This paper reports on the extraction of Moringa oleifera (MO) oil by using aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method. The effect of different process parameters on the oil recovery was discovered by using statistical optimization, besides the effect of selected parameters on the formation of its oil-in-water cream emulsions. Within the pre-determined ranges, the use of pH 4.5, moisture/kernel ratio of 8:1 (w/w), and 300stroke/min shaking speed at 40°C for 1h incubation time resulted in highest oil recovery of approximately 70% (goil/g solvent-extracted oil). These optimized parameters also result in a very thin emulsion layer, indicating minute amount of emulsion formed. Zero oil recovery with thick emulsion were observed when the used aqueous phase was re-utilized for another AEE process. The findings suggest that the critical selection of AEE parameters is key to high oil recovery with minimum emulsion formation thereby lowering the load on the de-emulsification step.
The study aimed to evaluate nutraceutical potential of three commercially significant edible jellyfish species (Acromitus hardenbergi, Rhopilema hispidum and Rhopilema esculentum). The bell and oral arms of these jellyfishes were analyzed for their proximate composition, calorific value, collagen content, amino acid profile, chemical score and elemental constituent. In general, all jellyfish possessed low calorific values (1.0-4.9 kcal/g D.W.) and negligible fat contents (0.4-1.8 g/100 g D.W.), while protein (20.0-53.9 g/100 g D.W.) and minerals (15.9-57.2g/100g D.W.) were found to be the richest components. Total collagen content of edible jellyfish varied from 122.64 to 693.92 mg/g D.W., accounting for approximately half its total protein content. The dominant amino acids in both bell and oral arms of all jellyfish studied includes glycine, glutamate, threonine, proline, aspartate and arginine, while the major elements were sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, sulfur, zinc and silicon. Among the jellyfish, A. hardenbergi exhibited significantly higher total amino acids, chemical scores and collagen content (p<0.05) compared to R. hispidum and R. esculentum. Having good protein quality and low calories, edible jellyfish is an appealing source of nutritive ingredients for the development of oral formulations, nutricosmetics and functional food.
Hydrocolloids were extracted from seed mucilage and the pulp fractions from red tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) mesocarp, and characterisation of their techno-functional properties and in vitro bile acid-binding capacities was performed. The seed mucilage hydrocolloids that were extracted, using either 1% citric acid (THC) or water (THW), had a good foaming capacity (32-36%), whereas the pulp hydrocolloids that were extracted, using 72% ethanol (THE) or 20mM HEPES buffer (THH), had no foaming capacity. The pulp hydrocolloid, however, possessed high oil-holding and water-holding capacities in the range of 3.3-3.6 g oil/g dry sample and 25-27 g water/g dry sample, respectively. This enabled the pulp hydrocolloid to entrap more bile acids (35-38% at a hydrocolloid concentration of 2%) in its gelatinous network in comparison to commercial oat fibre and other hydrocolloids studied. The exceptional emulsifying properties (80-96%) of both hydrocolloids suggest their potential applications as food emulsifiers and bile acid binders.
We have developed a method for analysing vitamin E using ultra-performance convergence chromatography with a chromatographic runtime of 5.5 min. A well-resolved chromatogram with excellent precision in retention time revealed seven vitamin E components in the palm oil derived tocotrienol-rich fraction. The major vitamin E components were α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, γ-tocotrienol and δ-tocotrienol whereas the minor vitamin E components were α-tocomonoenol, β-tocotrienol and an unreported trace component. The new component was positively identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry as 2-methyl-2(4',8',12'-trimethyltrideca-7',11'-dienyl)5,7,8-trimethylchroman-6-ol or α-tocodienol.
Various strategies have been adopted to combat complications caused by Type 2 diabetes mellitus and controlled diet is one of them. Monoterpenes, major constituents of essential oils, are synthesized and widely used as artificial food flavors. A series of twelve monoterpenes were assessed in the present study. Monoterpenes, exhibited low 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity even at high concentrations. Some monoterpenes inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity and stimulated glucose uptake and lipolysis. Monoterpenes such as (R)-(+)-limonene stimulated both glucose uptake (17.4%) and lipolysis (17.7%); the mRNA expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) was upregulated but glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) was unaffected, and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was suppressed. Taken together, the selected monoterpenes may not confer strong protection against free radicals but nevertheless, their positive influence on lipid and glucose metabolism may have potential in the control of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The aim of this study was to: (a) develop a simple, high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method combined with direct 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay to rapidly assess and compare free radical scavenging activity or anti-oxidant activity for major classes of polyphenolics present in wines; and (b) to investigate relationship between free radical scavenging activity to the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the wine samples. The most potent free radical scavengers that we tested for in the wine samples were found to be resveratrol (polyphenolic non-flavonoid) and rutin (flavonoid), while polyphenolic acids (caffeic acid and gallic acid) although present in all wine samples were found to be less potent free radical scavengers. Therefore, the total antioxidant capacity was mostly affected by the presence of resveratrol and rutin, while total polyphenolic content was mostly influenced by the presence of the less potent free radical scavengers gallic and caffeic acids.
An HS-SPME method was developed using multivariate experimental designs, which was conducted in two stages. The significance of each factor was estimated using the Plackett-Burman (P-B) design, for the identification of significant factors, followed by the optimization of the significant factors using central composite design (CCD). The multivariate experiment involved the use of Minitab® statistical software for the generation of a 2(7-4) P-B design and CCD matrices. The method performance evaluated with internal standard calibration method produced good analytical figures of merit with linearity ranging from 1 to 500 μg/kg with correlation coefficient greater than 0.99, LOD and LOQ were found between 0.35 and 8.33 μg/kg and 1.15 and 27.76 μg/kg respectively. The average recovery was between 73% and 118% with relative standard deviation (RSD=1.5-14%) for all the investigated pesticides. The multivariate method helps to reduce optimization time and improve analytical throughput.
Food falsification has direct impact on public health, religious faith, fair-trades and wildlife. For the first time, here we described a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the accurate identification of five meat species forbidden in Islamic foods in a single assay platform. Five pairs of species-specific primers were designed targeting mitochondrial ND5, ATPase 6, and cytochrome b genes to amplify 172, 163, 141, 129 and 108 bp DNA fragments from cat, dog, pig, monkey and rat meats, respectively. All PCR products were identified in gel-images and electrochromatograms obtained from Experion Bioanalyzer. Species-specificity checking against 15 important meat and fish and 5 plant species detected no cross-species amplification. Screening of target species in model and commercial meatballs reflected its application to detect target species in process foods. The assay was tested to detect 0.01-0.02 ng DNA under raw states and 1% suspected meats in meatball formulation.
The trace metal concentrations in edible muscle of red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) sampled from a former tin mining pool, concrete tank and earthen pond in Jelebu were analysed with microwave assisted digestion-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results were compared with established legal limits and the daily ingestion exposures simulated using the Monte Carlo algorithm for potential health risks. Among the metals investigated, arsenic was found to be the key contaminant, which may have arisen from the use of formulated feeding pellets. Although the risks of toxicity associated with consumption of red tilapia from the sites investigated were found to be within the tolerable range, the preliminary probabilistic estimation of As cancer risk shows that the 95th percentile risk level surpassed the benchmark level of 10(-5). In general, the probabilistic health risks associated with ingestion of red tilapia can be ranked as follows: former tin mining pool > concrete tank > earthen pond.
Baccaurea angulata is an underutilised tropical fruit of Borneo Island of Malaysia. The effect of solvents was examined on yield, total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC), total carotene content (TCC), free radical scavenging activities and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. The results indicated that the pulp (edible portion) had the highest yield, while methanol extracts were significantly (p < 0.01) found to contain higher TPC, TFC and TCC than phosphate buffered saline (PBS) extracts for all the fruits parts. The methanol extracts also showed remarkable antiradical activity and significant lipid peroxidation inhibition activities, with their IC50 results highly comparable to that of commercial blueberry. The variations in the results among the extracts suggest different interactions, such as negative or antagonistic (interference), additive and synergistic effect interactions. The study indicated that B. angulata like other underutilised tropical fruits contained remarkable primary antioxidants. Thus, the fruit has the potential to be sources of antioxidant components.
An efficient and rapid method for the analysis of pesticide residues in cocoa beans using gas and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed, validated and applied to imported and domestic cocoa beans samples collected over 2 years from smallholders and Malaysian ports. The method was based on solvent extraction method and covers 26 pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides) of different chemical classes. The recoveries for all pesticides at 10 and 50 μg/kg were in the range of 70-120% with relative standard deviations of less than 20%. Good selectivity and sensitivity were obtained with method limit of quantification of 10 μg/kg. The expanded uncertainty measurements were in the range of 4-25%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the routine analysis of pesticide residues in cocoa beans via a monitoring study where 10% of them was found positive for chlorpyrifos, ametryn and metalaxyl.
The amino acid compositions of bovine, porcine and fish gelatin were determined by amino acid analysis using 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate as derivatization reagent. Sixteen amino acids were identified with similar spectral chromatograms. Data pre-treatment via centering and transformation of data by normalization were performed to provide data that are more suitable for analysis and easier to be interpreted. Principal component analysis (PCA) transformed the original data matrix into a number of principal components (PCs). Three principal components (PCs) described 96.5% of the total variance, and 2 PCs (91%) explained the highest variances. The PCA model demonstrated the relationships among amino acids in the correlation loadings plot to the group of gelatins in the scores plot. Fish gelatin was correlated to threonine, serine and methionine on the positive side of PC1; bovine gelatin was correlated to the non-polar side chains amino acids that were proline, hydroxyproline, leucine, isoleucine and valine on the negative side of PC1 and porcine gelatin was correlated to the polar side chains amino acids that were aspartate, glutamic acid, lysine and tyrosine on the negative side of PC2. Verification on the database using 12 samples from commercial products gelatin-based had confirmed the grouping patterns and the variables correlations. Therefore, this quantitative method is very useful as a screening method to determine gelatin from various sources.
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) condition on the yield, antioxidant activity and stability of the oil from papaya seed. The studied ultrasound variables were time, temperature, ultrasound power and solvent to sample ratio. The main goal was to optimise UAE condition providing the highest recovery of papaya seed oil with the most desirable antioxidant activity and stability. The interaction of ultrasound variables had the most and least significant effects on the antioxidant activity and stability, respectively. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a relatively high oil recovery (∼ 73%) from papaya seed. The strongest antioxidant activity was achieved by the extraction at the elevated temperature using low solvent to sample ratio. The optimum ultrasound extraction was set at the elevated temperature (62.5 °C) for 38.5 min at high ultrasound power (700 W) using medium solvent to sample ratio (∼ 7:1 v/w). The optimum point was practically validated.
Ikan pekasam is a fermented fish product produced in Malaysia and is usually made from freshwater fish with ground roasted uncooked rice as the main source of carbohydrate. In this study, the amino acid, biogenic amine, and trans- and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) contents of fifteen commercial samples of Ikan pekasam made from Javanese carp and black tilapia, that had undergone either natural or acid-assisted fermentation, were quantified. The latter includes either tamarind (Tamarindus indica) pulp or dried slices of Garcinia atroviridis fruit in the fermentation process. Results showed that there are no significant differences in most of the biogenic amines including histamine, while there are significant differences in total UCA content, and trans- and cis-UCA contents between the two samples. Differences in the amino acid contents were largely fish-dependent.
Natural product research is an active branch of science, driven by the increased value placed on individual health and well-being. Many naturally-occurring phytochemicals in plants, fruits and vegetables have been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activity; often touted as being beneficial for human health. In vitro screening is a common practice in many research laboratories as a means of rapidly assessing these properties. However, the methods used by many are not necessarily optimal; a result of poor standardization, redundant assays and/or outdated methodology. This review primarily aims to give a better understanding in the selection of in vitro assays, with emphasis placed on some common assays such as the total phenolic content assay, free radical scavenging activity, disc-diffusion and broth microdilution. This includes a discussion on the reasons for choosing a particular assay, its strengths and weaknesses, ways to improve the accuracy of results and alternative assays.
Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process.
A stability-indicating HPLC-UV method for the determination of curcumin in Curcuma longa extract and emulsion was developed. The system suitability parameters, theoretical plates (N), tailing factor (T), capacity factor (K'), height equivalent of a theoretical plate (H) and resolution (Rs) were calculated. Stress degradation studies (acid, base, oxidation, heat and UV light) of curcumin were performed in emulsion. It was found that N>6500, T<1.1, K' was 2.68-3.75, HETP about 37 and Rs was 1.8. The method was linear from 2 to 200 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The intra-day precision and accuracy for curcumin were ⩽0.87% and ⩽2.0%, while the inter-day precision and accuracy values were ⩽2.1% and ⩽-1.92. Curcumin degraded in emulsion under acid, alkali and UV light. In conclusion, the stability-indicating method could be employed to determine curcumin in bulk and emulsions.
Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. White tea is made from the buds and young leaves of the tea plant which are steamed and dried, whilst undergoing minimal oxidation. The MTT assay was used to test the extract on the effect of the proliferation of the colorectal cancer cell line, HT-29. The extract inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells with an IC50 of 87μg/ml. The extract increased the levels of caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity in the cells. DNA damage in 3T3-L1 normal cells was detected by using the comet assay. The extract protected 3T3-L1 cells against H2O2-induced DNA damage. The results from this study show that white tea has antioxidant and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells, but protect normal cells against DNA damage. Regular intake of white tea can help to maintain good health and protect the body against disease.
Dry matter (DM), total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoid contents, and antioxidant activity of 12 purslane accessions were investigated against five levels of salinity (0, 8, 16, 24 and 32dSm(-1)). In untreated plants, the DM contents ranged between 8.0-23.4g/pot; total phenolics contents (TPC) between 0.96-9.12mgGAEg(-1)DW; total flavonoid contents (TFC) between 0.15-1.44mgREg(-1)DW; and total carotenoid contents (TCC) between 0.52BCEg(-1)DW. While FRAP activity ranged from 8.64-104.21mgTEg(-1)DW (about 12-fold) and DPPH activity between 2.50-3.30mgmL(-1) IC50 value. Different levels of salinity treatment resulted in 8-35% increases in TPC; about 35% increase in TFC; and 18-35% increases in FRAP activity. Purslane accessions Ac4, Ac5, Ac6 and Ac8 possessed potentials for salinity-induced augmented production of bioactive compounds which in turn can be harnessed for possible human health benefits.
An amylase enzyme from pitaya peel was purified 234.2-folds with 72.1% recovery using ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE revealed that the enzyme is monomeric with a molecular weight of 42.1kDa. The apparent Km and Vmax of the amylase were 2.7 mg/ml and 34.30 u/min/mg of protein, respectively. The enzyme was highly active and stable over a wide pH range from pH 3 to pH 11.0, with optimum activity being observed at pH 5.0. The enzyme was highly selective for soluble starch, amylopectin, glycogen and pulullan. The purified amylase did not require calcium and displayed extreme stability with regard to surfactants and oxidising agents. EDTA, a powerful chelating agent, did not have any significant effect on the stability of the enzyme. Such characteristics have not been previously reported for this type of enzyme from fruit peel. This enzyme, which possesses unique properties, could be widely used in different types of industries, especially in food and biotechnological applications.