A novel microgels were polymerized using styrene (St), methyl methacrylate (MMA), acrylamide (AAm), and acrylic acid (AAc) monomers in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) cross-linker. Pre-emulsified monomer was first prepared followed by polymerizing monomers using semi-batch emulsion polymerization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were used to determine the chemical structure and to indentify the related functional group. Grafting and cross-linking of poly(acrylamide-co-acrilic acid)-grafted-poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) [poly(AAm-co-AAc)-g-poly(St-co-MMA)] microgels are approved by the disappearance of band at 1300 cm(-1), 1200 cm(-1) and 1163 cm(-1) of FTIR spectrum and the appearance of CH peaks at 5.5-5.7 ppm in (1)H NMR spectrum. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images indicated that poly(St-co-MMA) particle was lobed morphology coated by cross-linked poly(AAm-co-AAc) shell. Furthermore, SEM results revealed that poly(AAm-co-AAc)-g-poly(St-co-MMA) is composite particle that consist of "raspberry"-shape like structure core. Internal structures of the microgels showed homogeneous network of pores, an extensive interconnection among pores, thicker pore walls, and open network structures. Water absorbency test indicated that the sample with particle size 0.43 μm had lower equilibrium water content, % than the sample with particle size 7.39 μm.
In this work, mesostructured silica nanoparticles (MSN(AP)) with high adsorptivity were prepared by a modification with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as a pore expander. The performance of the MSN(AP) was tested by the adsorption of MB in a batch system under varying pH (2-11), adsorbent dosage (0.1-0.5 g L(-1)), and initial MB concentration (5-60 mg L(-1)). The best conditions were achieved at pH 7 when using 0.1 g L(-1) MSN(AP) and 60 mg L(-1)MB to give a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 500.1 mg g(-1) at 303 K. The equilibrium data were evaluated using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Harkins-Jura isotherms and fit well to the Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second order model. The results indicate the potential for a new use of mesostructured materials as an effective adsorbent for MB.
Mixed matrix hollow fibers composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and polyetherimide (PEI) were fabricated. Pre-treatment of MWCNTs was carried out prior to the incorporation into the polymer matrix using a simple and feasible two stages approach that involved dry air oxidation and surfactant dispersion. The characterizations of the surface treated MWCNTs using TEM and Raman spectroscopy have evidenced the effectiveness of dry air oxidation in eliminating undesired amorphous carbon and metal catalyst while surfactant dispersion using Triton X100 has suppressed the agglomeration of MWCNTs. The resultant mixed matrix hollow fibers were applied for O(2)/N(2) pure gas separation. Interestingly, it was found that removal of disordered amorphous carbons and metal particles has allowed the hollow structures to be more accessible for the fast and smooth transport of gas molecules, hence resulted in noticeable improvement in the gas separation properties. The composite hollow fibers embedded with the surface modified MWCNTs showed increase in permeability as much as 60% while maintaining the selectivity of the O(2)/N(2) gas pair. This study highlights the necessity to establish an appropriate pre-treatment approach for MWCNTs in order to fully utilize the beneficial transport properties of this material in mixed matrix polymer nanocomposite for gas separation.
A microparticle material of gold/polystyrene-coated hollow titania was successfully synthesized. The synthesis steps involved hydrothermal synthesis of a carbon sphere from sucrose as a template, coating of the carbon sphere with titania, removal of the carbon sphere to produce hollow titania, followed by coating of polystyrene on the surface of hollow titania and then attachment of gold nanoparticles. It has been demonstrated that this material can float on water due to its low density and it is a potential catalyst for liquid-gas boundary catalysis in oxidation of benzyl alcohol by using molecular oxygen.
A new series of liquid crystals decorated gold nanoparticles is synthesized whose molecular architecture has azobenzenes moieties as the peripheral units connected to gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) via alkyl groups. The morphology and mesomorphic properties were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy. The thiolated ligand molecules (3a-c) showed enantiotropic smectic A phase, whereas gold nanoparticles (5a-c) exhibit nematic and smectic A phase with monotropic nature. HR-TEM measurement showed that the functionalized Au NPs are of the average size of 2nm and they are well dispersed without any aggregation. The trans-form of azo compounds showed a strong band in the UV region at ∼378nm for the π-π(∗) transition, and a weak band in the visible region at ∼472nm due to the n-π(∗) transition. These molecules exhibit attractive photoisomerization behaviour in which trans-cis transition takes about 15s whereas the cis-trans transition requires about 45min for compound 5c. The extent of reversible isomerization did not decay after 10 cycles, which proved that the photo-responsive properties of 5c were stable and repeatable. Therefore, these materials may be suitably exploited in the field of molecular switches and the optical storage devices.
Highly effective WO3/ZnO nanorods (NRs) were synthesized via a hydrothermal-deposition method for degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under natural sunlight. The structural properties of WO3/ZnO NRs such as morphology, crystal structure, porous properties and light absorption characteristics were investigated in detail. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the prepared samples were two-phase photocatalysts consisted of WO3 and ZnO NRs. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy result showed that the addition of WO3 altered the optical properties of the photocatalysts. In contrast with the pure ZnO NRs, commercial anatase TiO2 and commercial WO3, the WO3/ZnO NRs showed excellent sunlight photocatalytic activities in degrading 2,4-D. The optimal WO3 loading and calcination temperature were also determined. Based on the band position, the synergetic effect of WO3 and ZnO NRs was the source of the enhanced photocatalytic activity as validated by PL and terephthalic acid-photoluminescence measurements. The reaction intermediates and degradation pathways of 2,4-D were elucidated by a HPLC method. In addition, the extent of mineralization during the 2,4-D degradation was also estimated using total organic carbon (TOC) and ion chromatography (IC) analyses.
Thermal decomposition of co-precipitated Ni-Fe-HT materials led to the formation a mesoporous Ni-Fe-HT catalyst and we have demonstrated here its active role as solid and active catalyst for the Knoevenagel condensation reaction of various aldehydes with active methylene compounds (R-CH2-CN, where R=CN or CO2Et). High product yields are obtained at moderate temperature under solvent-free conditions and the catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture, simply by filtration and reused several times without a significant loss of its activity. Since these mesoporous metal oxides derived from the NiFe hydrotalcites, their basicity mediated abstraction of the acidic protons from the active methylene compounds was responsible for their catalytic activity under solvent-free conditions.
The synergistic photocatalysis-adsorption processes by the immobilized TiO(2)/chitosan layer by layer system on a glass support (TiO(2)/CS/glass) were investigated for the decolourisation of Reactive Red 4 (RR4) dye solution. Effects of different reaction parameters such as TiO(2) loading, initial pH of the solution, visible light, dissolved oxygen and radical quenchers were studied. The decolourisation rate of RR4 by TiO(2)/CS/glass was more than 32 times faster than a single layer of TiO(2) but was highly dependent on the TiO(2) loading and the initial pH of the solution. A thin layer of TiO(2) and acidic conditions favoured the adsorption of RR4 at the TiO(2)/CS interface. The h(+)/OH() species that diffused from the TiO(2) layer into the TiO(2)/CS interface oxidised the chemisorbed RR4 anions at the interface, and the generated electrons were then transferred to the conduction band of TiO(2). Excess electrons in the conduction band of TiO(2) increased the number of superoxide ions produced and thus improved the photocatalytic decolourisation of RR4. Therefore, apart from the synergistic photocatalysis-adsorption processes, a charge transfer process was also found to be responsible for maintaining the efficiency, sustainability and reusability of the TiO(2)/CS/glass layer by layer system.
Pseudo-first-order rate constants (k(obs)) for alkaline hydrolysis of N-(2'-methoxyphenyl)phthalimide (1) decrease nonlinearly with increasing total concentration of nonionic surfactant C(m)E(n) (i.e. [C(m)E(n)](T) where m and n represent the respective number of methyl/methylene units in the tail and polyoxyethylene units in the headgroup of a surfactant molecule and m/n=16/20, 12/23 and 18/20) at constant 2% v/v CH(3)CN and 1.0 mM NaOH. The k(obs)vs. [C(m)E(n)](T) data follow the pseudophase micellar (PM) model at ≤ 50 mM C(16)E(20), ≤ 1.4 mM C(12)E(23) and ≤ 2.0 mM C(18)E(20) where rate of hydrolysis of 1 in micellar pseudophase could not be detected. The values of k(obs) fail to follow the PM model at > ∼50 mM C(16)E(20), > ∼1.4 mM C(12)E(23) and > ∼2.0 mM C(18)E(20) which has been attributed to a micellar structural transition from spherical to rodlike which in turn increases C(m)E(n) micellar binding constant (K(S)) of 1 with increasing values of [C(m)E(n)](T). Rheological measurements show the presence of spherical micelles at ≤ 50 mM C(16)E(20), ≤ 1.4 mM C(12)E(23) and ≤ 3.0 mM C(18)E(20). The presence of rodlike micelles is evident from rheological measurements at > ∼50 mM C(16)E(20), > ∼1.4 mM C(12)E(23) and > ∼3.0 mM C(18)E(20).
The effects of the concentration of inert organic salts, [MX], (MX=2-, 3- and 4-BrBzNa with BrBzNa=BrC(6)H(4)CO(2)Na) on the rate of piperidinolysis of ionized phenyl salicylate (PS(-)) have been rationalized in terms of pseudophase micellar (PM) coupled with an empirical equation. The appearance of induction concentration in the plots of k(obs) versus [MX] (where k(obs) is pseudo-first-order rate constants for the reaction of piperidine (Pip) with PS(-)) is attributed to the occurrence of two or more than two independent ion exchange processes between different counterions at the cationic micellar surface. The derived kinetic equation, in terms of PM model coupled with an empirical equation, gives empirical parameters F(X/S) and K(X/S) whose magnitudes lead to the calculation of usual ion exchange constant K(X)(Br) (=K(X)/K(Br) with K(X) and K(Br) representing cationic micellar binding constants of counterions X(-) and Br(-), respectively). The value of F(X/S) measures the fraction of S(-) (=PS(-)) ions transferred from the cationic micellar pseudophase to the aqueous phase by the optimum value of [MX] due to ion exchange X(-)/S(-). Similarly, the value of K(X/S) measures the ability of X(-) ions to expel S(-) ions from cationic micellar pseudophase to aqueous phase through ion exchange X(-)/S(-). This rather new technique gives the respective values of K(X)(Br) as 8.8±0.3, 71±6 and 62±5 for X(-)=2-, 3- and 4-BrBz(-). Rheological measurements reveal the shear thinning behavior of all the surfactant solutions at 15mM CTABr (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) indicating indirectly the presence of rodlike micelles. The plots of shear viscosity (η) at a constant shear rate (γ), i.e. η(γ), versus [MX] at 15 mM CTABr exhibit maxima for MX=3-BrBzNa and 4-BrBzNa while for MX=2-BrBzNa, the viscosity maximum appears to be missing. Such viscosity maxima are generally formed in surfactant solutions containing long stiff and flexible rodlike micelles with entangled and branched/multiconnected networks. Thus, 15 mM CTABr solutions at different [MX] contain long stiff and flexible rodlike micelles for MX=3- and 4-BrBzNa and short rodlike micelles for MX=2-BrBzNa.
This study investigated the gas separation and transport properties of asymmetric mixed matrix membranes (MMM) fabricated from polyetherimide (PEI); Ultem 1000 incorporated with raw and modified halloysite nanotubes (HNT) as filler. The modified HNTs; S-HNTs were prepared by treating HNTs with N-β-(aminoethyl)-γ-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane (AEAPTMS). FESEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, DSC and pure gas permeation testing were used to characterise the S-HNTs and the fabricated MMMs. In the first part of the experiments, the effect of dope preparation factors such as: ultrasonic sonication period, filler wetting period and priming period were investigated. In the second part, the influence of silane concentration on the fabricated MMMs was studied. Results showed that, increasing the silane concentration, led to higher tendency in HNT agglomeration which resulted in poor separation properties but permeability enhancement. In the last part, the effect of S-HNTs loading was experienced. Our observations showed that the dispersion of nanoparticles decreased with an increase in the S-HNTs loading. Accordingly, 0.5% loading of silylated-HNT yielded the optimum MMMs in terms of permeability (27% increase) and selectivity (8% increase).
Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) with an enhanced photocatalytic activity was developed by doping it with calcium ions through a sol-gel method. The developed photocatalysts were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, N(2) physisorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction. Their surface morphologies were studied using surface scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XPS analyses confirmed the presence of Ti, O, Ca, and C in the Ca-doped TiO(2) sample. The activities of the catalysts were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye, acid red 1 (AR1), using UV light irradiation. The results of the investigations revealed that the samples calcined at 300 °C for 3.6h in a cyclic (2 cycles) mode had the best performance. Lower percentage dopant, 0.3-1.0 wt.%, enhanced the photocatalytic activity of TiO(2), with the best at 0.5 wt.% Ca-TiO(2). The performance of 0.5 wt.% Ca-TiO(2) in the degradation of AR1 was far superior to that of a commercial anatase TiO(2) Sigma product CAS No. 1317-70-0. The effect of pH on the degradation of AR1 was studied, and the pH of the dye solution exerted a great influence on the degradation of the dye.
The nickel (Ni) nanocrystals (average diameter 9.7+/-2.3nm) were deposited onto composite graphite electrode from a plating solution of 5.0mM NiCl(2)6H(2)O and 1.0M NH(4)Cl using scan rate of 6500mVs(-1). The initial potential -1.5V and final potential -0.5V vs. Ag/AgCl with applied time 120s were used for the whole deposition process. The variations of applied overpotentials and deposition times have affected the characteristics of Ni nanocrystals. It was found that the structural formation of Ni nanocrystals obtained were almost pure hexagonal close-packed (hcp). This study has demonstrated that the tuning of the final size, morphology and structural formation of the Ni nanocrystal were affected by control of nucleation, growth and hydrogen evolution processes in fast scan voltammetry technique used.
The aim of this work was to develop prediction models for shape and size of ca-alginate macrobeads produced through extrusion-dripping method. The relationship between the process variables on the shape and size of the alginate drops before and after gelation was established with the aid of image analysis. The results show that a critical Ohnersorge number (Oh)>0.24 was required to form spherical beads. The shape transition of ca-alginate beads could be typically distinguished into three phases along the collecting distance and it was affected by the combined influence of the solution properties, the collecting distance and the drop size. Mathematical equations and a master shape diagram were developed to reveal a clear operating region and the overall process limits within which spherical ca-alginate beads could be formed. In terms of bead size, the overall size correction factor (K) which accounted for the liquid loss factor (k(LF)) and the shrinkage factor (k(SF)), varied between 0.73 and 0.85 under the experimental conditions. The size prediction model correlated well with the experimental data. The approach and the outcome could be used as a model to develop prediction tools for similar bead production systems.
Sodium silicate from rice husk ash (RHA) was transformed to functionalized silica with 3-(chloropropyl)triethoxysilane (CPTES) via a simple sol-gel technique in a one-pot synthesis. The (29)Si MAS NMR of the organo-silica complex (RHACCl) showed the presence of T(2), T(3), Q(3) and Q(4) silicon centers. The (13)C MAS NMR showed that RHACCl had three chemical shifts at 10.37, 26.70 and 47.69 ppm consistent with the three carbon atoms of the CPTES moiety. The presence of carbon, silicon and chlorine was determined by a combination of elemental analysis and EDX study.
Grafting of free maleimide and epoxide pendant groups onto the surface of approximately 7-nm silica nanoparticles was investigated. Glycidyloxypropyl groups (3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) that carried epoxide groups and aminopropyl groups were grafted to the silica surface with the help of condensation reactions. Maleimide groups [1,1(')-(methylenedi-4,1-phenelene) bismaleimide] were introduced to the silica surface via nucleophilic addition reaction with the aminopropyl groups pre-grafted onto the surface. The grafted silica samples were characterized using CHN, FTIR, DSC, TGA-FTIR, and 13C and 29Si CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. NMR analyses revealed that all the functional groups were covalently bonded to the silica surface and most of the maleimide and epoxide rings remained intact on surface. DSC analysis showed that the epoxide groups were more reactive than the maleimide groups.
The effect of pH and redox potential on the redox equilibria of iron oxides in aqueous-based magnetite dispersions was investigated. The ionic activities of each dissolved iron species in equilibrium with magnetite nanoparticles were determined and contoured within the Eh-pH framework of a composite stability diagram. Both standard redox potentials and equilibrium constants for all major iron oxide redox equilibria in magnetite dispersions were found to differ from values reported for noncolloidal systems. The "triple point" position of redox equilibrium among Fe(II) ions, magnetite, and hematite shifted to a higher standard redox potential and an equilibrium constant which was several orders of magnitude higher. The predominant area of magnetite stability was enlarged to cover a wider range of both pH and redox potentials as compared to that of a noncolloidal magnetite system.
Iron and 4-(methylamino)benzoic acid have been successfully incorporated into silica extracted from rice husk. The silica/Fe/amine complex, RH-Fe(5% amine), showed a ca. 24% increase in specific surface area compared to RH-Fe. This increase was attributed to the templated formation of regular pores. The XRD showed the RH-Fe(5% amine) to be amorphous. The Friedel-Crafts benzylation reaction with toluene using RH-Fe(5% amine) showed a drastic reduction in the di-substituted products to ca. 1.0%.
The sorption of Fe(2+) onto unbleached kraft fibre was investigated at different conditions such as pH, temperature, and concentrations. The sorption, which increased with concentration and temperature, followed the Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamically, the process was spontaneous and endothermic. It was found that the precipitation of Fe(2+) was highly dependent on pH and reached 100% when pH exceeded approximately 8.
Silica supported iron catalyst was prepared from rice husk ash (RHA) via the sol-gel technique using an aqueous solution of iron(III) salt in 3.0 M HNO3. The sample was dried at 110 degrees C and labeled as RHA-Fe. A sample of RHA-Fe was calcined at 700 degrees C for 5 h and labeled as RHA-Fe700. X-ray diffraction spectrogram showed that both RHA-Fe and RHA-Fe700 were amorphous. The SEM/EDX results showed that the metal was present as agglomerates and the Fe ions were not homogeneously distributed in RHA-Fe but RHA-Fe700 was shown to be homogeneous. The specific surface areas for RHA-Fe and RHA-Fe700 were determined by BET nitrogen adsorption studies and found to be 87.4 and 55.8 m(2) g(-1), respectively. Both catalysts showed high activity in the reaction between toluene and benzyl chloride. The mono-substituted benzyltoluene was the major product and both catalysts yielded more than 92% of the product. The GC showed that both the ortho- and para-substituted monoisomers were present in about equal quantities. The minor products consisting of 16 di-substituted isomers were also observed in the GC-MS spectra of both catalytic products. The catalyst was found to be reusable without loss of activity and with no leaching of the metal.