Fucoidan is a sulphated polysaccharide that consists mainly of fucose, normally found in brown seaweeds. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Sargassum binderi (Fsar) from Malaysia and subsequently characterised. The chemical characteristics of Fsar were found to be different than those of commercial food grade fucoidan (Fysk) and those of previously studied fucoidans. NMR analysis proposed that the main structure of Fsar is →3)fuc-2-OSO3(-)(1→3)fuc(1→. The molecular weight (47.87kDa) and degree of sulphation (0.20) of Fsar were higher than those of Fysk, at 27.98kDa and 0.15, respectively. However, Fsar's polydispersity index (1.12) and fucose content (34.50%) were lower than those of Fysk, at 1.88 and 43.30%, respectively. Both Fsar and Fysk showed similar thermo-gravimetric properties with four mass losses, amorphous in nature and negative optical rotations. Results show that Fsar has fundamental characteristics of fucoidan with different structural conformation i.e. variation in glycosidic linkages and sulphate group orientation.
Pomegranate peel is a rich source of phenolic compounds (such as punicalagin and hydroxybenzoic acids). However, the content of such bioactive compounds in the peel extract can be affected by extraction type and condition. It was hypothesized that the optimization of a pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction (PUAE) technique could result in the pomegranate peel extract with higher yield and antioxidant activity. The main goal was to optimize PUAE condition resulting in the highest yield and antioxidant activity as well as the highest contents of punicalagin and hydroxybenzoic acids. The operation at the intensity level of 105W/cm(2) and duty cycle of 50% for a short time (10min) had a high efficiency for extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peel. The application of such short extraction can save the energy and cost of the production. Punicalagin and ellagic acid were the most predominant phenolic compounds quantified in the pomegranate peel extract (PPE) from Malas variety. PPE contained a minor content of gallic acid.
The stability of lutein nanodispersions was evaluated during storage and when exposed to different environmental conditions. Lutein nanodispersions were prepared using Tween 80, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium caseinate (SC) and SDS-Tween 80 as the emulsifiers. During eight weeks of storage, all samples showed remarkable physical stability. However, only the SC-stabilized nanodispersion showed excellent chemical stability. Under different environmental conditions, the nanodispersions exhibited a varied degree of stability. All nanodispersions showed constant particle sizes at temperatures between 30 and 60°C. However, at pH 2-8, only the SC-stabilized nanodispersion was physically unstable. The addition of NaCl (300-400mM) only caused flocculation in nanodispersion stabilized by SDS-Tween 80. All nanodispersions were physically stable when subjected to different centrifugation speeds. Only Tween 80-stabilized nanodispersion was stable against the effect of freeze-thaw cycles (no phase separation observed). In this study, there was no particular emulsifier that was effective against all of the environmental conditions tested.
A new optosensor for visual quantitation of nitrite (NO2(-)) ion has been fabricated by physically immobilizing Safranine O (SO) reagent onto a self-adhesive poly(n-butyl acrylate) [poly(nBA)] microspheres matrix, which was synthesized via facile microemulsion UV lithography technique. Evaluation and optimization of the optical NO2(-) ion sensor was performed with a fiber optic reflectance spectrophotometer. Scanning electron micrograph showed well-shaped and smooth spherical morphology of the poly(nBA) microspheres with a narrow particles size distribution from 0.6μm up to 1.8μm. The uniform size distribution of the acrylic microspheres promoted homogeneity of the immobilized SO reagent molecules on the microspheres' surfaces, thereby enhanced the sensing response reproducibility (<5% RSD) with a linear range obtained from 10 to 100ppm NO2(-) ion. The micro-sized acrylic immobilization matrix demonstrated no significant barrier for diffusion of reactant and product, and served as a good solid state ion transport medium for reflectometric nitrite determination in food samples.
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher fat content and acid value; lower moisture and ash; and was softer than the control. Cream fermentation modified nutritional and textural properties of butter in which LH-butter contained higher health beneficial unsaturated fatty acids than the control and thus rendered the product softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property.
Various strategies have been adopted to combat complications caused by Type 2 diabetes mellitus and controlled diet is one of them. Monoterpenes, major constituents of essential oils, are synthesized and widely used as artificial food flavors. A series of twelve monoterpenes were assessed in the present study. Monoterpenes, exhibited low 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity even at high concentrations. Some monoterpenes inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity and stimulated glucose uptake and lipolysis. Monoterpenes such as (R)-(+)-limonene stimulated both glucose uptake (17.4%) and lipolysis (17.7%); the mRNA expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) was upregulated but glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) was unaffected, and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was suppressed. Taken together, the selected monoterpenes may not confer strong protection against free radicals but nevertheless, their positive influence on lipid and glucose metabolism may have potential in the control of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The purpose of this study was to identify porcine-specific peptide markers from thermally processed meat that could differentiate pork from beef, chevon and chicken meat. In the initial stage, markers from tryptic digested protein of chilled, boiled and autoclaved pork were identified using LC-QTOF-MS. An MRM method was then established for verification. A thorough investigation of LC-QTOF-MS data showed that only seven porcine-specific peptides were consistently detected. Among these peptides, two were derived from lactate dehydrogenase, one from creatine kinase, and four from serum albumin protein. However, MRM could only detect four peptides (EVTEFAK, LVVITAGAR, FVIER and TVLGNFAAFVQK) that were consistently present in pork samples. In conclusion, meat species determination through a tandem mass spectrometry platform shows high potential in providing scientifically valid and reliable results even at peptide level. Besides, the specificity and selectivity offered by the proteomics approach also provide a robust platform for Halal authentication.
The aim of this study was to: (a) develop a simple, high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method combined with direct 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay to rapidly assess and compare free radical scavenging activity or anti-oxidant activity for major classes of polyphenolics present in wines; and (b) to investigate relationship between free radical scavenging activity to the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the wine samples. The most potent free radical scavengers that we tested for in the wine samples were found to be resveratrol (polyphenolic non-flavonoid) and rutin (flavonoid), while polyphenolic acids (caffeic acid and gallic acid) although present in all wine samples were found to be less potent free radical scavengers. Therefore, the total antioxidant capacity was mostly affected by the presence of resveratrol and rutin, while total polyphenolic content was mostly influenced by the presence of the less potent free radical scavengers gallic and caffeic acids.
The study aimed to evaluate nutraceutical potential of three commercially significant edible jellyfish species (Acromitus hardenbergi, Rhopilema hispidum and Rhopilema esculentum). The bell and oral arms of these jellyfishes were analyzed for their proximate composition, calorific value, collagen content, amino acid profile, chemical score and elemental constituent. In general, all jellyfish possessed low calorific values (1.0-4.9 kcal/g D.W.) and negligible fat contents (0.4-1.8 g/100 g D.W.), while protein (20.0-53.9 g/100 g D.W.) and minerals (15.9-57.2g/100g D.W.) were found to be the richest components. Total collagen content of edible jellyfish varied from 122.64 to 693.92 mg/g D.W., accounting for approximately half its total protein content. The dominant amino acids in both bell and oral arms of all jellyfish studied includes glycine, glutamate, threonine, proline, aspartate and arginine, while the major elements were sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, sulfur, zinc and silicon. Among the jellyfish, A. hardenbergi exhibited significantly higher total amino acids, chemical scores and collagen content (p<0.05) compared to R. hispidum and R. esculentum. Having good protein quality and low calories, edible jellyfish is an appealing source of nutritive ingredients for the development of oral formulations, nutricosmetics and functional food.
We have developed a method for analysing vitamin E using ultra-performance convergence chromatography with a chromatographic runtime of 5.5 min. A well-resolved chromatogram with excellent precision in retention time revealed seven vitamin E components in the palm oil derived tocotrienol-rich fraction. The major vitamin E components were α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, γ-tocotrienol and δ-tocotrienol whereas the minor vitamin E components were α-tocomonoenol, β-tocotrienol and an unreported trace component. The new component was positively identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry as 2-methyl-2(4',8',12'-trimethyltrideca-7',11'-dienyl)5,7,8-trimethylchroman-6-ol or α-tocodienol.
Hydrocolloids were extracted from seed mucilage and the pulp fractions from red tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) mesocarp, and characterisation of their techno-functional properties and in vitro bile acid-binding capacities was performed. The seed mucilage hydrocolloids that were extracted, using either 1% citric acid (THC) or water (THW), had a good foaming capacity (32-36%), whereas the pulp hydrocolloids that were extracted, using 72% ethanol (THE) or 20mM HEPES buffer (THH), had no foaming capacity. The pulp hydrocolloid, however, possessed high oil-holding and water-holding capacities in the range of 3.3-3.6 g oil/g dry sample and 25-27 g water/g dry sample, respectively. This enabled the pulp hydrocolloid to entrap more bile acids (35-38% at a hydrocolloid concentration of 2%) in its gelatinous network in comparison to commercial oat fibre and other hydrocolloids studied. The exceptional emulsifying properties (80-96%) of both hydrocolloids suggest their potential applications as food emulsifiers and bile acid binders.
A solvent displacement method was used to prepare lutein nanodispersions. The effects of processing parameters (addition method, addition rate, stirring time and stirring speed) and emulsifiers with different stabilizing mechanisms (steric, electrostatic, electrosteric and combined electrostatic-steric) on the particle size and particle size distribution (PSD) of the nanodispersions were investigated. Among the processing parameters, only the addition method and stirring time had significant effects (p<0.05) on the particle size and PSD. For steric emulsifiers, Tween 20, 40, 60 and 80 were used to produce nanodispersions successfully with particle sizes below 100nm. Tween 80 (steric) was then chosen for further comparison against sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (electrostatic), sodium caseinate (electrosteric) and SDS-Tween 80 (combined electrostatic-steric) emulsifiers. At the lowest emulsifier concentration of 0.1%, all the emulsifiers invariably produced stable nanodispersions with small particle sizes (72.88-142.85nm) and narrow PSDs (polydispersity index<0.40).
A new computational approach for the determination of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA) in food is reported, based on the concept of machine learning. Trolox standard was mix with DPPH at different concentrations to produce different colors from purple to yellow. Artificial neural network (ANN) was trained on a typical set of images of the DPPH radical reacting with different levels of Trolox. This allowed the neural network to classify future images of any sample into the correct class of RSA level. The ANN was then able to determine the DPPH-RSA of cinnamon, clove, mung bean, red bean, red rice, brown rice, black rice and tea extract and the results were compared with data obtained using a spectrophotometer. The application of ANN correlated well to the spectrophotometric classical procedure and thus do not require the use of spectrophotometer, and it could be used to obtain semi-quantitative results of DPPH-RSA.
The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction.
The volatile compounds in four selected African star apple fruit (Chrysophyllum albidum) varieties were isolated and identified using the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 59 compounds were identified. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to the aroma distillates from the fruits revealed 45 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-128. Among them, the highest odour activities (FD factors) were determined for methylhexanoate, acetophenone and ethyl dodecanoate. Moreover, aroma lipophilicity appears to reflect molecular conformation. Further analysis of the similarities and differences between the fruit varieties in terms of the key odourants by the application of PLS-DA and PLS-regression coefficient showed strong positive correlation between the very sweet/sweet varieties and 10 key odourants. The odourants included ethyl acetate, acetyl methyl carbinol, methylhexanoate, sabinene, p-cymene, methylbenzoate, ethylbenzoate, geraniol, cis-α-bergomotene, acetophenone, and ethyl dodecanoate.
Solid phase extraction (SPE) and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) were compared and evaluated for the determination of λ-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin in palm oil matrices by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Several SPE sorbents such as graphitised carbon black (GCB), primary secondary amine (PSA), C(18), silica, and florisil were tested in order to minimise fat residues. The results show that mixed sorbents using GCB and PSA obtained cleaner extracts than a single GCB and PSA sorbents. The average recoveries obtained for each pesticide ranged between 81% and 114% at five fortification levels with the relative standard deviation of less than 7% in all cases. The limits of detection for these pesticides were ranged between 0.025 and 0.05 μg/g. The proposed method was applied successfully for the residue determination of both λ-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin in crude palm oil samples obtained from local mills throughout Malaysia.
The addition of ribose to bovine or porcine gelatine solutions followed by heating at 95 °C yielded brown solutions with different pH, colour (CIE L(*) and b(*)) and absorbance (A(420*) values. These differences were used for gelatine powder identification, differentiation and quality control. Differentiation analysis of the Maillard reaction parameters was conducted using cluster analysis (CA) and confidence intervals (CI). The potential use of the method as a quality control procedure was evaluated by using statistical process control (SPC). CA revealed that the two types of gelatine could be classified into two different groups. CI (95% confidence) revealed that the absorbance and colour values could be used as indicators for differentiation between the two types of gelatine because the intervals between the Maillard reaction parameters of the samples were far apart. The methodology demonstrated good reproducibility because it behaved predictably based on the X¯-S charts generated from the SPC charts.
The microwave digestion method was developed and verified for the determination of arsenic in shrimp paste samples. Experimental design for five factors (HNO(3) and H(2)O(2) volumes, sample weight, microwave power and digestion time) were used for the optimisation of sample digestion. For this purpose, two level half factorial design, which involves 16 experiments, was adopted. The concentration of arsenic was analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Design Expert® 7.0 software was used to interpret all data obtained. The combination of 2 mL HNO(3) and 1 mL H(2)O(2) volumes, 0.1g sample weight, 1400 W power and 5 min digestion time was found to be the optimum parameters required to digest the shrimp paste samples. Tests with spiked samples presented good recoveries with relative standard deviations between 0.32% and 5.35%.
Blends of palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) at certain proportions were formulated using a mixture design based on simplex-lattice (Design Expert 8.0.4 Stat-Ease Inc., Minneapolis, 2010). All the 10 oil blends were subjected to chemical interesterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal properties (DSC), polymorphism and microstructural properties were studied. Palm-based trans-free table margarine containing ternary mixture of PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31 (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple isosolid diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profile as compared to the commercial table margarine. This study has shown chemical interesterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their mixtures.
The synergistic antioxidant effects of ethanolic extracts of Centella asiatica (CE), and α-tocopherol have been studied. The types of interactions exhibited by CE and α-tocopherol combined at different ratios were measured using three assays: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity, the β-carotene bleaching system and liposome peroxidation assays. Fixed-fraction isobolographic analysis was used to detect any inducement of the antioxidant activity compared with the individual activities of CE and α-tocopherol. Of all synergistic combinations of CE and α-tocopherol, only fraction 2/3 showed the synergistic combination that fits well in three different assays and can be explained by the regeneration of α-tocopherol by CE despite the interaction effect of β-carotene present in the analytical assay. This phenomenon involved complex interactions between CE and α-tocopherol to exhibit different degrees of interactions that eventually increased antioxidant activity.