Sweet potato is known to be rich in healthful antioxidants, but the stability of its antioxidant properties under gastrointestinal pH is very much unknown. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the changes in antioxidant properties (total contents of phenolics and flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity) of sweet potato flour (SPF) under simulated gastrointestinal pH conditions. It was found that the yield of SPF crude phenolic extract increased from 0.29 to 3.22 g/100 g SPF upon subjection to gastrointestinal pH conditions (p < 0.05). Also elevated significantly were the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity of SPF (p < 0.05). In summary, the antioxidant properties of SPF were enhanced under gastrointestinal pH conditions, suggesting that SPF might possess a considerable amount of bound phenolic and other antioxidative compounds. The antioxidant properties of SPF are largely influenced by pH and thus might be enhanced during the in vivo digestive process.
The influence of variety (Cavendish and Dream), stage of ripeness (green and ripe) and parts (pulp and peel) on antioxidative compounds and antioxidant activity of banana fruit was investigated. The TPC and TFC ranged widely from 75.01 to 685.57 mg GAE/100 g and 39.01 to 389.33 mg CEQ/100 g of dry matter respectively. Cavendish banana flour contained higher TPC and TFC compared to Dream variety. TPC and TFC values of banana peel were higher than those of banana pulp. Also, green banana showed higher TPC and TFC values than those of ripe fruit. Radical scavenging activities (inhibition of DPPH) of the extracts ranged from 26.55 to 52.66%. Although Dream banana peel extracts appeared to have low TPC and TFC, its antioxidant activities were ranked moderate to high. This implies that antioxidative compounds other than phenolics and flavonoids were probably responsible for inhibition of DPPH.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of different ratios of fish to tapioca flour on the linear expansion, oil absorption, colour, and crispiness of fish crackers. Four different ratios of fish to tapioca flour were used in the formulation of the fish crackers. The results showed that protein and fat content increased with the increase in the ratio of the fish. On the other hand, linear expansion and oil absorption decreased with an increase in the ratio of the fish. Hardness also increased with the increase in the ratio of the fish. The colour measurement showed that the lightness value decreased with an increase in the ratio of fish and this decrease is seen more clearly with the fried fish crackers.
In this study, physicochemical and sensory qualities of substituting jering seed flour into wheat chapatis (unleavened Indian flat bread) were evaluated at different proportions (5, 10, 15, 20 and 100% of jering seed flour). Chapati prepared with 100% of wheat flour was served as control. Results showed wheat-jering composite chapatis had significantly higher protein (12.68-15.55%), ash (1.78-2.32%) and carbohydrate contents (50.78-54.50%) than that of wheat chapatis which served as control (11.49, 1.77% and 51.62%, respectively). As for the fat content, this ranged from 1.19% to 1.03%, corresponding to the levels of jering seed flour substitution. In terms of physical characteristics, the puffed height and extensibility of the composite chapatis decreased progressively as the level of jering seed flour substitution increased. On the other hand, the peak load required to rupture chapatis showed an inverse trend. It increased significantly from 3.26 to 15.96 N. Further, the colour values of composite chapatis showed significant changes when the level of jering seed flour substitution was increased. The L* and b* values decreased while a* value increased. Regarding sensory properties, control wheat chapatis had better acceptability than the composite chapatis. However, all the composite chapatis had significantly higher nutritional values. Based on the generated results, novel chapatis could be formulated by substituting wheat with jering seed flour.
The objective of this project was to determine the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of bread supplemented with four different levels (control, 5%, 10%, and 15%) of pumpkin flour. The physical (weight, loaf volume, specific volume and oven spring) and chemical (moisture, protein, fat, fibre and ash) attributes were determined in the raw pumpkin, pumpkin flour (PF), control and supplemented breads. Sensory attributes were conducted on the control and supplemented breads. Increasing the level of substitution from 5% to 15% pumpkin flour significantly (p
Proximate compositions, culinary and sensory properties of noodles prepared from proportionate combinations of breadfruit starch and wheat flour were investigated. Breadfruit starch (BS) isolated from matured breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) was used to produce noodles in combination with hard red wheat flour (WF) at a ratio of 100% WF:0% BS, 80% WF:20% BS, 60% WF:40% BS, 40% WF:60% BS, 20% WF:80% BS. The protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and moisture contents of the Breadfruit starch-Wheat flour (BSWF) noodles prepared from the above blends ranged from 0.65 to 10.88%, 0.35 to 3.15%, 1.28 to 2.25%, 1.18 to 1.45% and 4.65 to 5.45%, respectively. The contents of protein, fat, ash and crude fibre increased as the percentage breadfruit starch decreased. However, values of moisture content did not follow the same trend, instead higher values were found for 100% BS:0% WF (5.35%) and 20% BS:80% WF (5.45%). The cooking yield of the BSWF noodles ranged from 21.02 (60% BS:40% WF) to 23.75 g (100% BS:0% WF), cooking loss ranged from 5.49 (20% BS:80% WF) to 9.19% (100% BS:0% WF), while swelling index ranged from 3.1 (20% BS:80% WF) to 3.4 (100% BS:0% WF). Throughout the study, noodles produced from blends of 20% breadfruit starch and 80% wheat flour showed superior proximate, culinary and sensory attributes.
The physical attributes (pH and colour), cooking yield, textural and mechanical properties (firmness, tensile and texture profiles analyses) and structural breakdown properties (multiple extrusion cell with added artificial saliva) of five yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) formulations were studied. Samples used were noodles with (a) typical formulation (control), (b) soy protein isolate (SPI), (c) soy protein isolate plus microbial transglutaminase enzyme (SPI/MTGase), (d) green banana pulp flour (GBPu) and (e) green banana peel flour (GBPe). Compared to other noodles SPI/MTGase noodle showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher values in terms of textural, mechanical and breakdown properties. Incorporating SPI, banana pulp and peel flours into the noodles had imposed some differences on most of the mechanical and textural parameters from the control YAN. However, these noodles could not be clearly distinguished in term of structural breakdown properties.
The textural and sensorial properties of the cookies prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with two types of unripe banana flour (UBF) were studied. The green matured unripe banana (Musa x paradisiaca var. Tanduk and Musa acuminata var. Emas) was used to partially substitute the usage of wheat flour at 0% (control), 25% and 50% level in the formulated plain cookies. Textural (hardness) and sensorial properties were conducted on all samples. Substitution of UBF to formulation of cookies had increased the hardness of cookies (ranging from 967 N to 1665 N) compared to the control except for substitution of Emas banana flour (EBF) at 50% which was not significantly difference (p > 0.05) with control sample. The substitution of 25% of Tanduk banana flour (TBF) showed the highest mean score in overall acceptability (6.81 ± 1.18) compared to all treated samples. TBF substitution is feasible up to 50% substitution while for EBF, the substitution only up to 25% level in this study.
Biscuit is a popular food product where it is produced using wheat flour, sugar and fat as its main ingredients. Wheat flour is the major material used in biscuit production and within the flour starch is the principal component. The details of starch properties such as pasting properties, gelatinisation properties, crystallinity were discussed in this review. Starch is the major structural element in many foods, with the fat or sugar also playing key roles. Sugar gives sweetness, colour, add volumes and influence the texture of a biscuit. Besides that, it shows significant impact on starch gelatinization properties. Fat plays an important role in biscuit production and the type of fat used determines the quality of the final product. In this article, the functional properties of major ingredients of biscuit were also reviewed with emphasis on wheat flour, sugar and fat.
This paper investigates the application of visco-hyperelastic model to soft rubberlike material, that is gluten. Gluten is a major protein in wheat flour dough (a mixture of flour and water) which exists as long network fibers and undergo large deformation under uniaxial tension and compression. The visco-hyperelastic model is represented by a combination of the viscoelastic Prony series and the hyperelastic extended tube model. Calibration of the visco-hyperelastic model to gluten tests result suggests that gluten can be modelled as a finite viscoelastic material.
This research was conducted to investigate the effects of different grinding techniques (dry, semi-wet and wet) of milled rice grains on the damaged starch and particle size distribution of flour produced from a new variety, MR263, specifically related to the pasting and thermal profiles. The results indicated that grinding techniques significantly (p<0.05) affected starch damage content and particle size distribution of rice flour. Wet grinding process yields flour with lowest percentage of starch damage (7.37%) and finest average particle size (8.52μm). Pasting and gelatinization temperature was found in the range of 84.45-89.63°C and 59.86-75.31°C, respectively. Dry ground flour attained the lowest pasting and gelatinization temperature as shown by the thermal and pasting profiles. Correlation analysis revealed that percentage of damaged starch granules had a significant, negative relationship with pasting temperature while average particle size distribution had a significant, strong negative relationship with gelatinization temperature.
The physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the control (BCtr), commercial wheat flour (CWF) bread substituted with 10% BPF (banana pseudo-stem flour) (B10BPF) and B10BPF with added 0.8% w/w (flour weight basis) xanthan gum (XG) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (B10BPFXG and B10BPFCMC, respectively) were examined. The proximate analyses revealed that the composite bread had significantly higher moisture, ash, crude fibre, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre contents but lower protein, fat and carbohydrate contents than the BCtr. Bread incorporated with BPF resulted in a lower volume, darker crumb and lighter crust colour than the BCtr. The addition of CMC improved the bread volume. All breads containing BPF had greater total phenolics, and antioxidant properties than the control bread. Sensory evaluation indicated that the B10BPFCMC bread had the highest acceptability.
In the present study, we investigated the physicochemical and functional properties of lotus seed flour exposed to low and high doses of gamma-radiation (0-30 kGy; the dose recommended for quarantine and hygienic purposes). The results indicated raw seed flour to be rich in nutrients with minimal quantities of antinutritional factors. Irradiation resulted in a dose-dependent increase in some of the proximal constituents. The raw and gamma-irradiated seeds meet the Food and Agricultural Organization-World Health Organization recommended pattern of essential amino acids. Some of the antinutritional factors (phytic acid, total phenolics, and tannins) were lowered with gamma-irradiation, while the seed flours were devoid of lectins, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, and polonium-210. The functional properties of the seed flour were significantly improved with gamma-radiation. gamma-radiation selectively preserved or improved the desired nutritional and functional traits of lotus seeds, thus ensuring a safe production of appropriate nutraceutically valued products.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition. After subjecting the wheat and rice flour slurries to simulated gastrointestinal pH condition, both slurries were centrifuged to obtain the crude phenolic extracts for further analyses. Extraction yield, total contents of phenolic and flavonoids were determined as such (untreated) and under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition (treated). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and iron chelating activity assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity of the tested samples. In almost all of the assays performed, significant improvements in antioxidant properties (p < 0.05) were observed in both flours after treatment, suggesting that wheat and rice flours contain considerably heavy amounts of bound phenolics, and that their antioxidant properties might be improved under gastrointestinal digestive conditions.
Banana peel flour (BPF) prepared from green or ripe Cavendish and Dream banana fruits were assessed for their total starch (TS), digestible starch (DS), resistant starch (RS), total dietary fibre (TDF), soluble dietary fibre (SDF) and insoluble dietary fibre (IDF). Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that only 1 component was responsible for 93.74% of the total variance in the starch and dietary fibre components that differentiated ripe and green banana flours. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to similar data obtained two statistically significant clusters (green and ripe bananas) to indicate difference in behaviours according to the stages of ripeness based on starch and dietary fibre components. We concluded that the starch and dietary fibre components could be used to discriminate between flours prepared from peels obtained from fruits of different ripeness. The results were also suggestive of the potential of green and ripe BPF as functional ingredients in food.
Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was performed in this study to develop an acceptable reduced calorie chocolate cake. The range of the independent variables, namely Jackfruit Seed (JFS) flour (20-25% replacement of wheat flour) and polydextrose (10-15% replacement of sucrose) were identified which affect the volume, specific volume, symmetry and uniformity of the chocolate cake. The coefficient of determination, R2 values for volume, specific volume, symmetry and uniformity were greater than 0.900. The optimum level for replacement of sugar with polydextrose was at 11% and wheat flour with JFS flour was at 16% with calorie reduction approximately 34% from the control cake formulation.
Media components such as wheat flour, MgSO4 and particle size were screened by Placket Burman design (PBD) while the operating range was fixed by one-factor-at-a-time method (OFAT), primarily for the enrichment of cassava peels as animal feed. Optimization of the selected media components was carried out using Face–Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD) of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the responses were measured in term of protein and lignin contents. Statistical analysis of the result showed that the quadratic term of wheat flour and the interaction between wheat flour and particle size were highly significant (P
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seeds have always being wasted as agricultural waste. Recent studies revealed that the seeds contain high fiber. The purpose of this study is to develop defatted kenaf seeds yellow noodles (DKSY) and assess the nutritional and physicohemical properties of the noodles. Defatted kenaf flour at 25% and 75% were used to make DKSY noodles and compared to wheat yellow noodles (Control). Fresh DKSY noodles were analyzed for their nutritional and physiochemical properties. The ash and fiber contents increased in order of Control > 25% DKSY > 75% DKSY noodles. While total phenolic contents (TPC) was found to be higher in 75% DKSY noodles (138.30 ± 1.63 mg GAE/100 g) than Control noodles. Colour (L, b) and hardness decreased in order of Control > 25% DKSY > 75% DKSY indicating that DKSY noodles developed less quality than Control noodles. However, cooking loss values were found to be in the same order while cooking values exist in the opposite order indicating that. DKSY noodles have better noodle cooking quality. In conclusion, nutritional properties and noodle cooking quality of yellow noodles increased with higher concentration of defatted kenaf flour but the physicochemical properties were compromised. More research needs to be done in order to develop a formulation that can increase all of the attributes studied.
Physical properties of ripe banana flour were studied in Cavendish and Dream banana, in order to distinguish the two varieties. Flour was analyzed for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), water holding capacity
(WHC) and oil holding capacity (OHC) at 40, 60 and 80 °C, color values L*, a* and b*, back extrusion force
and viscosity. Physical properties data were analyzed by cluster analysis (CA) and discriminant analysis (DA). CA showed that the two types of flour were different in terms of selected physical properties. DA indicated that WHC at 60 °C was the main contributor in discriminating the two types of flour.
There is an increasing demand for fibre rich food and food ingredients. In this study, pumpkin pulp, unripe banana pulp, unripe mango pulp and peel which are high in dietary fibre were processed into flour and substituted at 5% level for wheat flour in a composite flour crackers formulation. The control crackers comprised of 100% wheat flour. Sensory evaluation was conducted using a 9-point hedonic scale with 31 panelists evaluating the crackers based on colour, crrispiness, taste and overall acceptance. Different types of composite flour crackers were not significantly different (p≤0.05) in term of crispiness. For colour, taste and overall acceptance, the pumpkin, banana and control crackers differ significantly (p≤0.05) with the mango pulp and mango peel crackers.