100g oil and 5.14 mg KOH/100g oil, respectively. Aside from that, the antioxidant activity in MKSO was better than KSO. For the fatty acid composition, the oleic and linoleic acids were affected significantly throughout storage for both KSO and MKSO. MKSO presented a better overall oxidative stability, antioxidant activity and retained higher content of MUFA and PUFA significantly (p< 0.05) upon accelerated storage.
A good temperature management, such as precooling and cold storage, can delay deterioration of fresh produce. In this study, different forced-air precooling times were applied on Musa AAA Berangan to investigate the influence of forced-air precooling time on the changes of quality attributes and consumer acceptance. The banana was subjected to forced-air precooling treatment (5 ± 1°C) for 0, 14, 50, and 120 min and then stored in a cold room (13 ± 1°C) for 2 weeks. Then, all the fruits were transferred to a ripening room (25 ± 2°C) and initiated to ripen with ethylene gas. Quality attributes analyses and sensory evaluations were conducted when the fruits reached maturity index 5. Quality parameters, such as soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, pulp firmness, and peel colour, showed no significant differences when fruits were precooled at different times. Blackening of peel as a result of chilling injury occurred in fruits treated with forced-air precooling for 50 and 120 min. This blackening significantly influenced consumer acceptance, although it did not affect the pulp colour and taste.
The own price, income and price of a substitute are the determinants of demand in the classical theory of consumer behavior. We used the theory to analyze the demand for local rice in Malaysia by using time series variables. We examined whether there is a long run relationship among the variables by using the unit root and cointegration tests. We then conducted the Granger causality, variance decomposition and impulse response function tests to examine their directions of causality as well as short term dynamics. The results show that there is a long run relationship among the variables and a unidirectional causality from price and income to demand. There are also lagged and short term dynamics among the variables.
The use of polyclonal antibody (IgG) has recently been applied to the detection of bacteria. We developed a lateral flow assay (LFA) strip using a specific IgG in combination with colloidal gold on a nitrocellulose membrane. A conjugate, gold-anti Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 IgG was developed in this study for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 in food. The 40 nm in size of colloidal gold nanoparticles was used to conjugate the anti-E. coli O157:H7 IgG. The optimal concentration, 12.0 µg/ml of the anti-E. coli O157:H7 IgG was determined by standard curve generated in titration method. The serially diluted of E. coli O157:H7 was detected and clearly visualized on the LFA strip as low as 106 CFU/ml (result not shown). The IgG raised in rabbit have shown specific binding capacity against E. coli O157:H7. No other genus of bacteria, including Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni reacted to the IgG. The LFA strip could also detect E. coli O157:H7 in different food samples matrices after 18 h-enrichment and this result were in accordance with the results of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colony count.
Although Malaysia is one of the important pineapple fruit producing and exporting country, the production of MD-2 pineapple fruit only started in 2009. Pineapple fruit has been harvested at different ripening stages for different markets. The information on Malaysian grown MD-2 pineapple fruit quality is lacking. Therefore this work was carried out with the aim to determine physicochemical quality, antioxidant compounds and activity of MD-2 pineapple fruit at five ripening stages. Ripening stage affected physicochemical quality of MD-2 pineapple fruit. Soluble solids concentration of MD-2 pineapple fruit increased from 15.41 to 18.02% SSC when fruit ripened from stage 1 to 4 and no significant difference was found in fruit between stage 4 and 5. The ascorbic acid content decreased while total carotenoids content increased as ripening stage advanced. The total phenolic content of both 80% methanol and water extraction solvents increased significantly as fruit ripened from stage 1 to 3 and reduced as fruit ripened to stage 5. The antioxidant activity of MD-2 pineapple fruit as assayed using DPPH, FRAP and ABTS showed similar trend as total phenolic content. These results suggest that ripening stage affect MD-2 pineapple fruit quality and nutritional values.
The aim of this study were to find out the physicochemical characteristics of cholesterol-reduced egg yolk powder and its application in the production of mayonnaises. Cholesterol-reduced egg yolk powder (CREYP) were prepared from removal of cholesterol by formation of cholesterol:β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The physicochemical characteristics of CREYP and NEYP were foaming capacity (FC): 1.96%, 4%; foaming stability (FS): 96.48%, 94.55%; emulsion capacity (EC): 59.82%, 58.43% and emulsion stability (ES): 43.94%, 41.48% respectively. Whereas the viscosity of CREY, NEY and commercial mayonnaises were 8000, 4768 and 6747 cP respectively. The lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), saturation (C*) and hue angle (h°) values for CREYP and NEYP results showed significantly different (p>0.05) for all chroma values with CREYP showed higher L* and h° values but lower in a*, b* and C* values showing that the yellow colour of NEYP lessened. Commercial mayonnaise appeared to be lighter and less yellowish than CREY mayonnaises with L* and b* values of
commercial to CREY mayonnaises were L*: 78.34; 63.78% and b*: 8.29; 14.98% respectively. It can be concluded that CREYP can be used as replace to the NEYP and whole liquid egg yolk
with enhance nutritional values. The results obtained from this study will be very useful for producing CREYP.