Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 153 in total

  1. Jafarzadeh S, Alias AK, Ariffin F, Mahmud S, Najafi A
    J Food Sci Technol, 2016 Feb;53(2):1111-9.
    PMID: 27162391 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-015-2017-7
    Effects of nano-kaolin incorporation into semolina films on the physical, mechanical, thermal, barrier and antimicrobial properties of the resulting bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. The properties included crystal structure (by X-ray diffraction), mechanical resistance, color, Fourier transform infrared spectra, decomposition temperature, water-vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability (OP), and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Kaolin was incorporated into biofilms at various amounts (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 %, w/w total solid). All films were plasticized with 50 % (w/w total solid) combination of sorbitol/glycerol at 3:1 ratio. The incorporation of nanokaolin into semolina films decreased OP and WVP. The moisture content and water solubility of the films were found to decrease by nanokaolin reinforcement, and mechanical properties of films were improved by increasing nanokaolin concentration. Tensile strength and Young's modulus increased from 3.41 to 5.44 MPa and from 63.12 to 136.18, respectively, and elongation-at-break decreased. The films did not exhibit UV absorption. In conclusion, nanokaolin incorporation enhanced the barrier and mechanical properties of semolina films, indicating the potential application of these bio-nanocomposites in food-product packaging.
  2. Kuswandi B, Putri FK, Gani AA, Ahmad M
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Dec;52(12):7655-68.
    PMID: 26604341 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-015-1882-4
    The use of chemometrics to analyse infrared spectra to predict pork adulteration in the beef jerky (dendeng) was explored. In the first step, the analysis of pork in the beef jerky formulation was conducted by blending the beef jerky with pork at 5-80 % levels. Then, they were powdered and classified into training set and test set. The second step, the spectra of the two sets was recorded by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy using atenuated total reflection (ATR) cell on the basis of spectral data at frequency region 4000-700 cm(-1). The spectra was categorised into four data sets, i.e. (a) spectra in the whole region as data set 1; (b) spectra in the fingerprint region (1500-600 cm(-1)) as data set 2; (c) spectra in the whole region with treatment as data set 3; and (d) spectra in the fingerprint region with treatment as data set 4. The third step, the chemometric analysis were employed using three class-modelling techniques (i.e. LDA, SIMCA, and SVM) toward the data sets. Finally, the best result of the models towards the data sets on the adulteration analysis of the samples were selected and the best model was compared with the ELISA method. From the chemometric results, the LDA model on the data set 1 was found to be the best model, since it could classify and predict 100 % accuracy of the sample tested. The LDA model was applied toward the real samples of the beef jerky marketed in Jember, and the results showed that the LDA model developed was in good agreement with the ELISA method.
  3. Azeez S, Lasekan O, Jinap S, Sulaiman R
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Dec;52(12):8050-8.
    PMID: 26604377 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-015-1900-6
    Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to optimize the settings for the roasting conditions of jackfruit (Artocapus hetrophyllus) seed (JFS). The response variables studied were; color attributes L*, a*, and b*, browning intensity, and fracturability. The colors L*, a*, b* and browning intensity were well predicted by a second-order polynomial model. Fracturability was predicted by a first-order polynomial. The determination coefficients for colors L*, a*, b*, browning intensity, and fracturability were 0.81, 0.96, 0.93, 0.92, and 0.74 respectively. The fitted models were checked for adequacy using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum roasting conditions were established at a temperature of 153.36 °C, 34.36 min, and pH of 6.34 with composite desirability value of 0.95. Micro-structural studies of both raw and roasted JFS at different roasting levels (i.e., low, medium, and high) were also investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). JFS starch granules fell in the B-type category with semi-oval to bell-shaped granules (5-9 μm in diameter). In addition, Fourier Transform Infrared analysis was carried out on both raw and roasted JFS. The IR spectra was in the 4000-1000 cm(-1) region which is described by five main modes; O-H, C-H, C = O, (C-H) CH3, and C-O.
  4. Lee HH, Loh SP, Bong CF, Sarbini SR, Yiu PH
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Dec;52(12):7806-16.
    PMID: 26604353 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-015-1918-9
    Whole grains consumption promotes health benefits, but demonstrates controversial impacts from phytic acid in meeting requirements of good health. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the nutrient bioaccessibility and antioxidant properties of rice cultivars named "Adan" or "Bario" and deduce the nutritional impact of phytic acid. Majority of the dehusked rice in the collection showed an acceptable level of in-vitro starch digestibility and in-vitro protein digestibility, but were poor in antioxidant properties and bioaccessibility of minerals (Ca, Fe and Zn). The drawbacks identified in the rice cultivars were due to relatively high phytic acid content (2420.6 ± 94.6 mg/100 g) and low phenolic content (152.39 ± 18.84 μg GAE/g). The relationship between phytic acid content and mineral bioaccessibility was strongest in calcium (r = 0.60), followed by iron (r = 0.40) and zinc (r = 0.27). Phytic acid content did not significantly correlate with in-vitro starch digestibility and in-vitro protein digestibility but showed a weak relationship with antioxidant properties. These suggest that phytic acid could significantly impair the mineral bioaccessibility of dehusked rice, and also act as an important antioxidant in non-pigmented rice. Bario rice cultivars offered dehusked rice with wide range of in-vitro digestibility of starch and protein, and also pigmented rice as a good source of antioxidants. However, there is a need to reduce phytic acid content in dehusked rice for improved mineral bioaccessibility among Bario rice cultivars.
  5. Edirisinghe M, Ali A, Maqbool M, Alderson PG
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Dec;51(12):4078-83.
    PMID: 25477684 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0907-5
    Anthracnose, a postharvest disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum capsici is the most devastating disease of bell pepper that causes great economic losses especially in tropical climates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of chitosan (low molecular weight from crab shell, Mw: 50 kDa and 75-85 % deacetylated) against anthracnose by inducing defense-related enzymes. The concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan were used to control the fungus in vitro and postharvest. There was a reduction in C. capsici mycelial growth and the highest chitosan concentration (2.0 %) reduced the growth by 70 % after 7 days incubation. In germination test, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan reduced spore germination in C. capsici between 80 % and 84 %, respectively. In postharvest trial the concentration of 1.5 % decreased the anthracnose severity in pepper fruit by approximately 76 % after 28 days of storage (10 ± 1 °C; 80 % RH). For enzymatic activities, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan increased the polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and total phenolics in inoculated bell pepper during storage. Based on these results, the chitosan presents antifungal properties against C. capsici, as well as potential to induce resistance on bell pepper.
  6. Nyam KL, Leao SY, Tan CP, Long K
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Dec;51(12):3830-7.
    PMID: 25477650 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0902-x
    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed is a valuable food resource as it has an excellent source of dietary fibre. Therefore, this study examined the functional properties of roselle seeds. Replacement of cookie flour with roselle seed powder at levels of 0-30 % was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. Among the four formulations cookies, the most preferred by panelists was 20 % roselle seed powder cookie (F3), followed by 10 % roselle seed powder cookie (F2) and 30 % roselle seed powder cookie (F4). The least preferred formulation among all was control cookie (F1). Cookie with 20 % roselle seed powder added showed higher content of total dietary fibre (5.6 g/100 g) as compared with control cookie (0.90 g/100 g). Besides that, cookies incorporated with roselle seed powder exhibited improved antioxidant properties. Thus, roselle seed powder can be used as a dietary fibre source and developed as a functional ingredient in food products.
  7. Wan Mohtar WA, Hamid AA, Abd-Aziz S, Muhamad SK, Saari N
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Dec;51(12):3658-68.
    PMID: 25477632 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0919-1
    Winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.] seed is a potential underexploited source of vegetable protein due to its high protein content. In the present work, undefatted and defatted winged bean seed hydrolysates, designated as UWBSH and DWBSH, respectively were produced separately by four proteolytic enzymes namely Flavourzyme, Alcalase, Bromelain, and Papain using pH-stat method in a batch reactor. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out over a period of 0.5 to 5 h. UWBSH and DWBSH produced were tested for their ACE inhibitory activity in relation to the hydrolysis time and degree of hydrolysis (DH). Maximum ACE inhibitory activity, both for UWBSH and DWBSH, were observed during 3 to 5 h of hydrolysis. Both, UWBSH (DH 91.84 %), and DWSBH (DH 18.72 %), produced by Papain at 5 h hydrolysis, exhibited exceptionally high ACE inhibitory activity with IC50 value 0.064 and 0.249 mg mL(-1), respectively. Besides, papain-produced UWBSH and DWBSH were further fractionated into three fractions based on molecular weight (UWBSH-I, <10 kDa; UWBSH-II, <5 kDa; UWBSH-III, <2 kDa) and (DWBSH-I, <10 kDa; DWBSH-II, <5 kDa; DWBSH-III, <2 kDa). UWBSH-III revealed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 0.003 mg mL(-1)) compared with DWBSH-III (IC50 0.130 mg mL(-1)). The results of the present investigation revealed that winged bean seed hydrolysates can be explored as a potential source of ACE inhibitory peptides suggesting their uses for physiological benefits as well as for other functional food applications.
  8. Padam BS, Tin HS, Chye FY, Abdullah MI
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Dec;51(12):3527-45.
    PMID: 25477622 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0861-2
    Banana (Musaceae) is one of the world's most important fruit crops that is widely cultivated in tropical countries for its valuable applications in food industry. Its enormous by-products are an excellent source of highly valuable raw materials for other industries by recycling agricultural waste. This prevents an ultimate loss of huge amount of untapped biomass and environmental issues. This review discusses extensively the breakthrough in the utilization of banana by-products such as peels, leaves, pseudostem, stalk and inflorescence in various food and non-food applications serving as thickening agent, coloring and flavor, alternative source for macro and micronutrients, nutraceuticals, livestock feed, natural fibers, and sources of natural bioactive compounds and bio-fertilizers. Future prospects and challenges are the important key factors discussed in association to the sustainability and feasibility of utilizing these by-products. It is important that all available by-products be turned into highly commercial outputs in order to sustain this renewable resource and provide additional income to small scale farming industries without compromising its quality and safety in competing with other commercial products.
  9. Alias N, Saipol HF, Ghani AC
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Dec;51(12):3647-57.
    PMID: 25477631 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0913-7
    A chronology of mathematical models for heat and mass transfer equation is proposed for the prediction of moisture and temperature behavior during drying using DIC (Détente Instantanée Contrôlée) or instant controlled pressure drop technique. DIC technique has the potential as most commonly used dehydration method for high impact food value including the nutrition maintenance and the best possible quality for food storage. The model is governed by the regression model, followed by 2D Fick's and Fourier's parabolic equation and 2D elliptic-parabolic equation in a rectangular slice. The models neglect the effect of shrinkage and radiation effects. The simulations of heat and mass transfer equations with parabolic and elliptic-parabolic types through some numerical methods based on finite difference method (FDM) have been illustrated. Intel®Core™2Duo processors with Linux operating system and C programming language have been considered as a computational platform for the simulation. Qualitative and quantitative differences between DIC technique and the conventional drying methods have been shown as a comparative.
  10. Kek SP, Chin NL, Yusof YA
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Dec;51(12):3609-22.
    PMID: 25477628 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-0923-0
    Modelling studies of guava drying and quality are presented using theoretical and statistical models by varying temperature from 55 to 75 °C and slice thickness from 3 to 9 mm. The quality of dried fruit was measured for its water activity, colour, vitamin C, and texture. The superposition technique with Midilli-Kucuk model showed efficiency in modelling the drying process with R (2)  = 0.9991. The second-order polynomial equations adequately described the quality of dried guava with regression coefficient, R (2)  > 0.7. Drying time was a good function of temperature and thickness (P 
  11. Djaeni M, Prasetyaningrum A, Sasongko SB, Widayat W, Hii CL
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Feb;52(2):1170-5.
    PMID: 25694735 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1081-0
    Drying is a significant step in the production of carrageenan. However, current drying process still deals with too long drying time and carrageenan quality degradation. The foam mat drying is an option to speed up drying process as well as retaining carrageenan quality. In this case, the carrageenan was mixed with egg white (albumin) as foaming agent and methyl cellulose for foam stabilizer. The foam will break the carrageenan gels and creates the porous structure resulting higher surface area for water transfer. This research studied the effect of egg white and methyl cellulose on carrageenan drying at various air temperature, and thickness. As a response, the water content versus time was observed and the drying rate was estimated. Meanwhile, the carrageenan texture was verified by X-RD (X-Ray Diffraction) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). Results showed that the presence of egg white stablized by methyl cellulose can speed up drying rate as well as retaining the crystalline structure of carrageenan. The higher albumin content, the faster drying rate. However, the addition of albumin and methyl cellulose restricted not more than 30 % in the mixture for keeping carrageenan quality and purity. By adding egg white 20 % and methyl cellulose 10 %, the water diffusion and drying rate can be two fold compared with carrageenan drying without foam. The improvement can be higher at the higher temperature and thinner carrageenan sheets.
  12. See SF, Ghassem M, Mamot S, Babji AS
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Feb;52(2):753-62.
    PMID: 25694683 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1043-6
    Pretreatments with different types of alkali and acid were compared to determine their effects on gelatin extraction from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) skin. The study was divided into three parts. In the first part, the skins were only treated with alkaline (Ca(OH)2 or NaOH) solution or pretreated with acetic acid solution. For second part, combination of alkali and acid pretreatment was carried out. For the third part, the skins were first treated with NaOH solution, followed by the treatment with acetic acid, citric acid or sulfuric acid solution. Functional properties including the yield of protein recovery, gel strength, viscosity, pH and viscoelastic properties were determined on gelatins obtained with different pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment with alkali removed noncollagenous proteins effectively, whilst acid pretreatment induced some loss of collagenous proteins. Combination of alkali and acid pretreatment not only removed the noncollagenous proteins and caused a significant amount of swelling, but also provided the proper pH condition for extraction, during which some cross-linkages could be further destroyed but with less breakage of intramolecular peptide chains. Pretreatment of catfish skins with 0.2 N NaOH followed by 0.05 M acetic acid improved yield of protein recovery, gel strength, viscosity, melting temperature and gelling temperature of gelatin extract.
  13. Lee YY, Tang TK, Phuah ET, Karim NA, Alwi SM, Lai OM
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Feb;52(2):685-96.
    PMID: 25694677 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1065-0
    Structured lipid such as medium-and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT) is claimed to be able to suppress body fat accumulation and be used to manage obesity. Response surface methodology (RSM) with four factors and three levels (+1,0,-1) faced centered composite design (FCCD) was employed for optimization of the enzymatic interesterification conditions of palm-based MLCT (P-MLCT) production. The effect of the four variables namely: substrate ratio palm kernel oil: palm oil, PKO:PO (40:60-100:0 w/w), temperature (50-70 °C), reaction time (0.5-7.5 h) and enzyme load (5-15 % w/w) on the P-MLCT yield (%) and by products (%) produced were investigated. The responses were determined via acylglycerol composition obtained from high performance liquid chromatography. Well-fitted models were successfully established for both responses: P-MLCT yield (R (2) = 0.9979) and by-products (R (2) = 0.9892). The P-MLCT yield was significantly (P  0.05). Substrate ratio PKO: PO (100:0 w/w) gave the highest yield of P-MLCT (61 %). Nonetheless, substrate ratio of PKO: PO (90:10w/w) was chosen to improve the fatty acid composition of the P-MLCT. The optimized conditions for substrate ratio PKO: PO (90:10 w/w) was 7.26 h, 50 °C and 5 % (w/w) Lipozyme TLIM lipase, which managed to give 60 % yields of P-MLCT. Up scaled results in stirred tank batch reactor gave similar yields as lab scale. A 20 % increase in P-MLCT yield was obtained via RSM. The effect of enzymatic interesterification on the physicochemical properties of PKO:PO (90:10 w/w) were also studied. Thermoprofile showed that the P-MLCT oil melted below body temperature of 37 °C.
  14. Shah NN, Rahman RA, Hashim DM
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Mar;52(3):1525-33.
    PMID: 25745221 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1111-y
    Ozone dose from 0.1 to 0.4 ppm has been proven to be effective in lowering Bacillus cereus count in uncooked and cooked rice. However, it induces physicochemical changes in raw white rice. Physicochemical tests were done to see the effect of ozone treatment towards moisture content, pH, color, hardness of uncooked rice, adhesiveness and hardness of cooked rice, cooking quality and total solids. Results have shown that moisture content, adhesiveness and hardness of cooked rice and uncooked rice have not undergone any significant changes (P > 0.05) in comparison with controlled rice sample. Meanwhile, color (L* and b* value), pH, total solids and cooking quality results have shown significant changes (P 
  15. Santana P, Huda N, Yang TA
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Mar;52(3):1507-15.
    PMID: 25745219 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1145-1
    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P 
  16. Siddique BM, Muhamad II, Ahmad A, Ayob A, Ibrahim MH, Ak MO
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Mar;52(3):1444-52.
    PMID: 25745212 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1124-6
    The aim of this research was to determine the changes in the physicochemical properties of palm oil and its blends by FTIR and rheological measurements. Application of heat produces some chemical compounds as impurities and even toxic compounds in oils and fats that give absorbance at different region. FTIR spectra of pure palm olein shows an absorbance at 3002 cm(-1) whereas other pure oils show maximum absorption at around 3007 cm(-1) due to C-H stretching vibration of cis-double bond (=C-H). By blending of high unsaturated oils with palm olein, a clear shift of 3007 cm(-1) band to 3005 cm(-1) occurs. Viscosity of palm olein was found higher among all oils while it subsequently and substantially reduced by blending with other oils. Since it is a function of temperature, viscosity of pure oils and their blends decreases with the increase of temperature. The loss modulus (G''), for all oil blends before and after frying, in rheological experiment was found higher for all oils than the storage modulus (G'), therefore, the viscous property was found higher than elastic property of oils and blends. However, the critical stress for all oil blends was found higher than that of pure oils.
  17. Mousa W, Ghazali FM, Jinap S, Ghazali HM, Radu S
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Oct;51(10):2656-63.
    PMID: 25328208 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0799-4
    Understanding the water sorption characteristics of cereal is extremely essential for optimizing the drying process and ensuring storage stability. Water relation of rough rice was studied at 20, 30, 40 and 50 °C over relative humidity (RH.) between 0.113 and 0.976 using the gravimetric technique. The isotherms displayed the general sigmoid, Type II pattern and exhibited the phenomenon of hysteresis where it was more pronounced at lower temperatures. The sorption characteristics were temperature dependence where the sorption capacity of the paddy increased as the temperature was decreased at fixed (RH). Among the models assessed for their ability to fit the sorption data, Oswin equation was the best followed by the third order polynomial, GAB, Smith, Chung-Pfost, and Henderson models. The monolayer moisture content was higher for desorption than adsorption and tend to decrease with the increase in temperature. Given the temperature dependence of the sorption isotherms the isosteric heats of sorption were calculated using Claussius-Clapeyron equation. The net isosteric heats decreased as the moisture content was increased and heats of desorption were greater than that of adsorption.
  18. Mamat H, Hill SE
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Sep;51(9):1998-2005.
    PMID: 25190856 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0708-x
    Fat is an important ingredient in baking products and it plays many roles in providing desirable textural properties of baking products, particularly biscuit. In this study, the effect of fat types on dough rheological properties and quality of semi-sweet biscuit (rich tea type) were investigated using various techniques. Texture profile and extensibility analysis were used to study the dough rheology, while three-point bend test and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyse the textural characteristics of final product. TPA results showed that the type of fat significantly influenced dough textural properties. Biscuit produced with higher solid fat oil showed higher breaking force but this was not significantly different when evaluated by sensory panel. Scanning electron microscopy showed that biscuit produced with palm mid-fraction had an open internal microstructure and heterogeneous air cells as compared to other samples.
  19. Mahmoodani F, Ghassem M, Babji AS, Yusop SM, Khosrokhavar R
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Sep;51(9):1847-56.
    PMID: 25190839 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0742-8
    Skin and bone gelatins of pangasius catfish (Pangasius sutchi) were hydrolyzed with alcalase to isolate Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides. Samples with the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) were separated into different fractions with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) sizes of 10, 3 and 1 kDa, respectively and assayed for ACE inhibitory activity. Skin and bone gelatins had highest DH of 64.87 and 68.48 % after 2 and 1 h incubation, respectively. Results from this study indicated that by decreasing the molecular weight of fractions, ACE inhibitory activity was increased. Therefore, F3 permeates (MWCO 
  20. Bhat R, Karim AA
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Jul;51(7):1326-33.
    PMID: 24966426 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0652-9
    Developing novel fish gelatin films with better mechanical properties than mammalian gelatin is a challenging but promising endeavor. Studies were undertaken to produce fish gelatin films by combining treatments with different sugars (ribose and lactose) followed 'by' 'and' ultraviolet (UV) radiation, as possible cross-linking agents. Increase in tensile strength and percent elongation at break was recorded, which was more significant in films without sugars that were exposed to UV radiation. Films with added ribose showed decreased solubility after UV treatment and exhibited higher swelling percentage than films with added lactose, which readily dissolved in water. FTIR spectra of all the films showed identical patterns, which indicated no major changes to have occurred in the functional groups as a result of interaction between gelatin, sugars and UV irradiation. The results of this study could be explored for commercial use, depending on industrial needs for either production of edible films or for food packaging purposes.
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