β-carotene, a type of provitamin A, is beneficial to our health. However, the compound needs to be released from its food matrix before being utilised by the body. Thus, understanding the bioaccessibility of β-carotene in the food consumed is a crucial step. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various cooking methods on bioaccessibility of β-carotene in pumpkin and butternut squash. In vitro digestion was carried out on raw and cooked (steamed, boiled, and deep-fried) pumpkin and butternut squash. β-carotene was identified using RPHPLC. Generally, butternut squash (4.99±0.02mg/100g) had higher β-carotene content than pumpkin (4.34±0.04mg/100g). Thermal processing resulted in lower β-carotene content in pumpkin samples; however, it increased the β-carotene content in butternut squash samples. In term of bioaccessibility, thermal processes increased the percentage of bioaccessible β-carotene in both pumpkin and butternut squash samples. Raw pumpkin had 10.56±0.44% of bioaccessible β-carotene while raw butternut squash had only 1.65±0.04%. Bioaccessibility of β-carotene in deep-fried pumpkin and butternut squash were significantly higher than their raw sample with 68.86±0.86% (p
High lipid levels are associated with the increase tendency of atherosclerosis formation. In the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, increase in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) concentration has been identified as the main culprit in many cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidents. Both quercetin and kaempferol are flavonoids that most abundantly found in fruits and vegetables. Several studies have dictated that both compounds exhibit CVD protective effects through the regulation of lipid levels. In the present study, the hypolipidemic potential of quercetin and kaempferol through LDL-c uptake were tested on HepG2 cells. Cell viability was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in order to study the cytotoxicity effect quercetin and kaemperol on cell proliferation. The present study demonstrated that quercetin and kaempferol at low concentration of 15 µM, possess the highest hypolipidemic effects via LDL-c uptake in HepG2 cells (p
Gelatin from goatskin pretreated with hydrochloric acid and extracted with distilled water at 60oC for 9 hours was characterized and compared to that of bovine skin gelatin (BSG). A yield of 10.26% (wet weight basis) was obtained. Goatskin gelatin (GSG) had high protein (86.58%), suitable moisture (9.58%), low fat (1.46%) and low ash (0.11%) content. The functional properties of GSG including gel strength (301 g bloom) and emulsion activity index (94.27%) were higher than the functional properties of BSG including gel strength (192 g bloom) and emulsion activity index (49.74%). The foaming property of GSG (102%) was lower than that of BSG (164.67%). This study shows that GSG has a high potential for application as a source of commercial gelatin.
Soymilk, which can be called as plant based “milk” is a favourite traditional beverage in Asian with various beneficial health protective effects due to the presence of isoflavones. Mixing cereal grains into soymilk to make a wholesome beverage for breakfast becomes popular. However, dietary factors may affect the bioaccessibility of isoflavones. The aim of this current work was to evaluate changes in the bioaccessibility of isoflavones in soymilk after mixing with selected cereal grains following in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The samples were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with its isoflavones content determined before and after simulated gastric digestion and intestinal digestion with dialysis membrane. Soymilk contained 1.80 ± 0.03 mg daidzein and 2.12 ± 0.08 mg genistein in 100 ml, while bioaccessibility of soymilk daidzein and genistein were 11.24 ± 0.46% and 5.09 ± 0.25% respectively. The addition of cereal grains except barley in soymilk showed significant reduction (p
Cruciferous vegetables belong to the mustard family of plants such as Brussels sprouts, kale, broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower. They are well known for their cancer prevention properties which are due to high content of bioactive compounds, isothiocyanates (ITCs). This study was aimed to investigate nitrosation inhibition ability of the cruciferous vegetables commonly consumed with meat products namely, broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage. Aqueous extracts of fresh and steamed (2 and 4 min) vegetables were subjected to determination of antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP assay) and chemical composition i.e. total phenolic and isothiocyanate (ITC) content. It was found that TPC, DPPH and FRAP values of raw vegetables were different in each vegetable and ranged from 17.12-38.91 mg GAE/100 ml, 44.09-63.31% and 1.36-6.81 mg TE/100 ml, respectively. Among three types of cruciferous vegetable, broccoli had the highest PEITC content being 0.21 mmol/100 g compared to cauliflower (0.15 mmol/100 g) and cabbage (0.06 mmol/100 g). Moreover, it was found that steaming process significantly enhanced antioxidant activity, TPC as well as PEITC content in a timedependent manner up to 4 min (p
Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) extracted mango seed fat (MSF) was blended with palm oil mid-fraction (POMF) to obtain cocoa butter replacers (CBRs). The fatty acid constituents and physicochemical properties of the formulated blends were analysed by gas chromatography (GC). In this study, the fatty acid constituents and other physicochemical properties such as iodine value (43.2 to 43.4 g I2/100 g fat), saponification value (195.7 to 195.9 mg KOH/g fat), acid value (2.1 to 2.7%), and slip melting point (33.8 to 34.9°C) of blends MSF/POMF at ratios 85/15, 80/20, 75/25, and 70/30 were found similar to the physicochemical properties of commercial cocoa butter. Thus, it could be concluded that the MSF/POMF blends that are blends 85/15, 80/20, 75/25, and 70/30 (3 to 6) could be suggested as CBRs in terms of the physicochemical properties like fatty acid constituents, iodine, saponification and acid values and slip melting point.
Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) is a tropical and economic fruit with encouraging market potential in the global market. It is the first crop grown as a commodity crop in Malaysia and raised the country’s position to a very significant level in the world between the late 60 s and early 70 s. However, Malaysian pineapple’s contribution to the global market in the recent time has been experiencing downward trend, resulting to a set-back in its competitiveness. This study aimed to determine factors influencing pineapple market supply in Johor, Malaysia, with objectives of identifying factors affecting pineapple market supply and quantity supplied of pineapple to the market in the study area. Data were collected using a well-structured close ended questionnaire via face-to- face from 170 randomly selected pineapple farmers. The obtained data were analysed using descriptive analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and regression analysis. Six factors identi¬fied by exploratory factor analysis as the factors affecting pineapple supply are credit access, pineapple varieties, distance to the market, cost of input, price of pineapples and extension services. The result of regression analysis revealed that, quantity of pineapple supplied to the market was found affected by farming experience, farm size, credit access, pineapple varieties, cost of inputs, price of pineapples, and extension services at 5%, 1%, 1%, 5%, 1%, 5% and 5% significant level respectively. The study recommends the need for designing appropriate intervention mechanisms focusing on the aforementioned factors to improve industry’s performance in the global market and uplift the status of smallholder pineapple farmers.
The filamentous spoilage fungi in vegetables can lead to significant impact in food and economic loss. In order to overcome this problem, chemical fungicide has been implemented in vegetable farming and processing but it causes problems towards environment and food safety. Thus, the utilization of natural products such as plants extracts, which exhibit antimicrobial and antifungal activity, is more acceptable to solve this problem. The aim of this study is to investigate the antifungal activity of Boesenbergia rotunda extract against ten filamentous spoilage fungi isolated from five vegetables. The extract was used to treat fungal isolates from vegetables; CRb 002 (Penicillium sp.), CHa 009 (Aspergillus sp.), TMa 001 (Geotrichum sp.), TMa 002 (Aspergillus sp), ONb 001 (Aspergillus sp.), WBb 003 and WBb 004 (Fusarium sp.) WBb 007 (unidentified), WBb 008 (Aureobasidium sp.) and WBb 010 (Penicillium sp.). The results showed that the yield of the extract of B. rotunda using ethanol (95%) was 11.42% (w/v). The 10% of B. rotunda extract exhibited antifungal activities against ten filamentous fungi after 5 days treatment with growth reduction of 41.56%, 30.68%, 86.20%, 50.62%, 26.67%, 47.44%, 50.74%, 36.39%, 42.86%, and 39.39% for WBb 008, WBb 004, WBb 007, WBb 003, CRb 002, WBb 010, CHa 009, TMa 001, ONb 001, and TMa 002, respectively. B. rotunda extract showed highest antifungal activity against fungi isolated from winged bean (WBb 007) with percentage reduction in growth was 86.20%, while the lowest activity was against fungi isolated from the carrot (CRb 002) with 26.67% reduction in growth. Generally, the TPC of fungi in the vegetable samples were reduced after treatment with 5% of B. rotunda extract at 5 min and 10 min of exposure time. The results suggested that B. rotunda extract has high potential to become natural food preservative which can reduce the fungi spoilage of vegetables.
Biscuit is a popular food product where it is produced using wheat flour, sugar and fat as its main ingredients. Wheat flour is the major material used in biscuit production and within the flour starch is the principal component. The details of starch properties such as pasting properties, gelatinisation properties, crystallinity were discussed in this review. Starch is the major structural element in many foods, with the fat or sugar also playing key roles. Sugar gives sweetness, colour, add volumes and influence the texture of a biscuit. Besides that, it shows significant impact on starch gelatinization properties. Fat plays an important role in biscuit production and the type of fat used determines the quality of the final product. In this article, the functional properties of major ingredients of biscuit were also reviewed with emphasis on wheat flour, sugar and fat.
Meat adulteration has been a significant issue in today’s food industry as it intertwine with religious, social and economic values. PCR based techniques for the detection of meat species in a meat admixture are primarily used by the industry as a reliable approach due to its sensitivity and reliability. This paper describes the design and verification of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based assay for the detection of meat from various nontarget species by using species specific oligonucleotides. Five sets of species-specific primers have been developed to target small regions (≤ 150 bp) of the mitochondrial D-loop. The specificity, sensitivity and reliability of each assay have been verified by using SYBR Green based RT-PCR. By using a cut-off CT of 30 cycles, all assays show sensitivity down to 0.05% of the DNA spike level. When applied to DNA templates from raw meat admixtures, assays were able to detect the target species up to a level of 0.1%. Hence, this verify the potential applicability of these assays in the meat industry.
Microwave heating technology is widely used in food catering and domestic households. Nonuniformity of microwave temperature distribution causes the formation of hot and cold spots in heated product has led to the survival of foodborne pathogens which may later cause food borne diseases. It is the aim of this study to determine the effect of different microwave heating on the microbiological quality of microwavable frozen chicken curries. Nine commercialised frozen chicken curries were thawed overnight in the chiller (< 4°C) and exposed to different microwave power levels and times (270 W at 60 s; 950 W at 150 s and 300 s). 25 g of chicken curry were homogenised, serial diluted and enumerated aseptically. Total Aerobic Count (TAC), Total Coliform Count (TCC), Escherichia coli count and Salmonella count were carried out and no microorganisms were detected. Enterobacteriaceae were found in the food samples after enrichment process. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing were carried out. Results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that two gram-negative isolates after enrichment were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Paddy is the staple food of local people in Sabah, but its production is affected by a disturbing disease known as blast, which is caused by fungi (i.e., Magnaporthe grisea and Magnaporthe oryzae) infection. Knowledge regarding distribution of blast-resistant (BR) genes among various Sabah traditional paddy varieties in different divisions of Sabah is not clear; hence, molecular identification of BR genes in Sabah traditional paddies is urgently needed. In this study, genomic DNA was extracted from 21 different Sabah traditional paddy varieties collected from three divisions of Sabah including the West Coast Division (WCD), Sandakan Division (SD), and Interior Division (ID). The presence of 11 BR and 2 pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in their genome was molecularly screened using a PCR approach and validated using direct sequencing. Our results showed that high frequencies of Pib (95.2%), pi-ta (100.0%), and RCC2 (100.0%) genes were obtained in all 21 Sabah traditional paddy varieties screened. Interestingly, one of the paddy varieties from ID of Sabah, PBT23, did not contain the Pib gene but carried the Pita/Pita-2 allele in its genome. Besides, only three paddies (PBT08 and PBT07 from WCD, and PBT23) exhibited the Pik-p gene, and no varieties were found to carry the Pik, Pik-m, Pit, Piz, Piz-t, Pi-ta, Pi9, and wwin2 genes. In conclusion, this study serves as the basis for improvement and effectual management of traditional paddies in different divisions of Sabah towards blast resistance with knowledge of BR or PR genes inherited in their genome.
Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause for foodborne diseases. Extensive use of antibiotics has led to emergence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. Hence, interest on natural plant-based alternative which limits the use of synthetic chemicals is growing. The present work evaluated the antibacterial capacity of garlic, aloe vera, galangal, pineapple peel, neem, papaya leaf, lemongrass, peppermint, nutmeg and clove separately extracted with hexane, ethanol and water to a final concentration of 10% w/v against ampicillin+penicillin-resistant isolates of S. aureus in vitro. Streptomycin was used as a drug control against the resistant isolates; BRS023, BRS068 and DRS072. According to the interpretive standards for inhibition zone diameter provided by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, isolates BRS068 and DRS072 were considered resistant (≤ 12 mm), and isolate BRS023 was considered intermediate (13-14 mm). Against these isolates, all crude plant extracts exhibited varying degrees of inhibition. However, a coherent trend was observed in the inhibition between resistant and intermediate isolates regardless of plants and solvents used. It was also found that extraction solvent types impacted the resulting antibacterial activity. In terms of positive inhibition, the solvents were ranked in the order of hexane (77%) > water (73%) > ethanol (57%). 10% hexane extract of galangal gave the overall highest inhibition zones (17.8 ± 1.4 mm) closely followed by 10% ethanol extract of nutmeg (16.3 ± 1.1 mm). Further phytochemical analyses of the antibacterial compounds from galangal and nutmeg, and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) are needed. Potential applications of plant-based antibacterial compounds as natural, costeffective and less-toxic food preservatives against drug-resistant foodborne pathogens should be explored.
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known and nutrient rich edible fruits. Peel and Arils of three available cultivars of this fruit in Bangladesh namely, Bangladesh pomegranate, Indian-Mridula and Egypt pomegranate were analyzed to evaluate their biochemical and bioactive properties. The ash, crude fiber, lipid, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solid, total sugar as well as bioactive properties included DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total tannin content (TTC) and vitamin C were assessed in the study. The results of the analysis showed that the ash, pH, titratable acidity, moisture, total sugar ranged from 0.26-0.93%, 3.54-4.01, 1.40-1.87%, 75.4381.20%, 9.02-10.12 g DE/100g for aril and 1-2.03%, 3.53-4.12, 1.75-1.88%, 71.69-76.65%, 21.14-29.19 g DE/100g for peel respectively. However, the seed of all cultivars contained significantly (p
‘Cempedak’ (Artocarpus integer L.) is an aromatic exotic tropical fruit that can be widely found in Malaysia during season. The pulp yield and several physicochemical properties of five varietes of ‘cempedak’ (CH27, CH28, CH29, CH30 and CH33) were determined. The latter included total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, color, organic acids, sugars and carotenoid contents. Sensory evaluation of the five ‘cempedak’ varieties was conducted using Hedonic test, in which the assessed attributes include color, taste, texture and overall acceptability. Results indicate that CH33 yield the highest percentage (35.8%) of edible portion (fruit pulp), while CH27 shows the highest tiratable acidity (0.52%). CH30 had the lowest L* value (52.41), and highest intensity of color in terms of redness (32.45) and yellowness (65.27) values. All ‘cempedak’ varieties were highest in sucrose content (12.28-20.02 g/100 gFW) compared to fructose (5.70-6.72 g/100 gFW) and glucose (4.94-5.52 g/100 gFW), while malic acid (0.430.70%) was the highest organic acid as compared to citric acid (0.24-0.60%) and succinic acid (0.20-0.33%). All the ‘cempedak’ varieties studied have high content of α-carotene (2.30-45.27 μg/100 gFW), followed by β-carotene (2.30-12.23 μg/100 gFW), with CH28 having the highest content. From the five varieties of ‘cempedak’ fruit examined, it was found that CH28 ranked the highest in terms of sensory properties, namely taste, texture and overall acceptability.
Clinacanthus nutans is the native medicinal herbs that grow in tropical climate, mainly can be found in Malaysia and Thailand. Clinacanthus nutans is used to boost immunity and for detoxification. It is claiming to promote bowel movement and other health promotions, such as skin care, diuresis and cancer (such as lung, ovary, uterine, prostate, nasopharyngeal and breast). This study focused on the effects of solvents towards antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of C. nutans (Belalai Gajah/ Sabah Snake Grass) leaves and stems. Freeze-dried leaves and stems were homogenized before testing its antimicrobial properties. The 70% acetone (Merck, Germany) was prepared by dissolving fine powder of C. nutans in 1:10 solvent ratio with 70% acetone using ultrasonic extraction for 1 h in an ultrasonic bath (Soniclean, Thebarton, Australia). Ten bacteria (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aureginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella boydii, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidemidis) and four fungi (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Rhizopus stolonifer and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in the antimicrobial study employing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal microcidal concentration (MMC) methods. The data obtained were statistically analysed using SPSS Inc. Version 22 (Chicago, USA). The MIC values of acetone extracts for the selected bacteria and fungi ranged between 6.25 – 100.00 mg/ mL while the MMC values of acetone extracts for the selected bacteria and fungi were between 25.00 - >100.00 mg/ mL. Recommendation on phytochemicals investigation should be conducted to determine the potential of compounds toward antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.
Temperature management is the most important tool to extend shelf-life and indirectly delay losses of quality parameters in vegetables during postharvest storage. Quality losses are enhanced by use of improper packaging material, extended storage, higher temperatures, low relative humidity, physical damage and chilling injuries. Packaging helps to keep food from drying out and to preserve nutritive values, flavour, texture and colour. Broccoli and cauliflower stored at inappropriate temperature and humidity would easily deteriorate as they are highly perishable. Most of the time, domestic consumers store these vegetables under common refrigerated conditions with or without packaging until being used for consumption. The quality deterioration of these vegetables occurs rapidly in both situations. Thus the aim of this research was to determine the effect of different types of packaging including plastic bag, cling film (shrink wrap) and white paper on the quality parameters including antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and colour of fresh-cut broccoli and cauliflower at chilled temperature 8-10°C for 21 days. Fresh-cut broccoli was found to contain higher amount of total phenolic content (274 mg/100g) and antioxidant activity (179 mg/100g) compared to cauliflower that has total phenolic content (137 mg/100g) and antioxidant activity (163 mg/100g). Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of broccoli and cauliflower that was packed with plastic bag, shrink wrap and paper decreased after 21 days of storage. Yellowing in broccoli significantly increased, reflecting the b* values, from 6.9 (control) to 29.89 (cling film), 23.2 (paper) and 24.99 (plastic bag), respectively. Darkening in cauliflower also significantly increased, reflecting the L* values, from 65.07 (control) to 87.43 (plastic bag), followed by shrink wrap, and paper which was 86.51 and 84.69, respectively, after 21 days. Among the three types of packaging materials, white paper was efficient to maintain the quality (based on colour, antioxidant and total phenolic compounds).
Taking into account the many cases of malnutrition related deaths in especially sub-Saharan Africa, the current research effort was conceived with the objective of appraising the nutritive potential of Moringa oleifera L. plant through the evaluation of proper agronomic practice that will enhance its nutritive potential. Measured quantity of dried roots, stem, and leaves portions of 5 months old Moringa oleifera L. seedlings, grown under various applied phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) rates were analysed for essential and non-essential amino acids content, total antioxidants, secondary metabolites (phenolics and flavonoids), and mineral nutrient elements. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed the presence of 9 essential and 7 non-essential amino acids, with a range of 4.24 to 10.04 gkg-1 recorded for leucine, threonine, histidine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and glycine. The 2,2ꞌ- diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay revealed strong antioxidants presence (up to 68% DPPH scavenging activity and a high level FRAP potential of 2500 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE) / 100g dry weight (DW). Folin-Ciocalteu’s and aluminium chloride calorimetric assay revealed high levels of secondary metabolites (ranging from 1000 to 1350 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100g DW total phenolics and up to 2400 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/1mg DW total flavonoids), and the nitric acid wet digestion procedure revealed a lot of mineral nutrient elements (with significant values of up to 19.13 g kg-1 maximum content acquired from calcium (Ca) and up to 9.90 g kg-1 recorded for iron (Fe). These nutritive components are noted to be highest in the leaves portion, followed by the roots, and then the stem parts. Based on its recognised rich base nutritive content, Moringa oleifera L. is a tree plant of nutraceuticals importance for impoverished communities.
Implication of drying techniques in preservation of fruit juice has huge advantage in quality control and packaging sector. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of drying techniques and maltodextrin concentrations on physicochemical attributes of pink guava powder. Pink guava puree was dried at -110ºC and 0.001 mbar by freeze drying and at 170ºCinlet air temperature and 350 ml/hr feed flow rate by spray drying with 10-20% maltodextrin concentration (MDC). The drying methods (DM) and MDC had significant effect on powder properties. Spray drying was more effective reducing the moisture content and water activity to 2.86% and 0.377, respectively, whereas, freeze drying was more suitablein the retention of color, lycopene and vitamin C. Spray drying was more economic method compared to freeze drying. Overall, spray-dried pink guava powder produced with 20% MDC had better quality than that of freeze-dried powder in terms of lowest moisture content (2.17%), lowest water activity (0.33), highest glass transition temperature (215ºC), less electricity and time consumption, anda moderate retention of lycopene and vitamin C.
The purpose of the current study was to isolate and identify subclinical mastitis causing bacteria from milk samples of dairy goats. The milk samples from individual dairy goats were collected from several dairy goat farms around Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Major bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus spp. (73.2%). Coagulase negative staphylococci encompassing 68.3% of the isolates, whereas 4.9% was coagulase positive staphylococci. Bacillus spp. constituted 12.2% out of the isolates. Listeria spp. and Neisseria spp. both were represented 7.3%. There is a need to discuss the potential hazards of these bacteria in affecting milk quality, health of goats and food safety to consumers. The findings also emphasize the need to study the exact species of bacteria isolated in order to plan for their prevention as well as to assist veterinarians in prescribing correct antibiotic therapy.