Presently, the processing time and performance of intrusion detection systems are of great importance due to the increased speed of traffic data networks and a growing number of attacks on networks and computers. Several approaches have been proposed to address this issue, including hybridizing with several algorithms. However, this paper aims at proposing a hybrid of modified K-means with C4.5 intrusion detection system in a multiagent system (MAS-IDS). The MAS-IDS consists of three agents, namely, coordinator, analysis, and communication agent. The basic concept underpinning the utilized MAS is dividing the large captured network dataset into a number of subsets and distributing these to a number of agents depending on the data network size and core CPU availability. KDD Cup 1999 dataset is used for evaluation. The proposed hybrid modified K-means with C4.5 classification in MAS is developed in JADE platform. The results show that compared to the current methods, the MAS-IDS reduces the IDS processing time by up to 70%, while improving the detection accuracy.
Indium oxide (In2O3) thin films annealed at various annealing temperatures were prepared by using spin-coating method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The objective of this research is to enhance the photovoltaic conversion efficiency in In2O3 thin films by finding the optimum annealing temperature and also to study the reason for high and low performance in the annealed In2O3 thin films. The structural and morphological characteristics of In2O3 thin films were studied via XRD patterns, atomic force microscopy (AFM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), EDX sampling, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The annealing treatment modified the nanostructures of the In2O3 thin films viewed through FESEM images. The In2O3-450 °C-based DSSC exhibited better photovoltaic performance than the other annealed thin films of 1.54%. The electron properties were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) unit. The In2O3-450 °C thin films provide larger diffusion rate, low recombination effect, and longer electron lifetime, thus enhancing the performance of DSSC.
Response surface methodology was used to optimize preparation of biocomposites based on poly(lactic acid) and durian peel cellulose. The effects of cellulose loading, mixing temperature, and mixing time on tensile strength and impact strength were investigated. A central composite design was employed to determine the optimum preparation condition of the biocomposites to obtain the highest tensile strength and impact strength. A second-order polynomial model was developed for predicting the tensile strength and impact strength based on the composite design. It was found that composites were best fit by a quadratic regression model with high coefficient of determination (R (2)) value. The selected optimum condition was 35 wt.% cellulose loading at 165°C and 15 min of mixing, leading to a desirability of 94.6%. Under the optimum condition, the tensile strength and impact strength of the biocomposites were 46.207 MPa and 2.931 kJ/m(2), respectively.
Formation of spikes prevents achievement of the better material removal rate (MRR) and surface finish while using plain NaNO3 aqueous electrolyte in electrochemical machining (ECM) of die tool steel. Hence this research work attempts to minimize the formation of spikes in the selected workpiece of high carbon high chromium die tool steel using copper nanoparticles suspended in NaNO3 aqueous electrolyte, that is, nanofluid. The selected influencing parameters are applied voltage and electrolyte discharge rate with three levels and tool feed rate with four levels. Thirty-six experiments were designed using Design Expert 7.0 software and optimization was done using multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA). This tool identified the best possible combination for achieving the better MRR and surface roughness. The results reveal that voltage of 18 V, tool feed rate of 0.54 mm/min, and nanofluid discharge rate of 12 lit/min would be the optimum values in ECM of HCHCr die tool steel. For checking the optimality obtained from the MOGA in MATLAB software, the maximum MRR of 375.78277 mm(3)/min and respective surface roughness Ra of 2.339779 μm were predicted at applied voltage of 17.688986 V, tool feed rate of 0.5399705 mm/min, and nanofluid discharge rate of 11.998816 lit/min. Confirmatory tests showed that the actual performance at the optimum conditions was 361.214 mm(3)/min and 2.41 μm; the deviation from the predicted performance is less than 4% which proves the composite desirability of the developed models.
The present study was carried out to assess the status of various hormones responsible for the flower induction of Nagal, Lulu, and Khalas date palm varieties in UAE. The nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant enzymatic activities at preflowering, flowering, and postflowering stages of the date palm varieties were quantified. The ABA and zeatin concentrations were found to be significantly higher during the preflowering stage but gradually decreased during the flowering period and then increased after the flowering stage. Gibberellic acid (GA) concentrations were significantly higher in the early flowering varieties and higher levels of ABA may contribute to the delayed flowering in mid and late varieties. The results on hormone profiling displayed a significant variation between seasons (preflowering, flowering, and postflowering) and also between the three date palms (early, mid, and late flowering varieties). Ascorbic acid (AA) concentration was low at the preflowering stage in the early flowering Nagal (0.694 mg/g dw), which is similar with the late flowering Lulu variety (0.862 mg/g dw). However, Khalas variety showed significantly higher amount of AA content (7.494 mg/g dw) at the preflowering stage when compared to other varieties. In flowering stage, Nagal (0.814 mg/g dw) and Lulu (0.963 mg/g dw) were similar with respect to the production of AA, while the mid flowering variety showed significantly higher amount of AA (9.358 mg/g dw). The Khalas variety produced the highest tocopherol at 4.78 mg/g dw compared to Nagal and Lulu, at 1.997 and 1.908 mg/g dw, respectively, during the preflowering stage. In Nagal variety, the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) at the preflowering stage was 0.507 mg/g dw, which was not significantly different from the flowering and postflowering stages at 0.4 and 0.45 mg/g dw, respectively. The GSH was significantly higher in Khalas compared to Nagal and Lulu varieties, at 1.321 mg/g w in the preflowering phase followed by 3.347 mg/g dw and 2.349 mg/g dw at the flowering and postflowering phases, respectively. Catalase activity increased with different stages of growth. The lowest catalase activity was observed at the preflowering stage in Khalas (0.116), with similar observations noted during flowering (0.110) and postflowering stage. This study provides an insight into the possible roles of endogenous hormones and antioxidants and in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the regulation of flower development in date palm varieties.
The excessive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in sustaining high rice yields due to N dynamics in tropical acid soils not only is economically unsustainable but also causes environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to coapply biochar and urea to improve soil chemical properties and productivity of rice. Biochar (5 t ha(-1)) and different rates of urea (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of recommended N application) were evaluated in both pot and field trials. Selected soil chemical properties, rice plants growth variables, nutrient use efficiency, and yield were determined using standard procedures. Coapplication of biochar with 100% and 75% urea recommendation rates significantly increased nutrients availability (especially P and K) and their use efficiency in both pot and field trials. These treatments also significantly increased rice growth variables and grain yield. Coapplication of biochar and urea application at 75% of the recommended rate can be used to improve soil chemical properties and productivity and reduce urea use by 25%.
Humans have been using natural products for medicinal use for ages. Natural products of therapeutic importance are compounds derived from plants, animals, or any microorganism. Ginger is also one of the most commonly used condiments and a natural drug in vogue. It is a traditional medicine, having some active ingredients used for the treatment of numerous diseases. During recent research on ginger, various ingredients like zingerone, shogaol, and paradol have been obtained from it. Zingerone (4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone) is a nontoxic and inexpensive compound with varied pharmacological activities. It is the least pungent component of Zingiber officinale. Zingerone is absent in fresh ginger but cooking or heating transforms gingerol to zingerone. Zingerone closely related to vanillin from vanilla and eugenol from clove. Zingerone has potent anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antilipolytic, antidiarrhoeic, antispasmodic, and so forth properties. Besides, it displays the property of enhancing growth and immune stimulation. It behaves as appetite stimulant, anxiolytic, antithrombotic, radiation protective, and antimicrobial. Also, it inhibits the reactive nitrogen species which are important in causing Alzheimer's disease and many other disorders. This review is written to shed light on the various pharmacological properties of zingerone and its role in alleviating numerous human and animal diseases.
We apply the classical theory of hyperrings to vague soft sets to derive the concepts of vague soft hyperrings, vague soft hyperideals, and vague soft hyperring homomorphism. The properties and structural characteristics of these concepts are also studied and discussed. Furthermore, the relationship between the concepts introduced here and the corresponding concepts in classical hyperring theory and soft hyperring theory is studied and investigated.
The usage of soy is increasing year by year. It increases the problem of financial crisis due to the limited sources of soybeans. Therefore, production of oral tablets containing the nutritious leftover of soymilk production, called okara, as the main ingredient was investigated. The okara tablets were produced using the direct compression method. The percentage of okara, guar gum, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-101), and maltodextrin influenced tablets' hardness and friability which are analyzed using a D-optimal mixture design. Composition of Avicel PH-101 had positive effects for both hardness and friability tests of the tablets. Maltodextrin and okara composition had a significant positive effect on tablets' hardness, but not on percentage of friability of tablets. However, guar gum had a negative effect on both physical tests. The optimum tablet formulation was obtained: 47.0% of okara, 2.0% of guar gum, 35.0% of Avicel PH-101, and 14.0% of maltodextrin.
In this review, we aimed to identify the risk factors that may influence cognitive impairment among stroke survivors, namely, demographic, clinical, psychological, and physical determinants. A search from Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases was conducted for papers published from year 2004 to 2015 related to risk factors of cognitive impairment among adult stroke survivors. A total of 1931 articles were retrieved, but only 27 articles met the criteria and were reviewed. In more than half of the articles it was found that demographical variables that include age, education level, and history of stroke were significant risk factors of cognitive impairment among stroke survivors. The review also indicated that diabetes mellitus, hypertension, types of stroke and affected region of brain, and stroke characteristics (e.g., size and location of infarctions) were clinical determinants that affected cognitive status. In addition, the presence of emotional disturbances mainly depressive symptoms showed significant effects on cognition. Independent relationships between cognition and functional impairment were also identified as determinants in a few studies. This review provided information on the possible risk factors of cognitive impairment in stroke survivors. This information may be beneficial in the prevention and management strategy of cognitive impairments among stroke survivors.
Brain status information is captured by physiological electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which are extensively used to study different brain activities. This study investigates the use of a new ensemble classifier to detect an epileptic seizure from compressed and noisy EEG signals. This noise-aware signal combination (NSC) ensemble classifier combines four classification models based on their individual performance. The main objective of the proposed classifier is to enhance the classification accuracy in the presence of noisy and incomplete information while preserving a reasonable amount of complexity. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the NSC technique, which yields higher accuracies of 90% for noiseless data compared with 85%, 85.9%, and 89.5% in other experiments. The accuracy for the proposed method is 80% when SNR=1 dB, 84% when SNR=5 dB, and 88% when SNR=10 dB, while the compression ratio (CR) is 85.35% for all of the datasets mentioned.
We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.
Most identity-based identification (IBI) schemes proposed in recent literature are built using pairing operations. This decreases efficiency due to the high operation costs of pairings. Furthermore, most of these IBI schemes are proven to be secure against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks using interactive assumptions such as the one-more RSA inversion assumption or the one-more discrete logarithm assumption, translating to weaker security guarantees due to the interactive nature of these assumptions. The Schnorr-IBI scheme was first proposed through the Kurosawa-Heng transformation from the Schnorr signature. It remains one of the fastest yet most secure IBI schemes under impersonation against passive attacks due to its pairing-free design. However, when required to be secure against impersonators under active and concurrent attacks, it deteriorates greatly in terms of efficiency due to the protocol having to be repeated multiple times. In this paper, we upgrade the Schnorr-IBI scheme to be secure against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks using only the classical discrete logarithm assumption. This translates to a higher degree of security guarantee with only some minor increments in operational costs. Furthermore, because the scheme operates without pairings, it still retains its efficiency and superiority when compared to other pairing-based IBI schemes.
Catharanthus roseus (L.) known as Madagascar periwinkle (MP) is a legendary medicinal plant mostly because of possessing two invaluable antitumor terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), vincristine and vinblastine. The plant has also high aesthetic value as an evergreen ornamental that yields prolific blooms of splendid colors. The plant possesses yet another unique characteristic as an amiable experimental host for the maintenance of the smallest bacteria found on earth, the phytoplasmas and spiroplasmas, and serves as a model for their study. Botanical information with respect to synonyms, vernacular names, cultivars, floral morphology, and reproduction adds to understanding of the plant while the geography and ecology of periwinkle illustrate the organism's ubiquity. Good agronomic practices ensure generous propagation of healthy plants that serve as a source of bioactive compounds and multitudinous horticultural applications. The correlation between genetic diversity, variants, and TIA production exists. MP is afflicted with a whole range of diseases that have to be properly managed. The ethnobotanical significance of MP is exemplified by its international usage as a traditional remedy for abundant ailments and not only for cancer. TIAs are present only in micro quantities in the plant and are highly poisonous per se rendering a challenge for researchers to increase yield and reduce toxicity.
The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R (2)) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution.
This paper investigated the effects of critical-point drying (CPD) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) sample preparation techniques for cervical cells on field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (FE-SEM/EDX). We investigated the visualization of cervical cell image and elemental distribution on the cervical cell for two techniques of sample preparation. Using FE-SEM/EDX, the cervical cell images are captured and the cell element compositions are extracted for both sample preparation techniques. Cervical cell image quality, elemental composition, and processing time are considered for comparison of performances. Qualitatively, FE-SEM image based on HMDS preparation technique has better image quality than CPD technique in terms of degree of spread cell on the specimen and morphologic signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of plate and pellet drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Quantitatively, with mapping and line scanning EDX analysis, carbon and oxygen element compositions in HMDS technique were higher than the CPD technique in terms of weight percentages. The HMDS technique has shorter processing time than the CPD technique. The results indicate that FE-SEM imaging, elemental composition, and processing time for sample preparation with the HMDS technique were better than CPD technique for cervical cell preparation technique for developing computer-aided screening system.
The locally isolated filamentous fungus Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 was cultivated in a 5 L bioreactor to produce lipid and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). The optimization was carried out using response surface methodology based on a central composite design. A statistical model, second-order polynomial model, was adjusted to the experimental data to evaluate the effect of key operating variables, including aeration rate and agitation speed on lipid production. Process analysis showed that linear and quadratic effect of agitation intensity significantly influenced lipid production process (P < 0.01). The quadratic model also indicated that the interaction between aeration rate and agitation speed had a highly significant effect on lipid production (P < 0.01). Experimental results showed that a lipid content of 38.71% was produced in optimum conditions using an airflow rate and agitation speed of 0.32 vvm and 599 rpm, respectively. Similar results revealed that 0.058(g/g) gamma-linolenic acid was produced in optimum conditions where 1.0 vvm aeration rate and 441.45 rpm agitation rate were used. The regression model confirmed that aeration and agitation were of prime importance for optimum production of lipid in the bioreactor.