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  1. Uyop Said
    This study mainly deals with the occurrence of palynomorph assemblage in the Tertiary and younger sediments from Kuala Kangsar area which were mapped by previous workers. The Tertiary sediment is interpreted to be deposited in small isolated basins and can be found through drilling. As other Tertiary sediments in the Malay Peninsula, they are seldom exposed. The age of the sediment from Kuala Kangsar area is interpreted to be Tertiary as it has similarities in lithology and sedimentary structures as those from other areas such as Batu Arang, Selangor. Palynological information can be utilized in interpreting the age and sedimentary environment of this sedi­ment. Several localities were chosen to be drilled to get samples for palynological study. These samples were processed and based on the normal palynological preparation technique. They were treated by hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid and followed by acetolysis for most of the samples to remove the cellulose. The observed palynomorph assemblage consists of younger age of pollen and spores (Quaternary-Recent). The dominant palynomorphs are those derived from shrub type plants (Ilex, Camnosperma, Gramineae and Palaquium) which normally dominating the river and swamp areas.
    Kajian ini mengkhusus kepada kehadiran palinomorf dalam bantuan sedimen berusia Tertiar dan lebih muda di sekitar Kuala Kangsar yang telah dipetakan oleh pengkaji terdahulu. Batuan ini telah ditafsirkan terendap dalam lembangan-lembangan kecil yang dikenalpasti melalui penggerudian. Seperti batuan seusia ditempat-tempat lain di Semenanjung Malaysia, batuan sedimen Tertiar di sekitar Kuala Kangsar jarang tersingkap ke permukaan. Persamaan jenis litologi dan struktur sedimen dari lembangan lain seperti di Batu Arang, Selangor dijadikan asas dalam penentuan usia batuan di sini. Maklumat palinologi dapat digunakan dalam mentafsir usia dan sekitaran pengendapan batuan ini. Beberapa lokaliti telah dipilih dan dilakukan penggerudian untuk mendapatkan sampel bagi kajian palinologi. Kesemua sampel telah diproses mengikut teknik penyediaan sampel palinologi yang lazim iaitu menggunakan asid hidrofluorik dan asid nitrik serta kebanyakan sampel yang diproses telah melalui proses asetolisis untuk membersihkan daripada bahan-bahan selulos sebelum dibuatkan slaid. Himpunan palinomoif yang dikenalpasti daripada sampel yang dikaji merupakan palinomoif berusia muda (Kuaterner-Resen). Debunga yang paling dominan terdiri daripada debunga yang dihasilkan oleh tumbuhan renek (Hex, Camnosperma, Gramineae dan Palaquium) yang lazimnya tumbuh dipinggir paya dan sungai.
  2. Abd. Rahim Samsudin, Umar Hamzah, Abd. Ghani Rafek, Haryono
    The whole Bachok area is covered by alluvial deposit. The alluvium has three aquifers at depth of 0 - 5, 15 - 30 and 40 - 60 meters below surface. Preliminary geophysical surveys including seismic refraction, reflection and resistivity techniques have been carried out to investigate thickness and depth of the aquifers, depth of bedrock and the salinity of the underground water. Results show that the position of first aquifer has been well determined by seismic refraction technique. Whereas the details of deeper aquifers and the bedrock have been determined by seismic reflection techniques. Geoelectrical resistivity low obtained for the first aquifer suggest that it could be due to either salt water intrusion or the presence of marine clay.
    Keseluruhan kawasan Bachok merupakan endapan aluvium. Endapan ini mempunyai tiga akuifer pada kedalaman 0 - 5 meter, 15 - 30 meter dan 40 - 60 meter. Kajian geofizik pada tahap awal yang merangkumi aspek seismos biasan, seismos pantulan dan kerintangan geoelektrik telah dilakukan untuk menyiasat ketebalan dan kedalaman akuifer, kedalaman batu dasar dan kemasinan air tanah. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa teknik seismos biasan telah dapat menghasilkan maklumat mengenai kedudukan akuifer pertama. manakala teknik seismos pantulan menghasilkan maklumat terperinci mengenai akuifer kedua dan ketiga serta batu dasar. Nilai kerintangan geoelektrik rendah bagi akuifer pertama menunjukkan sama ada disebabkan oleh intrusi air masin atau kehadiran lempung samudera.
  3. Supian Samat
    A description is given of the numerical integration method for the calculation of the mean kidney dose for a Co-57 external radiation source. Based on this theory, a computer program was written. Initial calculation of the kidney volume shows that the method has a good accuracy. For the mean kidney dose, this method gives a satisfactory result, since the calculated value lies within the acceptable range of the central axis depth dose.
    Satu huraian diberikan tentang kaedah pengkamiran berangka untuk mengira dos buah pinggang purata untuk satu sumber sinaran luar Co-57. Berdasarkan teori ini, satu program komputer ditulis. Pengiraan awal isipadu buah pinggang menunjukkan yang kaedah ini mempunyai ketepatan yang baik. Untuk dos buah pinggang purata, kaedah ini memberikan keputusan yang baik, kerana nilai kiraan terletak diantara julat dos kedalaman paksi pusat yang diterima.
  4. Mustafa Hj. Abdullah, Ahmad Nazlim Yusoff
    The electrical resistivity of Mg0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferrite was measured as a function of temperature in the range 300-630 K. Two anomalies are observed in the resistivity curves for measurements during heating up. These anomalies are identified as a magnetic anomaly at the Neel temperature, TN = 598 K, while the other one at TOt = 445 K is discussed as due to the contribution of conduction from the tetrahedral sites. The anomaly at Tot was reduced in the measurements during recooling, while the anomaly at TN was disappeared completely during recooling and second cycle. These effects are discussed as due to the increase of Fe2+ ions at the octahedral sites as a result of cation redistribution at higher temperatures. A relatively small anomaly at Tot still can be observed during the second run. This is possible if the Fe2+ ions have a preference to be relocated at the tetrahedral sites at lower temperatures.
    Kerintangan elektrik Mg0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferit telah diukur sebagai fungsi suhu dalam julat 300 - 630 K. Dua anomali dapat dicerap pada lengkung kerintangan bagi pengukuran semasa pemanasan. Dua anomali tersebut dikenalpasti sebagai anomali magnet pada suhu Neel, TN = 598 K, manakala yang satu lagi pada Tot = 445 K dibincangkan sebagai berpunca daripada sumbangan kekonduksian pada tapak tetrahedron. Anomali pada Tot mengurang dalam pengukuran semasa penyejukan semula pada julat suhu yang sarna, manakala anomali pada TN terus lenyap dalam pengukuran semasa penyejukan semula dan juga semasa kitar kedua. Kesan ini dibincangkan sebagai disebabkan oleh peningkatan ion Fe2+ pada tapak oktahedron daripada proses taburan semula kation pada suhu tinggi. Anomali yang berkurang pada Tot masih boleh dicerap semasa pengukuran kitar kedua. Keadaan seperti ini adalah mungkin jika ion Fe2+ mempunyai kecenderongan untuk bertempat semula pada tapak tetrahedron apabila suhu menurun.
  5. Khalid Md. Nor, Ithnin Abdul Jalil, Hassan Abu Kasim
    The relativistic Schrodinger equation is reinterpreted as describing a classical particle that mutually-interacts with other objects via electromagnetic-like gravity waves. The accompanying derivation equates the usual quantum mechanical energy and momentum operators to the effects of negative or attractive energy. Lorentz-like transformation equations are obtained that yield the uncertainty principle such that quantum uncertainty is ascribed to the disregard of a magnetic-like component of a gravity wave. Finally, quantum-level Maxwell-like equations that involve the above gravity waves are derived.
    Persamaan Schrodinger kerelatifan ditafsirkan sebagai memperihalkan suatu zarah klasik yang berinteraksi dengan jasad-jasad lain melalui gelombang graviti yang berciri keelektromagnetan. Terbitan sampingan menyamakan pengoperasi-pengeoperasi tenaga dan momentum mekanik kuantum dengan kesan-kesan tenaga negatif atau tarikan. Persamaan-persamaan bermirip transformasi Lorentz diperolehi yang menerbitkan prinsip ketakpastian dan memberi ketakpastian kuantum sebagai kesan pengabaian bahagian gelombang graviti yang bermirip kemagnetan. Akhir sekali, persamaan-persamaan diparas kuntum yang bermirip persamaan-persamaan Maxwell diterbitkan dan melibatkan gelombang graviti yang tersebut di atas.
  6. Yahya M.D., Lung C, Pinnas YL
    Sains Malaysiana, 1996;25(1):77-86.
    The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-specific antibodies in lupus-prone MRL/ lpr mice of different ages were compared to those against DNA. These mice elicited anti-MDA antibodies earlier and in higher levels that anti-DNA antibodies. The levels of immune complexes containing MDA adducts were also higher in these mice when compared to 3 other non-lupus strains. MDA binding to a 100 kDa serum protein was observed in 3 and 5 month old mice. Immune complexes involving anti-MDA antibodies and MDA adducts may represent an additional mechanism that contributes to disease pathogenesis in these mice.
  7. Mokhtar b. Abdullah
    Multicollinearity that may exist among explanatory variables in a regression model can make the regression coefficients insignificant and difficult to interpret. Principal component regression (PCR) is an effective way for solving multicollinearity in regression analysis. The existence of multicollinearity mayor may not be induced by the presence of influential observations. This paper discusses some diagnostic methods for identifying influential observations in the PCR. A data set on water quality of New York Rivers was considered to illustrate the methods.
    Multikolinearan yang wujud di kalangan pembolehubah penerang dalam model regresi boleh menyebabkan pekali regresi tidak bererti dan sukar untuk ditafsirkan. Regresi komponen utama (PCR) merupakan cara yang berkesan bagi menyelesaikan masalah multikolinearan dalam analisis regresi. Kewujudan multikolinearan mungkin disebabkan oleh data terpencil yang berpengaruh. Kertas ini membincangkan beberapa kaedah pengecaman bagi mengenalpasti data berpengaruh dalam PCR. Data tentang kualiti air di beberapa batang sungai di New York digunakan untuk memperihalkan kaedah pengecaman yang disarankan.
  8. Tengku M.T. Sembok
    Imaging Retrieval is a retrieval strategy which is based on modal logic where documents are viewed as possible worlds which are related through an accessibility relation established using their similarity/dissimilarity coefficients. With these accessibility relation documents are grouped into clusters based on a nearest neighbour concept. The work reported in this paper sets out to implement and evaluate the imaging retrieval as a relevance feedback retrieval with nearest neighbour clusters. The retrieval is implemented in two variations: a one-stage and a multi-stage retrieval. The results obtained from the experiments are enough to show the viability and validity of this strategy and to support it as something worth looking into further.
    Capaian Imejan ialah satu strategi capaian yang berasaskan mantik yang menganggap dukumen sebagai dunia mungkin yang berkaitan. Kaitan antara dokumen ialah hubungan capaian yang dilahirkan dengan menggunakan koefisien persamaan. Dengan hubungan capaian ini dokumen boleh dikumpulkan dalam kelompok berdasarkan konsep jiran terdekat. Kerja yang dilaporkan dalam kertas ini bertujuan untuk melaksanakan dan menilai capaian imejan sebagai capaian kerelevanan bermaklum balas dengan kelompok jiran terdekat. Capaian tersebut dilaksanakan dalam dua bentuk: capaian satu tahap dan multi tahap. Hasil yang diperolehi dari eksperimen adalah mencukupi untuk menunjukkan keupayaan dan kesahan strategi ini dan memberi sokongan sebagai sesuatu yang patut dikaji dengan lebih mendalam.
  9. Ajarem JS, Ahmad M
    The effects of prenatal caffeine exposure were examined on the morphological development and early development of reflexes in the mice pups, and further, the anxiety was also studied in the weaned mice using the plus-maze test. It was found that the postnatal body weight gain of the treated pups declined significantly. The normal eye-opening and hair appearance were also affected in the pups due to caffeine treatment. Measurement of early development of sensory motor reflexes in the pups showed that during the first week, caffeine had significantly stimulated the righting reflex, cliff avoidance and rotating reflexes with interaction between age and treatment doses. It was found in the plus-maze test that caffeine had significantly reduced the percentages of time spent as well as the entries into the open arms indicating for an anxiogenic action of caffeine in the young adult mouse. Also, caffeine stimulated the locomotor activity in the mouse as exemplified by an increase in the total number of arm entries in the plus­maze task. The present data support the basic conclusion that prenatal caffeine has a direct in utero action on the reflexes of the developing mouse pups and the anxiogenic action produced in them is longer lasting in nature.
  10. Shaharir bin Mohamad Zain, Zainal bin Abdul Aziz
    For the generalised diffusion equation with the potential of an harmonic ascillator, we obtain the exact real integral solution in a form similar to the existing Feynman integral solution.
    Penyelesaian tepat berkamiran nyata diperoleh dalam bentuk yang serupa dengan penyelesaian kamiran Feynman yang sedia ada, bagi persamaan resapan teritlak berpotensi pengayun harmonik
  11. Ahmad Nazlim Yusoff, Mustaffa Hj. Abdullah
    Samples of Mn0.6-zMgzZn0.4Fe2O4 ferrites (z = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) were prepared by solid state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of a single phase spinel structure. Analysis of XRD data indicates that the lattice parameter (a) and XRD density (ρXRD) decrease with the substitution of Mn by Mg. This ferrite system indicates a maximum magnetization at a certain composition of Mg. The initial permeability (µi) increases for samples with higher magnetization, while the coercivity vary in the opposite manner. DC resistivity (ρ) at 300 K was obtained for annealed an unannealed samples. It is seen that the resistivities at 300 K for samples with z = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 are lower than the others. The electrical resistivity as a function of temperature in one complete cycle (300 K---680 K---300 K) for unannealed samples indicates anomalies at Neel temperature (TN) and around a certain temperature (Tot). Anomaly at Tot can be seen during heating run and is greater for samples with higher Mg content. The anomaly is absent during cooling run and for the annealed samples except for Z = 0.6. The existence of this anomaly is discussed as due to a contribution of conductivity from the tetrahedral sites and cation redistribution between the two interstitial A and B sites. TN was determined from the variation of resistivity with temperature for the anealed samples and is seen to increase with increasing Mg content. The ferrimagnetic activation energy (Ef) is smaller than the paramagnetic activation energy (Ep) for all samples.
    Sistem ferit Mn0.6-zMgzZn0.4Fe2O4 (z = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 dan 0.6) disediakan melalui kaedah tindakbalas keadaan pepejal. Pembelauan sinar-X (XRD) mengesahkan kesemua sampel berstruktur spinel fasa tunggal. Analisa data XRD menunjukkan pemalar kekisi (a) dan ketumpatan XRD (rXRD) yang berkurang dengan penggantian Mn oleh Mg. Sistem ferit ini menunjukkan pemagnetan maksimum pada suatu komposisi Mg. Kebolehtelapan awal (µi) meningkat bagi sampel dengan pemagnetan yang tinggi manakala koersiviti (Hc) berubah sebaliknya. Kerintangan elektrik arus terus (ρat) pada 300 K diukur untuk sampel yang disepuh lindap dan yang tidak disepuh lindap. Nilai kerintangan elektrik pada 300 K untuk sampel dengan z = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 dan 0.6 didapati lebih rendah berbanding dengan yang lain. Perubahan kerintangan elektrik terhadap suhu dalam satu kitar (300 K---680 K---300 K) bagi sampel yang tidak disepuh lindap menunjukkan anomali pada suhu Neel (TN) dan suatu anomali di sekitar suatu suhu (Tot). Anomali pada Tot dicerap semasa pengukuran suhu meningkat dan semakin jelas untuk sampel dengan kandungan Mg yang tinggi. Anomali tersebut lenyap untuk pengukuran suhu menurun dan pengukuran bagi sampel yang disepuh lindap kecuali untuk z = 0.6. Kewujudan anomali tersebut dibincangkan sebagai berpunca daripada sumbangan kekonduksian pada tapak tetrahedron dan taburan semula kation-kation di antara dua tapak interstis A dan B. TN ditentukan daripada lengkung kerintangan melawan suhu untuk sampel yang disepuh lindap dan didapati meningkat dengan kandungan Mg. Kesemua sampel menunjukkan tenaga pengaktifan ferimagnet (Ef) yang lebih kecil daripada tenaga pengaktifan paramagnet (Ep ).
  12. Darah I., Teo M, Ibrahim C.O.
    Atratoxin B1 which was extracted from a local sea cucumber, Holothuria atra is a potential antifungal agent against dermatophytes. Exposure of Microsporum canis mycelia inoculated into Sabouraud glucose agar medium to the 10 mg/ml atratoxin B1 solution, resulted in complete suppression of the fungal growth. Prolonged exposure to the atratoxin B] (72 hours) resulted with necrosis in a substantial portion of the existing hyphae. The main anomalies noted were the abnormally shaped hyphae and the alterations in its morphology and cytology.
    Atratoksin B] yang diekstrak daripada timun laut tempatan, Holothuria atra, adalah suatu agen antikulat yang berpotensi terhadap dermatofit. Pendedahan miselium Microsporum canis yang diinokulat ke dalam medium agar glukosa Sabouraud kepada larutan atratoksin B] berkepekatan 10 mg/ml, mengakibatkan penindasan lengkap dalam pertumbuhannya. Pendedahan yang lebih lama kepada larutan atratoksin B] (72 jam) mengakibatkan nekrosis berlaku pada sebahagian besar hifanya. Keganjilan yang jelas berlaku adalah ketidaknormalan pada bentuk hifanya dan juga pengubahsuaian yang terjadi pada morfologi dan sitologinya.
  13. Kaur H, Abdul Rahman Abdullah
    Some numerical methods for solving diffusion-convection equations in two dimensional space are formulated. Iterative scheme for each method is studied and numerical test to model problem is conducted. Comparison of methods is given in table form.
    Beberapa kaedah berangka bagi menyelesaikan persamaan resapan-olakan dalam ruang dua dimensi telah dirumuskan. Skema lelaran untuk setiap satunya dikaji dan pengujian berangka kepada masalah model dilakukan. Perbandingan antara kaedah telah diberikan secara berjadual.
  14. Mohammad Ridwan Hidayat, Mazlan bt Othman
    Extinction and transformation coefficients for Kuala Lumpur were obtained from differential photometry of close red-blue star pairs using Johnson ­Morgan UBV photometric system.
    Kaedah fotometri pembezaan dengan menggunakan pasangan bintang merah biru dekat telah dipakai untuk memperoleh pekali transformasi eB dan eV Sistem fotometri yang digunakan adalah UBV Johnson-Morgan. Pencerapan adalah dilakukan di bandaraya (Kuala Lumpur) untuk menguji keberkesanan kaedah fotometri pembezaan. Untuk tujuan itu, nilai-nilai pekali pemupusan atomsfera peringkat kedua telah dibandingkan dengan nilai terdahulu.
  15. Othman A.K., Othman J., Sharifah Mastura S.A.
    This paper focuses on Langat River basin which is experiencing fast pace land use changes and accelerated soil erosion associated with land clearing and earthwork activities. Land use changes detected from Landsat imageries from 1989-1999 show that urban expansion is the most active, i.e. recording an expansion of 180% over that time period. The major land use reduction is the tropical dipterocarp rainforest located along the upper catchment of the Langat River and the mangrove forest found along Kuala Langat in the west. The 11% decline in the trend of the forest over that decade is anticipated to contribute in the near future. Results from logistic regression on the casual factors of rapid land use changes are attributed to three significant variables namely transport accessibility, population dynamics and agriculture. The eroded material due to land use changes enters into the Langat River systems as suspended sediments and contributed as non point source of pollution. Some finer sediment is being discharged offshore forming sediment plumes at the river estuary. Sediment plumes detected by Landsat TM imageries were analysed. It is found that the dispersion was not extensive and generally the suspended solids existed at low concentration (varying from 10-50 mg/l). This result is unexpected considering the rapid land use and land cover change that is occurring within the basins. These are mainly due to the loss of sediments during flooding into flood plain and active dredging of the river channels.
  16. Roslinda Nazar, Pop I
    The unsteady mixed convection boundary layer flow near the forward stagnation point of a two-dimensional symmetric body prescribed by a uniform heat flux rate is studied in this paper. The main aim of the investigation is to identify situations in which dual solutions for the steady-state flow can be determined when the flow is opposing. It is also shown that there is a smooth transition from the unsteady initial flow (short time) to the final steady state flow (large time).
  17. Ahmad Nazlim Yusoff, Mustaffa Hj. Abdullah
    The a.c. electrical response of a polycrystalline Li0.25Ni0.2Zn0.3Fe2.25O4 ferrite is studied by means of impedance spectroscopy. The impedance measurement was performed at different input voltage amplitudes in ten decades of frequency (1 mHz - 10 MHz). Two overlapping semicircles with negative capacitance phenomenon below 1 Hz are observed at all amplitudes. The two semicircles are mainly attributed to the grain and grain boundary processes at high and low frequencies respectively. The grain boundary impedance shows a non-linear dependence on the input voltage, where the corresponding impedance semicircle is smaller for larger amplitude. However, a linear response is observed for the grain component. The dependence of the a.c. electrical properties of the grain and grain boundary components on the amplitude of the input voltage is discussed.
    Ransangan elektrik a.u. daripada ferit Li0.25Ni0.2Zn0.3Fe2.25O4 berpolihablur dikaji dengan menggunakan spektroskopi impedans. Pengukuran impedans dilakukan pada beberapa amplitud voltan masukan dalam julat sepuluh dekad frekuensi (1 mHz - 10 MHz). Dua lengkung separuh bulatan yang bertindih dengan fenomena kapasitans negatif di bawah frekuensi 1 Hz dapat diperhatikan pada setiap nilai amplitud. Kedua-dua lengkung separuh bulatan tersebut berpunca daripada proses-proses butiran dan sempadan butiran masing-masing pada frekuensi tinggi dan rendah. Impedans sempadan butiran menunjukkan persandaran tak-linear ke atas voltan masukan, dengan separuh bulatan impedans yang berpadanan yang mengecil dengan peningkatan amplitud. Akan tetapi, suatu ransangan linear dapat diperhatikan bagi komponen butiran. Kebergantungan sifat elektrik a.u. bagi komponen-­komponen butiran dan sempadan butiran kepada amplitud voltan masukan dibincangkan.
  18. Muhamad Mat Salleh, Belal A, Muhamad Yahaya
    There is great interest in gas sensing especially for toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. This paper reports the use of Langmuir-Blodgett films of hematin mixed with arachidic acid to detect carbon monoxide gas in nitrogen at room temperature. The detection was studied based on changes in the optical absorption and reflection of the film using a spectrophotometer and an optical fiber system, respectively. The absorption spectra of a 20 layers LB film decreased when exposed to 10, 100, 1000 ppm CO gas, and had fast recovery time when the gas flow was stopped. An optical fiber system consists of a laser diode as light source, a fiber reflectance probe, thin film sample on a reflecting mirror and a light detector was setup. Using this system it was found that the intensity of the reflected light increased when the film was exposed to the gas. The sensing sensitivity of the films increased after the films were annealed for one hour at 100°C. The result is explained using the atomic force microscope (AFM) images of the LB films taken before and after annealing.
    Terdapat minat yang besar terhadap penderiaan gas terutama bagi gas toksik seperti karbon monoksida. Kertas ini melaporkan penggunaan filem Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) hematin bercampur asid arakidik untuk mengesan gas karbon monoksida dalam gas nitrogen pada suhu bilik. Pengesanan dikaji berasaskan perubahan serapan optik dan pantulan filem yang masing-masing menggunakan spektrofotometer dan satu sistem serat optik. Spektrum serapan bagi 20 lapisan filem LB berkurang apabila filem itu didedahkan kepada 10, 100, 1000 ppm gas CO, dan mempunyai masa pulihan yang pantas apabila aliran gas dihentikan. Satu sistem serat optik yang terdiri daripada satu sumber cahaya diod laser, penduga pantulan, sampel filem nipis di atas satu cermin pemantul dan pengesan cahaya telah dibina. Menggunakan sistem ini didapati keamatan cahaya yang terpantul meningkat selepas filem disempuhlindap selama satu jam pada 100°C. Keputusan ini dijelaskan menggunakan imej mikroskop daya atom (AFM) filem LB yang diambil sebelum dan selepas sempuhlindap.
  19. Abu Hassan Shaari Mohd Nor, Fauziah Maarof
    The main purpose of this article is to introduce the technique of panel data analysis in econometrics modeling. The elasticity of labour, capital and economic of scale for twenty two food manufacturing firms covering from 1989 to 1993 is estimated using the Cobb-Douglas model. The three main techniques of panel data analysis discussed are least square dummy variables (LSDV), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and generalized least square (GLS). Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method is included as the basis of comparison.
  20. Ahmad A.M., Shuhaimi Othman, Barzani-Gasim M., Mohd Alwi N.
    A preliminary study was conducted to determine the presence and abundance of aquatic worms in Lake Chini ecosystem, Pahang (Gumum Sea). Samplings were conducted twice in 2000. Water quality analysis was conducted to determine the water quality of the lake at the sampling locations. Results showed that nutrient levels in the water body was low and values for other physical parameters such as temperature, pH and conductivity suggested that Gumum Sea in Lake Chini is free from pollution. According to Malaysian interim river classification (Department of Environment, Malaysia), Lake Chini falls within class I to III which indicates good water quality. Annelida was the most dominant phylum found in the study area, which comprise of two major families namely Naididae and Tubificidae. This phylum contributed about 59% of the total individuals sampled and the rests were Arthropoda and Plathyhelmintes. Naididae was the most dominat family and contributed over 98% of the toal population of aquatic worms present. Dero, Aulophorus, Pristina, Branchiodrilus and Ripistes were amongst the dominant genera and showed good adaptations to the pollution free ecosystem of Lake Chini.
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