Anthracnose, a postharvest disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum capsici is the most devastating disease of bell pepper that causes great economic losses especially in tropical climates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of chitosan (low molecular weight from crab shell, Mw: 50 kDa and 75-85 % deacetylated) against anthracnose by inducing defense-related enzymes. The concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan were used to control the fungus in vitro and postharvest. There was a reduction in C. capsici mycelial growth and the highest chitosan concentration (2.0 %) reduced the growth by 70 % after 7 days incubation. In germination test, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan reduced spore germination in C. capsici between 80 % and 84 %, respectively. In postharvest trial the concentration of 1.5 % decreased the anthracnose severity in pepper fruit by approximately 76 % after 28 days of storage (10 ± 1 °C; 80 % RH). For enzymatic activities, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan increased the polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and total phenolics in inoculated bell pepper during storage. Based on these results, the chitosan presents antifungal properties against C. capsici, as well as potential to induce resistance on bell pepper.
The aim of this research was to determine the changes in the physicochemical properties of palm oil and its blends by FTIR and rheological measurements. Application of heat produces some chemical compounds as impurities and even toxic compounds in oils and fats that give absorbance at different region. FTIR spectra of pure palm olein shows an absorbance at 3002 cm(-1) whereas other pure oils show maximum absorption at around 3007 cm(-1) due to C-H stretching vibration of cis-double bond (=C-H). By blending of high unsaturated oils with palm olein, a clear shift of 3007 cm(-1) band to 3005 cm(-1) occurs. Viscosity of palm olein was found higher among all oils while it subsequently and substantially reduced by blending with other oils. Since it is a function of temperature, viscosity of pure oils and their blends decreases with the increase of temperature. The loss modulus (G''), for all oil blends before and after frying, in rheological experiment was found higher for all oils than the storage modulus (G'), therefore, the viscous property was found higher than elastic property of oils and blends. However, the critical stress for all oil blends was found higher than that of pure oils.
Ozone dose from 0.1 to 0.4 ppm has been proven to be effective in lowering Bacillus cereus count in uncooked and cooked rice. However, it induces physicochemical changes in raw white rice. Physicochemical tests were done to see the effect of ozone treatment towards moisture content, pH, color, hardness of uncooked rice, adhesiveness and hardness of cooked rice, cooking quality and total solids. Results have shown that moisture content, adhesiveness and hardness of cooked rice and uncooked rice have not undergone any significant changes (P > 0.05) in comparison with controlled rice sample. Meanwhile, color (L* and b* value), pH, total solids and cooking quality results have shown significant changes (P
The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P
The main objective of this study was to use heating method (HM) to prepare liposome without employing any chemical solvent or detergent. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was applied for the screening of significant process variables including the lecithin proportion, the cholesterol/lecithin ratio, the pH of solution for liposome preparation, the enzyme/lecithin ratio, the stirring time, the process temperature, the speed of stirrer, the ratio of stirrer to the tank diameter, the application of homogenization, the method of adding enzyme and centrifugation conditions on the encapsulation efficiency (EE %) of liposome and the activity of liposomal Flavourzyme (LAPU(-1)) (P
Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed is a valuable food resource as it has an excellent source of dietary fibre. Therefore, this study examined the functional properties of roselle seeds. Replacement of cookie flour with roselle seed powder at levels of 0-30 % was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. Among the four formulations cookies, the most preferred by panelists was 20 % roselle seed powder cookie (F3), followed by 10 % roselle seed powder cookie (F2) and 30 % roselle seed powder cookie (F4). The least preferred formulation among all was control cookie (F1). Cookie with 20 % roselle seed powder added showed higher content of total dietary fibre (5.6 g/100 g) as compared with control cookie (0.90 g/100 g). Besides that, cookies incorporated with roselle seed powder exhibited improved antioxidant properties. Thus, roselle seed powder can be used as a dietary fibre source and developed as a functional ingredient in food products.
Winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.] seed is a potential underexploited source of vegetable protein due to its high protein content. In the present work, undefatted and defatted winged bean seed hydrolysates, designated as UWBSH and DWBSH, respectively were produced separately by four proteolytic enzymes namely Flavourzyme, Alcalase, Bromelain, and Papain using pH-stat method in a batch reactor. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out over a period of 0.5 to 5 h. UWBSH and DWBSH produced were tested for their ACE inhibitory activity in relation to the hydrolysis time and degree of hydrolysis (DH). Maximum ACE inhibitory activity, both for UWBSH and DWBSH, were observed during 3 to 5 h of hydrolysis. Both, UWBSH (DH 91.84 %), and DWSBH (DH 18.72 %), produced by Papain at 5 h hydrolysis, exhibited exceptionally high ACE inhibitory activity with IC50 value 0.064 and 0.249 mg mL(-1), respectively. Besides, papain-produced UWBSH and DWBSH were further fractionated into three fractions based on molecular weight (UWBSH-I, <10 kDa; UWBSH-II, <5 kDa; UWBSH-III, <2 kDa) and (DWBSH-I, <10 kDa; DWBSH-II, <5 kDa; DWBSH-III, <2 kDa). UWBSH-III revealed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 0.003 mg mL(-1)) compared with DWBSH-III (IC50 0.130 mg mL(-1)). The results of the present investigation revealed that winged bean seed hydrolysates can be explored as a potential source of ACE inhibitory peptides suggesting their uses for physiological benefits as well as for other functional food applications.
Banana (Musaceae) is one of the world's most important fruit crops that is widely cultivated in tropical countries for its valuable applications in food industry. Its enormous by-products are an excellent source of highly valuable raw materials for other industries by recycling agricultural waste. This prevents an ultimate loss of huge amount of untapped biomass and environmental issues. This review discusses extensively the breakthrough in the utilization of banana by-products such as peels, leaves, pseudostem, stalk and inflorescence in various food and non-food applications serving as thickening agent, coloring and flavor, alternative source for macro and micronutrients, nutraceuticals, livestock feed, natural fibers, and sources of natural bioactive compounds and bio-fertilizers. Future prospects and challenges are the important key factors discussed in association to the sustainability and feasibility of utilizing these by-products. It is important that all available by-products be turned into highly commercial outputs in order to sustain this renewable resource and provide additional income to small scale farming industries without compromising its quality and safety in competing with other commercial products.
A chronology of mathematical models for heat and mass transfer equation is proposed for the prediction of moisture and temperature behavior during drying using DIC (Détente Instantanée Contrôlée) or instant controlled pressure drop technique. DIC technique has the potential as most commonly used dehydration method for high impact food value including the nutrition maintenance and the best possible quality for food storage. The model is governed by the regression model, followed by 2D Fick's and Fourier's parabolic equation and 2D elliptic-parabolic equation in a rectangular slice. The models neglect the effect of shrinkage and radiation effects. The simulations of heat and mass transfer equations with parabolic and elliptic-parabolic types through some numerical methods based on finite difference method (FDM) have been illustrated. Intel®Core™2Duo processors with Linux operating system and C programming language have been considered as a computational platform for the simulation. Qualitative and quantitative differences between DIC technique and the conventional drying methods have been shown as a comparative.
Modelling studies of guava drying and quality are presented using theoretical and statistical models by varying temperature from 55 to 75 °C and slice thickness from 3 to 9 mm. The quality of dried fruit was measured for its water activity, colour, vitamin C, and texture. The superposition technique with Midilli-Kucuk model showed efficiency in modelling the drying process with R (2) = 0.9991. The second-order polynomial equations adequately described the quality of dried guava with regression coefficient, R (2) > 0.7. Drying time was a good function of temperature and thickness (P
Drying is a significant step in the production of carrageenan. However, current drying process still deals with too long drying time and carrageenan quality degradation. The foam mat drying is an option to speed up drying process as well as retaining carrageenan quality. In this case, the carrageenan was mixed with egg white (albumin) as foaming agent and methyl cellulose for foam stabilizer. The foam will break the carrageenan gels and creates the porous structure resulting higher surface area for water transfer. This research studied the effect of egg white and methyl cellulose on carrageenan drying at various air temperature, and thickness. As a response, the water content versus time was observed and the drying rate was estimated. Meanwhile, the carrageenan texture was verified by X-RD (X-Ray Diffraction) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). Results showed that the presence of egg white stablized by methyl cellulose can speed up drying rate as well as retaining the crystalline structure of carrageenan. The higher albumin content, the faster drying rate. However, the addition of albumin and methyl cellulose restricted not more than 30 % in the mixture for keeping carrageenan quality and purity. By adding egg white 20 % and methyl cellulose 10 %, the water diffusion and drying rate can be two fold compared with carrageenan drying without foam. The improvement can be higher at the higher temperature and thinner carrageenan sheets.
Pretreatments with different types of alkali and acid were compared to determine their effects on gelatin extraction from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) skin. The study was divided into three parts. In the first part, the skins were only treated with alkaline (Ca(OH)2 or NaOH) solution or pretreated with acetic acid solution. For second part, combination of alkali and acid pretreatment was carried out. For the third part, the skins were first treated with NaOH solution, followed by the treatment with acetic acid, citric acid or sulfuric acid solution. Functional properties including the yield of protein recovery, gel strength, viscosity, pH and viscoelastic properties were determined on gelatins obtained with different pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment with alkali removed noncollagenous proteins effectively, whilst acid pretreatment induced some loss of collagenous proteins. Combination of alkali and acid pretreatment not only removed the noncollagenous proteins and caused a significant amount of swelling, but also provided the proper pH condition for extraction, during which some cross-linkages could be further destroyed but with less breakage of intramolecular peptide chains. Pretreatment of catfish skins with 0.2 N NaOH followed by 0.05 M acetic acid improved yield of protein recovery, gel strength, viscosity, melting temperature and gelling temperature of gelatin extract.
Structured lipid such as medium-and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT) is claimed to be able to suppress body fat accumulation and be used to manage obesity. Response surface methodology (RSM) with four factors and three levels (+1,0,-1) faced centered composite design (FCCD) was employed for optimization of the enzymatic interesterification conditions of palm-based MLCT (P-MLCT) production. The effect of the four variables namely: substrate ratio palm kernel oil: palm oil, PKO:PO (40:60-100:0 w/w), temperature (50-70 °C), reaction time (0.5-7.5 h) and enzyme load (5-15 % w/w) on the P-MLCT yield (%) and by products (%) produced were investigated. The responses were determined via acylglycerol composition obtained from high performance liquid chromatography. Well-fitted models were successfully established for both responses: P-MLCT yield (R (2) = 0.9979) and by-products (R (2) = 0.9892). The P-MLCT yield was significantly (P 0.05). Substrate ratio PKO: PO (100:0 w/w) gave the highest yield of P-MLCT (61 %). Nonetheless, substrate ratio of PKO: PO (90:10w/w) was chosen to improve the fatty acid composition of the P-MLCT. The optimized conditions for substrate ratio PKO: PO (90:10 w/w) was 7.26 h, 50 °C and 5 % (w/w) Lipozyme TLIM lipase, which managed to give 60 % yields of P-MLCT. Up scaled results in stirred tank batch reactor gave similar yields as lab scale. A 20 % increase in P-MLCT yield was obtained via RSM. The effect of enzymatic interesterification on the physicochemical properties of PKO:PO (90:10 w/w) were also studied. Thermoprofile showed that the P-MLCT oil melted below body temperature of 37 °C.
The decoction and infusion of Rhoeo spathacea (Swartz) Stearn leaves have been recognized as a functional food particularly in South America, but has not yet gained international popularity as a beverage. The primary aim of this study was to establish the viability of R. spathacea aqueous leaf extracts as a beverage, in terms of its antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity. The antioxidant contents of aqueous and methanol leaf extracts were evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH radical scavenging activity (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP) and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) activity. The aqueous leaf extracts in the forms of decoction and infusion, were found to have comparable TPC and antioxidant activity with other herbal teas previously reported by our research group. Both decoction and infusion also exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram positive and four species of Gram negative bacteria, notably methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A total of four different known phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC and MS, three of which have not been previously reported to be found in this plant. Both the decoction and infusion of the leaves R. spathacea have potential to be popularized into a common beverage.
The antioxidant components of cocoa powder, which is rich in polyphenols, were isolated using column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Polyphenolic compounds were then characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/Ultraviolet and electronspray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-/ESI-MS-MS). As a result, five phenolic compounds were detected. In this study we also investigated scavenging or the total antioxidant capacity (%) of cocoa polyphenol (CP) fractionated from cocoa powder extract. 114.0 mg/g of gallic acid -equivalent phenolics and 94.3 mg/g catechin- equivalent flavonoids were quantified in this extract. Their free radical-scavenging activity was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay, β-carotene bleaching test, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (OX). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was further assessed against the myoglobin-induced oxidation of 6-hydroxy-2, 5, 7, 8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (ABTS) and expressed as Trolox equivalent. A high correlation between TAC and phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds from cocoa were a major contributor of antioxidant activity (0.967 ≤ r ≤ 1.00). CP extract had significantly (P
The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectively. The peanuts were ground using a high speed grinder for 2.5 and 3.0 min to produce peanut butter without addition of other ingredient. The natural peanut butter exhibited stability and had acceptable microbial count during storage. Storage at 10 °C gave similar textural quality with commercial product until week 8 and without appreciable loss in oxidative stability until week 12. At higher storage temperatures of 25 and 35 °C, oxidative stability was shortened to 4 weeks of storage. Among the factors of storage temperature and time, grinding time and peanut variety, storage temperature had the most significant effects on quality changes of natural peanut butter.
In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water absorption of plasticized films decreased with increasing plasticizer concentration. Raising the plasticizer content from 15 to 45 % showed less effect on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. Films containing glycerol and glycerol-sorbitol plasticizer (G, and GS) demonstrated higher moisture content, solubility and water absorption capacity compared to S-plasticized films. The results obtained in this study showed that plasticizer type and concentration significantly improves film properties and enhances their suitability for food packaging applications.
Fat is an important ingredient in baking products and it plays many roles in providing desirable textural properties of baking products, particularly biscuit. In this study, the effect of fat types on dough rheological properties and quality of semi-sweet biscuit (rich tea type) were investigated using various techniques. Texture profile and extensibility analysis were used to study the dough rheology, while three-point bend test and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyse the textural characteristics of final product. TPA results showed that the type of fat significantly influenced dough textural properties. Biscuit produced with higher solid fat oil showed higher breaking force but this was not significantly different when evaluated by sensory panel. Scanning electron microscopy showed that biscuit produced with palm mid-fraction had an open internal microstructure and heterogeneous air cells as compared to other samples.
Skin and bone gelatins of pangasius catfish (Pangasius sutchi) were hydrolyzed with alcalase to isolate Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides. Samples with the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) were separated into different fractions with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) sizes of 10, 3 and 1 kDa, respectively and assayed for ACE inhibitory activity. Skin and bone gelatins had highest DH of 64.87 and 68.48 % after 2 and 1 h incubation, respectively. Results from this study indicated that by decreasing the molecular weight of fractions, ACE inhibitory activity was increased. Therefore, F3 permeates (MWCO
Biogenic amines formation in Indian mackerel of tropical region was investigated during storage at ambient (25-29 °C) and ice temperature (0 °C) in relation with changes of amino acids content and amines forming bacteria. All amines increased significantly during storage at two temperatures except for spermidine and spermine. Histamine concentration of 363.5 ppm was detected after 16 h stored at ambient temperature. Aerobic plate count of fish stored at ambient temperature reached 6.98 log CFU g(-1) after 16 h, close to the upper limit (7 log CFU g(-1)) suggested by International Commission on the Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). However, proper icing procedure retarded the formation of histamine effectively, resulting only 8.31 ppm after 16 days of ice storage. Aerobic plate count of 5.99 and 7.72 log CFU g(-1) were recorded for fish stored in ice after 16 days and ambient temperature after 20 h, respectively. Histamine exhibited high correlation with histidine (r(2) = -0.963, P 0.05). As storage time progressed, the amines forming bacteria grew significantly except for that stored in ice.