Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 159 in total

  1. Azeez S, Lasekan O, Jinap S, Sulaiman R
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Dec;52(12):8050-8.
    PMID: 26604377 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-015-1900-6
    Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to optimize the settings for the roasting conditions of jackfruit (Artocapus hetrophyllus) seed (JFS). The response variables studied were; color attributes L*, a*, and b*, browning intensity, and fracturability. The colors L*, a*, b* and browning intensity were well predicted by a second-order polynomial model. Fracturability was predicted by a first-order polynomial. The determination coefficients for colors L*, a*, b*, browning intensity, and fracturability were 0.81, 0.96, 0.93, 0.92, and 0.74 respectively. The fitted models were checked for adequacy using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum roasting conditions were established at a temperature of 153.36 °C, 34.36 min, and pH of 6.34 with composite desirability value of 0.95. Micro-structural studies of both raw and roasted JFS at different roasting levels (i.e., low, medium, and high) were also investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). JFS starch granules fell in the B-type category with semi-oval to bell-shaped granules (5-9 μm in diameter). In addition, Fourier Transform Infrared analysis was carried out on both raw and roasted JFS. The IR spectra was in the 4000-1000 cm(-1) region which is described by five main modes; O-H, C-H, C = O, (C-H) CH3, and C-O.
  2. Lee HH, Loh SP, Bong CF, Sarbini SR, Yiu PH
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Dec;52(12):7806-16.
    PMID: 26604353 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-015-1918-9
    Whole grains consumption promotes health benefits, but demonstrates controversial impacts from phytic acid in meeting requirements of good health. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the nutrient bioaccessibility and antioxidant properties of rice cultivars named "Adan" or "Bario" and deduce the nutritional impact of phytic acid. Majority of the dehusked rice in the collection showed an acceptable level of in-vitro starch digestibility and in-vitro protein digestibility, but were poor in antioxidant properties and bioaccessibility of minerals (Ca, Fe and Zn). The drawbacks identified in the rice cultivars were due to relatively high phytic acid content (2420.6 ± 94.6 mg/100 g) and low phenolic content (152.39 ± 18.84 μg GAE/g). The relationship between phytic acid content and mineral bioaccessibility was strongest in calcium (r = 0.60), followed by iron (r = 0.40) and zinc (r = 0.27). Phytic acid content did not significantly correlate with in-vitro starch digestibility and in-vitro protein digestibility but showed a weak relationship with antioxidant properties. These suggest that phytic acid could significantly impair the mineral bioaccessibility of dehusked rice, and also act as an important antioxidant in non-pigmented rice. Bario rice cultivars offered dehusked rice with wide range of in-vitro digestibility of starch and protein, and also pigmented rice as a good source of antioxidants. However, there is a need to reduce phytic acid content in dehusked rice for improved mineral bioaccessibility among Bario rice cultivars.
  3. Nyam KL, Leao SY, Tan CP, Long K
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Dec;51(12):3830-7.
    PMID: 25477650 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0902-x
    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed is a valuable food resource as it has an excellent source of dietary fibre. Therefore, this study examined the functional properties of roselle seeds. Replacement of cookie flour with roselle seed powder at levels of 0-30 % was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. Among the four formulations cookies, the most preferred by panelists was 20 % roselle seed powder cookie (F3), followed by 10 % roselle seed powder cookie (F2) and 30 % roselle seed powder cookie (F4). The least preferred formulation among all was control cookie (F1). Cookie with 20 % roselle seed powder added showed higher content of total dietary fibre (5.6 g/100 g) as compared with control cookie (0.90 g/100 g). Besides that, cookies incorporated with roselle seed powder exhibited improved antioxidant properties. Thus, roselle seed powder can be used as a dietary fibre source and developed as a functional ingredient in food products.
  4. Padam BS, Tin HS, Chye FY, Abdullah MI
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Dec;51(12):3527-45.
    PMID: 25477622 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0861-2
    Banana (Musaceae) is one of the world's most important fruit crops that is widely cultivated in tropical countries for its valuable applications in food industry. Its enormous by-products are an excellent source of highly valuable raw materials for other industries by recycling agricultural waste. This prevents an ultimate loss of huge amount of untapped biomass and environmental issues. This review discusses extensively the breakthrough in the utilization of banana by-products such as peels, leaves, pseudostem, stalk and inflorescence in various food and non-food applications serving as thickening agent, coloring and flavor, alternative source for macro and micronutrients, nutraceuticals, livestock feed, natural fibers, and sources of natural bioactive compounds and bio-fertilizers. Future prospects and challenges are the important key factors discussed in association to the sustainability and feasibility of utilizing these by-products. It is important that all available by-products be turned into highly commercial outputs in order to sustain this renewable resource and provide additional income to small scale farming industries without compromising its quality and safety in competing with other commercial products.
  5. Alias N, Saipol HF, Ghani AC
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Dec;51(12):3647-57.
    PMID: 25477631 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0913-7
    A chronology of mathematical models for heat and mass transfer equation is proposed for the prediction of moisture and temperature behavior during drying using DIC (Détente Instantanée Contrôlée) or instant controlled pressure drop technique. DIC technique has the potential as most commonly used dehydration method for high impact food value including the nutrition maintenance and the best possible quality for food storage. The model is governed by the regression model, followed by 2D Fick's and Fourier's parabolic equation and 2D elliptic-parabolic equation in a rectangular slice. The models neglect the effect of shrinkage and radiation effects. The simulations of heat and mass transfer equations with parabolic and elliptic-parabolic types through some numerical methods based on finite difference method (FDM) have been illustrated. Intel®Core™2Duo processors with Linux operating system and C programming language have been considered as a computational platform for the simulation. Qualitative and quantitative differences between DIC technique and the conventional drying methods have been shown as a comparative.
  6. Kek SP, Chin NL, Yusof YA
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Dec;51(12):3609-22.
    PMID: 25477628 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-0923-0
    Modelling studies of guava drying and quality are presented using theoretical and statistical models by varying temperature from 55 to 75 °C and slice thickness from 3 to 9 mm. The quality of dried fruit was measured for its water activity, colour, vitamin C, and texture. The superposition technique with Midilli-Kucuk model showed efficiency in modelling the drying process with R (2)  = 0.9991. The second-order polynomial equations adequately described the quality of dried guava with regression coefficient, R (2)  > 0.7. Drying time was a good function of temperature and thickness (P 
  7. Djaeni M, Prasetyaningrum A, Sasongko SB, Widayat W, Hii CL
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Feb;52(2):1170-5.
    PMID: 25694735 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1081-0
    Drying is a significant step in the production of carrageenan. However, current drying process still deals with too long drying time and carrageenan quality degradation. The foam mat drying is an option to speed up drying process as well as retaining carrageenan quality. In this case, the carrageenan was mixed with egg white (albumin) as foaming agent and methyl cellulose for foam stabilizer. The foam will break the carrageenan gels and creates the porous structure resulting higher surface area for water transfer. This research studied the effect of egg white and methyl cellulose on carrageenan drying at various air temperature, and thickness. As a response, the water content versus time was observed and the drying rate was estimated. Meanwhile, the carrageenan texture was verified by X-RD (X-Ray Diffraction) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). Results showed that the presence of egg white stablized by methyl cellulose can speed up drying rate as well as retaining the crystalline structure of carrageenan. The higher albumin content, the faster drying rate. However, the addition of albumin and methyl cellulose restricted not more than 30 % in the mixture for keeping carrageenan quality and purity. By adding egg white 20 % and methyl cellulose 10 %, the water diffusion and drying rate can be two fold compared with carrageenan drying without foam. The improvement can be higher at the higher temperature and thinner carrageenan sheets.
  8. See SF, Ghassem M, Mamot S, Babji AS
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Feb;52(2):753-62.
    PMID: 25694683 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1043-6
    Pretreatments with different types of alkali and acid were compared to determine their effects on gelatin extraction from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) skin. The study was divided into three parts. In the first part, the skins were only treated with alkaline (Ca(OH)2 or NaOH) solution or pretreated with acetic acid solution. For second part, combination of alkali and acid pretreatment was carried out. For the third part, the skins were first treated with NaOH solution, followed by the treatment with acetic acid, citric acid or sulfuric acid solution. Functional properties including the yield of protein recovery, gel strength, viscosity, pH and viscoelastic properties were determined on gelatins obtained with different pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment with alkali removed noncollagenous proteins effectively, whilst acid pretreatment induced some loss of collagenous proteins. Combination of alkali and acid pretreatment not only removed the noncollagenous proteins and caused a significant amount of swelling, but also provided the proper pH condition for extraction, during which some cross-linkages could be further destroyed but with less breakage of intramolecular peptide chains. Pretreatment of catfish skins with 0.2 N NaOH followed by 0.05 M acetic acid improved yield of protein recovery, gel strength, viscosity, melting temperature and gelling temperature of gelatin extract.
  9. Lee YY, Tang TK, Phuah ET, Karim NA, Alwi SM, Lai OM
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Feb;52(2):685-96.
    PMID: 25694677 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1065-0
    Structured lipid such as medium-and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT) is claimed to be able to suppress body fat accumulation and be used to manage obesity. Response surface methodology (RSM) with four factors and three levels (+1,0,-1) faced centered composite design (FCCD) was employed for optimization of the enzymatic interesterification conditions of palm-based MLCT (P-MLCT) production. The effect of the four variables namely: substrate ratio palm kernel oil: palm oil, PKO:PO (40:60-100:0 w/w), temperature (50-70 °C), reaction time (0.5-7.5 h) and enzyme load (5-15 % w/w) on the P-MLCT yield (%) and by products (%) produced were investigated. The responses were determined via acylglycerol composition obtained from high performance liquid chromatography. Well-fitted models were successfully established for both responses: P-MLCT yield (R (2) = 0.9979) and by-products (R (2) = 0.9892). The P-MLCT yield was significantly (P  0.05). Substrate ratio PKO: PO (100:0 w/w) gave the highest yield of P-MLCT (61 %). Nonetheless, substrate ratio of PKO: PO (90:10w/w) was chosen to improve the fatty acid composition of the P-MLCT. The optimized conditions for substrate ratio PKO: PO (90:10 w/w) was 7.26 h, 50 °C and 5 % (w/w) Lipozyme TLIM lipase, which managed to give 60 % yields of P-MLCT. Up scaled results in stirred tank batch reactor gave similar yields as lab scale. A 20 % increase in P-MLCT yield was obtained via RSM. The effect of enzymatic interesterification on the physicochemical properties of PKO:PO (90:10 w/w) were also studied. Thermoprofile showed that the P-MLCT oil melted below body temperature of 37 °C.
  10. Shah NN, Rahman RA, Hashim DM
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Mar;52(3):1525-33.
    PMID: 25745221 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1111-y
    Ozone dose from 0.1 to 0.4 ppm has been proven to be effective in lowering Bacillus cereus count in uncooked and cooked rice. However, it induces physicochemical changes in raw white rice. Physicochemical tests were done to see the effect of ozone treatment towards moisture content, pH, color, hardness of uncooked rice, adhesiveness and hardness of cooked rice, cooking quality and total solids. Results have shown that moisture content, adhesiveness and hardness of cooked rice and uncooked rice have not undergone any significant changes (P > 0.05) in comparison with controlled rice sample. Meanwhile, color (L* and b* value), pH, total solids and cooking quality results have shown significant changes (P 
  11. Santana P, Huda N, Yang TA
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Mar;52(3):1507-15.
    PMID: 25745219 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1145-1
    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P 
  12. Mamat H, Hill SE
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Sep;51(9):1998-2005.
    PMID: 25190856 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0708-x
    Fat is an important ingredient in baking products and it plays many roles in providing desirable textural properties of baking products, particularly biscuit. In this study, the effect of fat types on dough rheological properties and quality of semi-sweet biscuit (rich tea type) were investigated using various techniques. Texture profile and extensibility analysis were used to study the dough rheology, while three-point bend test and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyse the textural characteristics of final product. TPA results showed that the type of fat significantly influenced dough textural properties. Biscuit produced with higher solid fat oil showed higher breaking force but this was not significantly different when evaluated by sensory panel. Scanning electron microscopy showed that biscuit produced with palm mid-fraction had an open internal microstructure and heterogeneous air cells as compared to other samples.
  13. Mahmoodani F, Ghassem M, Babji AS, Yusop SM, Khosrokhavar R
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Sep;51(9):1847-56.
    PMID: 25190839 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0742-8
    Skin and bone gelatins of pangasius catfish (Pangasius sutchi) were hydrolyzed with alcalase to isolate Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides. Samples with the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) were separated into different fractions with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) sizes of 10, 3 and 1 kDa, respectively and assayed for ACE inhibitory activity. Skin and bone gelatins had highest DH of 64.87 and 68.48 % after 2 and 1 h incubation, respectively. Results from this study indicated that by decreasing the molecular weight of fractions, ACE inhibitory activity was increased. Therefore, F3 permeates (MWCO 
  14. Bhat R, Karim AA
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Jul;51(7):1326-33.
    PMID: 24966426 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0652-9
    Developing novel fish gelatin films with better mechanical properties than mammalian gelatin is a challenging but promising endeavor. Studies were undertaken to produce fish gelatin films by combining treatments with different sugars (ribose and lactose) followed 'by' 'and' ultraviolet (UV) radiation, as possible cross-linking agents. Increase in tensile strength and percent elongation at break was recorded, which was more significant in films without sugars that were exposed to UV radiation. Films with added ribose showed decreased solubility after UV treatment and exhibited higher swelling percentage than films with added lactose, which readily dissolved in water. FTIR spectra of all the films showed identical patterns, which indicated no major changes to have occurred in the functional groups as a result of interaction between gelatin, sugars and UV irradiation. The results of this study could be explored for commercial use, depending on industrial needs for either production of edible films or for food packaging purposes.
  15. Sang SY, Jamharee F, Prasad KN, Azlan A, Maliki N
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 May;51(5):988-93.
    PMID: 24803709 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0596-5
    This study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant capacities of four common forage legume leaves namely, Arachis pintoi (Pintoi), Calapogonium mucunoides (Calapo), Centrosema pubescens (Centro), and Stylosanthes guanensis (Stylo). Two different drying methods (oven-drying and freeze-drying) were employed and antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and β-carotene bleaching assays. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Freeze-dried extract showed the highest antioxidant activities by DPPH (EC50 values 1.17-2.13 mg/ml), FRAP (147.08-246.42 μM of Fe(2+)/g), and β-carotene bleaching (57.11-78.60%) compared to oven drying. Hence, freeze drying treatment could be considered useful in retention of antioxidant activity and phenolic content.
  16. Ghassem M, Fern SS, Said M, Ali ZM, Ibrahim S, Babji AS
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Mar;51(3):467-75.
    PMID: 24587521 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0526-6
    This study was conducted to evaluate the kinetic characteristics of proteolytic activity of proteases on Channa striatus protein fractions. Degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition and kinetic parameters of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were investigated when incubated with proteinase K and thermolysin, separately. After 30 min incubation with proteases, a decrease in DH of sarcoplasmic protein was observed whereas, hydrolysis of myofibrillar protein with proteases took 2 h with an increase in DH. The major amino acids were glutamic acid (16.6%) in thermolysin- myofibrillar hydrolysate followed by aspartic acid (11.1%) in sarcoplasmic protein fraction with no enzyme treatment and lysine (10%) in thermolysin-myofibrillar hydrolysate. The apparent Michaelis constant of proteinase K was lower than thermolysin for both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins. However, rate of turnover and enzyme efficiency suggested that sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins are suitable substrates for proteinase K and thermolysin hydrolytic reaction, respectively.
  17. Rohani-Ghadikolaei K, Abdulalian E, Ng WK
    J Food Sci Technol, 2012 Dec;49(6):774-80.
    PMID: 24293698 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-010-0220-0
    The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8-59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4-29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5-3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p 
  18. Ramadhan K, Huda N, Ahmad R
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Feb;51(2):256-66.
    PMID: 24493882 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0510-1
    Duck meat is less utilized than other meats in processed products because of limitations of its functional properties, including lower water holding capacity, emulsion stability, and higher cooking loss compared with chicken meat. These limitations could be improved using surimi technology, which consists of washing and concentrating myofibrillar protein. In this study, surimi-like materials were made from duck meat using two or three washings with different solutions (tap water, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium phosphate buffer). Better improvement of the meat's functional properties was obtained with three washings versus two washings. Washing with tap water achieved the highest gel strength; moderate elevation of water holding capacity, pH, lightness, and whiteness; and left a small amount of fat. Washing with sodium bicarbonate solution generated the highest water holding capacity and pH and high lightness and whiteness values, but it resulted in the lowest gel strength. Processing duck meat into surimi-like material improves its functional properties, thereby making it possible to use duck meat in processed products.
  19. Yim HS, Chye FY, Rao V, Low JY, Matanjun P, How SE, et al.
    J Food Sci Technol, 2013 Apr;50(2):275-83.
    PMID: 24425917 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0349-5
    Central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction time (X 1 : 99.5-290.5 min) and temperature (X 2 : 30.1-54.9 °C) of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract with high antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC). Results indicated that the data were adequately fitted into four second-order polynomial models. The extraction time and temperature were found to have significant linear, quadratic and interaction effects on antioxidant activities and TPC. The optimal extraction time and temperature were: 290.5 min and 35.7 °C (DPPH(•) scavenging ability); 180.7 min and 41.7 °C (ABTS(•+) inhibition ability); 185.2 min and 42.4 °C (ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP); 290.5 min and 40.3 °C (TPC). These optimum conditions yielded 85.10%; 94.31%; 0.74 mM Fe(2+) equivalent/100 g; 635.76 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g, respectively. The yields of antioxidant activities and TPC obtained experimentally were close to its predicted values. The establishment of such model provides a good experimental basis employing RSM for optimizing the extraction time and temperature on antioxidants from S. commune aqueous extract.
  20. Al-Bulushi IM, Kasapis S, Dykes GA, Al-Waili H, Guizani N, Al-Oufi H
    J Food Sci Technol, 2013 Dec;50(6):1158-64.
    PMID: 24426029 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0441-x
    The effect of frozen storage on the physiochemical, chemical and microbial characteristics of two types of fish sausages was studied. Fish sausages developed (DFS) with a spice-sugar formulation and commercial fish sausages (CFS) were stored at -20 °C for 3 months. Fresh DFS contained 12.22% lipids and had a 3.53 cfu/g total bacteria count (TBC) whereas, CFS contained 5.5% lipids and had a 4.81 cfu/g TBC. During storage, TBC decreased significantly (p  0.05) in CFS. A peroxide value (PV) was not detectable until week four and eight of storage in CFS and DFS, respectively. The salt-soluble proteins (SSP) level was stable in DFS but in CFS it declined significantly (p  0.05) in both sausage types. This study showed that the effect of storage at -20 °C on fish sausages characteristics varied between formulations and depended on the ingredients of fish sausages.
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