Diverse plants species in the forest remain under-utilised and they are mainly consumed only by local people. However, increasing issues in food security prompted the present study, which explores the nutritional and antioxidant aspects of Malaysian under-utilised vegetables. The studied vegetables were Paku Nyai (Stenochlaena palustris), Cemperai (Champereia manillana), Maman Pasir (Cleome viscose), Dudung (Erechtites valerianifolia) and Semambuk (Ardisia pendula).
Gentiana lutea root is a medicinal herb that contains many active compounds which contribute to physiological effects, and it has recently attracted much attention as a natural source of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on the colour, pH, microbial activities, sensory quality and resistance to lipid oxidation (through the thiobarbituric acid method) during storage of beef patties containing different concentrations of G. lutea. Fresh beef patties were formulated with 0-5 g kg(-1) of G. lutea and 0 or 0.5 g kg(-1) of ascorbic acid and packed in two different atmospheres, Modified Atmosphere 1 (MAP1) and Modified Atmosphere 2 (MAP2), and stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 10 days. MAP1 contained 20:80 (v/v) O2:CO2 and MAP2 contained 80:20 (v/v) O2:CO2.
Petroselinum crispum (English parsley) is a common herb of the Apiaceae family that is cultivated throughout the world and is widely used as a seasoning condiment. Studies have shown its potential as a medicinal herb. In this study, P. crispum leaf and stem extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant properties, protection against DNA damage in normal 3T3-L1 cells, and the inhibition of proliferation and migration of the MCF-7 cells.
Molecular weights (MWs) and their chemical structures are the primary factors determining the influence of condensed tannins (CTs) on animal nutrition and methane (CH4 ) production in ruminants. In this study the MWs of five CT fractions from Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Rendang (LLR) were determined and the CT fractions were investigated for their effects on CH4 production and rumen fermentation.
The metabolite changes in three germplasm accessions of Malaysia Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees, viz. 11265 (H), 11341 (P) and 11248 (T), due to their different harvesting ages and times were successfully evaluated by attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and translated through multivariate data analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). This present study revealed the feasibility of ATR-FTIR in detecting the trend changes of the major metabolites - andrographolide and neoandrographolide - functional groups in A. paniculata leaves of different accessions. The harvesting parameter was set at three different ages of 120, 150 and 180 days after transplanting (DAT) and at two different time sessions of morning (7:30-10:30 am) and evening (2:30-5.30 pm).
Phytosterols provide important health benefits: in particular, the lowering of cholesterol. From environmental and commercial points of view, the most appropriate technique has been searched for extracting phytosterols from plant matrices. As a green technology, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide (CO2) is widely used to extract bioactive compounds from different plant matrices. Several studies have been performed to extract phytosterols using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and this technology has clearly offered potential advantages over conventional extraction methods. However, the efficiency of SFE technology fully relies on the processing parameters, chemistry of interest compounds, nature of the plant matrices and expertise of handling. This review covers SFE technology with particular reference to phytosterol extraction using SC-CO2. Moreover, the chemistry of phytosterols, properties of supercritical fluids (SFs) and the applied experimental designs have been discussed for better understanding of phytosterol solubility in SC-CO2.
The aim of the current study was (i) to evaluate the bioactive potential of the leaf methanolic extract of Cynometra cauliflora L., along with its respective hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (n-BuOH) and aqueous fractions, in inhibiting the enzymes α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and tyrosinase as well as evaluating their antioxidant activities. (ii) In addition, in view of the limited published information regarding the metabolite profile of C. cauliflora, we further characterized the profiles of the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.
Vermicomposting is a process in which earthworms are used to convert organic materials into humus-like material known as vermicompost. A number of researchers throughout the world have found that the nutrient profile in vermicompost is generally higher than traditional compost. In fact, vermicompost can enhance soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Physically, vermicompost-treated soil has better aeration, porosity, bulk density and water retention. Chemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity and organic matter content are also improved for better crop yield. Nevertheless, enhanced plant growth could not be satisfactorily explained by improvements in the nutrient content of the soil, which means that other plant growth-influencing materials are available in vermicomposts. Although vermicomposts have been shown to improve plant growth significantly, the application of vermicomposts at high concentrations could impede growth due to the high concentrations of soluble salts available in vermicomposts. Therefore, vermicomposts should be applied at moderate concentrations in order to obtain maximum plant yield. This review paper discusses in detail the effects of vermicompost on soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Future prospects and economy on the use of organic fertilizers in the agricultural sector are also examined.
The present study examined the contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols and their distribution in 58 different varieties of whole rice cultivated in Malaysia. The analytical method used was saponification of samples followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography.
The study of biofilms has skyrocketed in recent years due to increased awareness of the pervasiveness and impact of biofilms. It costs the USA literally billions of dollars every year in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination and medical infections. But biofilms also offer huge potential for cleaning up hazardous waste sites, filtering municipal and industrial water and wastewater, and forming biobarriers to protect soil and groundwater from contamination. The complexity of biofilm activity and behavior requires research contributions from many disciplines such as biochemistry, engineering, mathematics and microbiology. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of emerging novel antimicrobial techniques, including those using myriad organic and inorganic products as well as genetic engineering techniques, the use of coordination complex molecules, composite materials and antimicrobial peptides and the use of lasers as such or their modified use in combination treatments. This review also addresses advanced and recent modifications, including methodological changes, and biocide efficacy enhancing strategies. This review will provide future planners of biofilm control technologies with a broad understanding and perspective on the use of biocides in the field of green developments for a sustainable future.
Garcinia atroviridis is a seasonal fruit plant found in many parts of South East Asia. The fruit rind is used in cooking and traditionally consumed for various reasons, including to lower blood cholesterol. A comparative study was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction solvents and plant parts used on the lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of Garcinia atroviridis.
In view of a worldwide attempt to restrict or ban the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal production, probiotics, prebiotics and combinations of both, as synbiotics, have been suggested as potential alternatives. In this study, the effects of a prebiotic (isomalto-oligosaccharides, IMO), a multi-strain probiotic (consisting of 11 Lactobacillus strains), and a combination of these dietary additives as a synbiotic on the performance, caecal bacterial populations and concentrations of caecal volatile fatty acids and non-volatile fatty acids of broiler chickens were evaluated.
Plant foods are rich sources of bioactive compounds that can act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease, reduce inflammation, reduce the incidence of cancers and diabetes. This study aimed to determine the phenolics and flavonoids profiling in three varieties of rice straw and five varieties of the seed husk of Iranian rice using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and nitric oxide assays.
Lignosus rhinocerus (tiger milk mushroom) is an important medicinal mushroom used in Southeast Asia and China, and its sclerotium can be developed into functional food/nutraceuticals. The nutrient composition, antioxidant properties, and anti-proliferative activity of wild type and a cultivated strain of L. rhinocerus sclerotia were investigated.
Kernel elongation after cooking is an important character of fine rice and most rice consumers prefer length-wise elongation. Although improvement of aromatic rice began early in the 1970s, until now the mechanisms and genetics of kernel elongation has remained unrevealed. Kernel elongation is considered as a physical phenomenon and is influenced by several physicochemical and genetic factors, including genotypes, aging temperature, aging time, water uptake, amylose content and gelatinization temperature. Recently the complete genetic map of fine rice has been created and the gene responsible for kernel length identified; moreover, this gene is tightly linked with the cooked kernel elongation trait. Several molecular markers linked with cooked kernel elongation have been developed. These tools will be helpful for the improvement of this important trait. For the proper study of cooked kernel elongation of rice, this review paper will provide the basis and directional materials for further studies.
Sargassum polycystum, a brown seaweed, contains various nutrients and bioactive compounds that have antioxidant and healing properties. The research hypothesises that antioxidants and pigments in dietary S. polycystum extracts can improve insulin sensitivity, blood sugar levels and blood lipid levels in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. The diabetes was induced by a high-sugar, high-fat diet for 16 weeks to enhance insulin resistance, followed by a low-dose intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg kg(-1) body weight). The doses of S. polycystum tested on diabetic rats were 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) body weight for the ethanolic extract or 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) for the water extract. Normal rats, untreated diabetic and metformin-treated diabetic rats (n = 6) were used as control.
This review provides an overview of biovanillin production from agro wastes as an alternative food flavour. Biovanillin is one of the widely used flavour compounds in the foods, beverages and pharmaceutical industries. An alternative production approach for biovanillin as a food flavour is hoped for due to the high and variable cost of natural vanillin as well as the limited availability of vanilla pods in the market. Natural vanillin refers to the main organic compound that is extracted from the vanilla bean, as compared to biovanillin, which is produced biologically by microorganisms from a natural precursor such as ferulic acid. Biovanillin is also reviewed as a potential bioflavour produced by microbial fermentation in an economically feasible way in the near future. In fact, we briefly discuss natural, synthetic and biovanillin and the types of agro wastes that are useful as sources for bioconversion of ferulic acid into biovanillin. The subsequent part of the review emphasizes the current application of vanillin as well as the utilization of biovanillin as an alternative food flavour. The final part summarizes biovanillin production from agro wastes that could be of benefit as a food flavour derived from potential natural precursors.
The levels of sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) were determined in fruit juices from seven passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) cultivars: P. edulis cultivars Purple, Frederick, Yellow, Pink, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. maliformis and P. quadrangularis (we also tested this cultivar's mesocarp).
Catechin-rich oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaf extract (OPLE) has good cardiovascular and phytoestrogenic properties. The OPLE (0.5 g day(-1) ) was supplemented to young, healthy, adult human volunteers, and their cognitive learning abilities were compared to placebo-controlled groups (N = 15). Their short-term memories, spatial visualisations, processing speeds, and language skills, were assessed over 2 months by cognitive tests computer programs.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electroporation (2.5-7.5 kV cm⁻¹ for 3.0-4.0 ms) on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, membrane properties and bioconversion of isoflavones in mannitol-soymilk.