Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 7664 in total

  1. Searle AG
    Ann. Hum. Genet., 1959;23:279-288.
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.1959.tb01471.x
    1. The incidence of anencephaly in Singapore was determined from hospital records for 1953–56 inclusive. Sixty‐eight cases were found in 88,069 births, or 0.77 per thousand. 2. Analysis of data according to maternal community revealed great heterogeneity (Table 1), with frequencies ranging from 0.0 per thousand in the Hakka group of Chinese to 6.5 per thousand in Sikhs. 3. 48.4 % of anencephalics were males. This unusually high proportion may be connected with the low frequency of primiparity in Singapore and high average birth weight of affected infants, compared with records from elsewhere. Neither maternal age nor parity had a significant effect on the incidence. 4. The causes of anencephaly are discussed. It is suggested that properties of the local external environment (such as type of water supply) are of less importance than dietary and other customs peculiar to different communities, as well as genetical differences. 5. Several reasons are given why anencephaly, and other congenital malformations of the central nervous system, should be regarded as quasi‐continuous variables, due to a threshold effect. A comparison with the ‘curly‐tail’ mutant in the mouse supports this view and also emphasizes the close causal connexion between anencephaly and spina bifida. I am very grateful to Prof. L. S. Penrose, F.R.S., for arousing my interest in this subject and for invaluable advice. I should like to thank Prof. B. H. Sheares, Head of the University of Malaya's Unit at Kandang Kerbau Hospital, and Dr A. Arulanandam, Medical Superintendent, for arranging that I should have access to hospital records. I am greatly indebted to my wife for considerable help in the task of searching through these records. Copyright © 1959, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetics
  2. Wong HB
    Family Practitioner, 1986;9:25-34.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetics
  3. Yong HS
    PMID: 3070769
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/genetics; Genetics, Population*; Insect Vectors/genetics*
  4. Churkina Taran AS, Shakhov AS, Kotlobay AA, Alieva IB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2022 Dec 08;23(24).
    PMID: 36555175 DOI: 10.3390/ijms232415533
    Neurodegenerative diseases are currently incurable. Numerous experimental data accumulated over the past fifty years have brought us closer to understanding the molecular and cell mechanisms responsible for their development. However, these data are not enough for a complete understanding of the genesis of these diseases, nor to suggest treatment methods. It turns out that many cellular pathologies developing during neurodegeneration coincide from disease to disease. These observations give hope to finding a common intracellular target(s) and to offering a universal method of treatment. In this review, we attempt to analyze data on similar cellular disorders among neurodegenerative diseases in general, and polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases in particular, focusing on the interaction of various proteins involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases with various cellular organelles. The main purposes of this review are: (1) to outline the spectrum of common intracellular pathologies and to answer the question of whether it is possible to find potential universal target(s) for therapeutic intervention; (2) to identify specific intracellular pathologies and to speculate about a possible general approach for their treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Huntingtin Protein/genetics
  5. Bahbahani H, Al-Zoubi S, Ali F, Afana A, Dashti M, Al-Ateeqi A, et al.
    Mitochondrion, 2023 Mar;69:36-42.
    PMID: 36690316 DOI: 10.1016/j.mito.2023.01.004
    The two species of the Old World Camelini tribe, dromedary and Bactrian camels, show superior adaptability to the different environmental conditions they populate, e.g. desert, mountains and coastal areas, which might be associated with adaptive variations on their mitochondrial DNA. Here, we investigate signatures of natural selection in the 13-mitochondrial protein-coding genes of different dromedary camel populations from the Arabian Peninsula, Africa and southwest Asia. The full mitogenome sequences of 42 dromedaries, 38 domestic Bactrian, 29 wild Bactrian camels and 31 samples representing the New World Lamini tribe reveal species-wise genetic distinction among Camelidae family species, with no evidence of geographic distinction among dromedary camels. We observe gene-wide signals of adaptive divergence between the Old World and New World camels, with evidence of purifying selection among Old World camel species. Upon comparing the different Camelidae tribes, 27 amino acid substitutions across ten mtDNA protein-coding genes were found to be under positive selection, in which, 24 codons were defined to be under positive adaptive divergence between Old World and New World camels. Seven codons belonging to three genes demonstrated positive selection in dromedary lineage. A total of 89 codons were found to be under positive selection in Camelidae family based on investigating the impact of amino acid replacement on the physiochemical properties of proteins, including equilibrium constant and surrounding hydrophobicity. These mtDNA variants under positive selection in the Camelidae family might be associated with their adaptation to their contrasting environments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mitochondria/genetics
  6. Goot-Heah K, Kwai-Lin T, Froemming GR, Abraham MT, Nik Mohd Rosdy NM, Zain RB
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012;13(12):6109-13.
    PMID: 23464414
    BACKGROUND: Oral cancer has become one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide and human Papillomavirus is one of the risk factors for developing oral cancer. For this study HPV18 was chosen as it is one of the high risk HPV types and may lead to carcinogenesis. However, prevalence of HPV18 infection in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Malaysia remains unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the viral load of HPV18 DNA in OSCC and potentially malignant lesions using saliva samples.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNAs of thirty saliva samples of normal subjects and thirty saliva samples compromised of 16 samples from potentially malignant lesions and 14 of OSCC patients were amplified for HPV18 DNA using a nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. All PCR products were then analyzed using the Bioanalyzer to confirm presence of HPV18 DNA.

    RESULT: From thirty patients examined, only one of 30 (3.3%) cases was found to be positive for HPV18 in this study.

    CONCLUSION: The finding of this study revealed that there is a low viral detection of HPV18 in Malaysian OSCC by using saliva samples, suggesting that prevalence of HPV18 may not be important in this group of Malaysian OSCC.

    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics; Mouth Neoplasms/genetics; Papillomaviridae/genetics
  7. Dai W, Chen J, Guo X, Su Z
    Tumour Biol., 2015 Jun;36(6):4089.
    PMID: 26025112 DOI: 10.1007/s13277-015-3481-4
    With great interest, we read the article "Relationships between PTEN gene mutations and prognosis in glioma: a meta-analysis" (by Xiao et al. Tumor Biol 35(7):6687-6693, 2014), which has reached important conclusions that the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutations were closely related to poor prognosis of glioma patients. Through quantitative analysis, the investigators (Xiao WZ et al.) showed that glioma patients with PTEN gene mutations exhibited a significantly shorter overall survival (OS) than those without PTEN gene mutations (HR = 3.66, 95 % CI = 2.02∼5.30, P  0.05). The meta-analysis results are encouraging. Nevertheless, some deficiencies still existed that we would like to raise.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain Neoplasms/genetics*; Glioma/genetics*; PTEN Phosphohydrolase/genetics*
  8. Kuan SW, Chua KH, Tan EW, Tan LK, Loch A, Kee BP
    PeerJ, 2022;10:e13265.
    PMID: 35441061 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.13265
    Cardiomyopathy (CMP) constitutes a diverse group of myocardium diseases affecting the pumping ability of the heart. Genetic predisposition is among the major factors affecting the development of CMP. Globally, there are over 100 genes in autosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of CMP. However, most of the genetic studies have been conducted in Western countries, with limited data being available for the Asian population. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the mutation spectrum in the mitochondrial genome of 145 CMP patients in Malaysia. Long-range PCR was employed to amplify the entire mtDNA, and whole mitochondrial genome sequencing was conducted on the MiSeq platform. Raw data was quality checked, mapped, and aligned to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS). Variants were named, annotated, and filtered. The sequencing revealed 1,077 variants, including 18 novel and 17 CMP and/or mitochondrial disease-associated variants after filtering. In-silico predictions suggested that three of the novel variants (m.8573G>C, m.11916T>A and m.11918T>G) in this study are potentially pathogenic. Two confirmed pathogenic variants (m.1555A>G and m.11778G>A) were also found in the CMP patients. The findings of this study shed light on the distribution of mitochondrial mutations in Malaysian CMP patients. Further functional studies are required to elucidate the role of these variants in the development of CMP.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics; Mitochondria/genetics; Mutation/genetics
  9. Low HC, Chilian WM, Ratnam W, Karupaiah T, Md Noh MF, Mansor F, et al.
    Br J Biomed Sci, 2023;80:10884.
    PMID: 36866104 DOI: 10.3389/bjbs.2023.10884
    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a major chronic metabolic disorder in public health. Due to mitochondria's indispensable role in the body, its dysfunction has been implicated in the development and progression of multiple diseases, including Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Thus, factors that can regulate mitochondrial function, like mtDNA methylation, are of significant interest in managing T2DM. In this paper, the overview of epigenetics and the mechanism of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA methylation were briefly discussed, followed by other mitochondrial epigenetics. Subsequently, the association between mtDNA methylation with T2DM and the challenges of mtDNA methylation studies were also reviewed. This review will aid in understanding the impact of mtDNA methylation on T2DM and future advancements in T2DM treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics; Mitochondria/genetics; Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics
  10. Sumera A, Radhakrishnan AK, Aziz Baba A, George E
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Dec;42(3):323-332.
    PMID: 33361713
    The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the most prevalent and functionally diverse member of the non-coding RNA (ncRNA). The lncRNA has previously been considered to be a form of transcriptional "noise" but recent studies have found that the lncRNA to be associated with various disease conditions. It has also been found to play important roles in various physiological processes such as haemopoiesis, where lncRNA is reported to act as a fine-tuner of this very important process. To date, the effects of dysregulated lncRNA in thalassaemia has not been fully explored. This review article focuses on the possible roles of dysregulated lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of thalassaemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thalassemia/genetics*; RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics*
  11. Malik YA
    Malays J Pathol, 2022 Dec;44(3):387-396.
    PMID: 36591708
    The genetic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 began in February 2020, with G614 spike protein strains superseding D614 strains globally. Since then with each subsequent mutations, the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, namely Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron, superseded the previous one to become the dominant strain during the pandemic. By the end of November 2022, the Omicron variant and its descendent lineages account for 99.9% of sequences reported globally. All five VOCs have mutations located in the RBD of the spike protein, resulting in increased affinity of the spike protein to the ACE2 receptors resulting in enhanced viral attachment and its subsequent entry into the host cells. In vitro studies showed the mutations in spike protein help increase the viral fitness, enhancing both transmissibility and replication. In general, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants, were reported with higher transmissibility of 43-90%, around 50%, 170-240%, or 130-170% than their co-circulating VOCs, respectively. The Omicron however was found to be 2.38 times and 3.20 times more transmissible than Delta among the fully-vaccinated and boostervaccinated households. Even the SARS-Cov-2 Omicron subvariants appear to be inherently more transmissible than the ones before. With the broader distribution, enhanced evasion, and improved transmissibility, SARS-CoV-2 variants infection cause severe diseases due to immune escape from host immunity and faster replication. Reports have shown that each subsequent VOC, except Omicron, cause increased disease severity compared with those infected with other circulating variants. The Omicron variant infection however, appears to be largely associated with a lower risk of hospitalisation, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and even a shorter length of hospital stay. It has been shown that the relatively much slower replication of the Omicron variants in the lung, resulted in a less severe disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence/genetics; Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
  12. Rongnopaurt P, Rodpradit P, Kongsawadworakul P, Sithiprasasna R, Linthicum KJ
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 2006 Jun;22(2):192-7.
    PMID: 17014059
    Anopheles (Cellia) maculatus Theobald is a major malaria vector in southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia, and previous population genetic studies suggested that mountain ranges act as barriers to gene flow. In this study, we examine the genetic variance among 12 collections of natural populations in southern Thailand by analyzing 7 microsatellite loci. Based on analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), three geographic populations of An. maculatus are suggested. The southern population exists in western Thailand north of 12 degrees north latitude. Mosquitoes to the south fall into two genetic populations: 1) the middle southern collections located on the west side of the Phuket mountain range between 8 degrees and 10 degrees north latitude, and 2) the southern collections located on the east of the Phuket mountain range located between approximately 6.5 degrees and 11.5 degrees north latitude. AMOVA revealed significant genetic differentiation between northern and middle southern and southern populations. The middle southern population was moderately differentiated from the southern population. Furthermore, gene flow was restricted between proximal collections located on different sides of the Phuket mountain range. Collections separated by 50 km exhibited restriction of gene flow when separated by geographic barriers, whereas greater gene flow was evident among collections 650 km apart but without geographic barriers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/genetics*; DNA/genetics; Genetics, Population; Microsatellite Repeats/genetics
  13. Lee XW, Mat-Isa MN, Mohd-Elias NA, Aizat-Juhari MA, Goh HH, Dear PH, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(12):e0167958.
    PMID: 27977777 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167958
    Rafflesia is a biologically enigmatic species that is very rare in occurrence and possesses an extraordinary morphology. This parasitic plant produces a gigantic flower up to one metre in diameter with no leaves, stem or roots. However, little is known about the floral biology of this species especially at the molecular level. In an effort to address this issue, we have generated and characterised the transcriptome of the Rafflesia cantleyi flower, and performed a comparison with the transcriptome of its floral bud to predict genes that are expressed and regulated during flower development. Approximately 40 million sequencing reads were generated and assembled de novo into 18,053 transcripts with an average length of 641 bp. Of these, more than 79% of the transcripts had significant matches to annotated sequences in the public protein database. A total of 11,756 and 7,891 transcripts were assigned to Gene Ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. In addition, 6,019 transcripts could be mapped to 129 pathways in Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. Digital abundance analysis identified 52 transcripts with very high expression in the flower transcriptome of R. cantleyi. Subsequently, analysis of differential expression between developing flower and the floral bud revealed a set of 105 transcripts with potential role in flower development. Our work presents a deep transcriptome resource analysis for the developing flower of R. cantleyi. Genes potentially involved in the growth and development of the R. cantleyi flower were identified and provide insights into biological processes that occur during flower development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics; Angiosperms/genetics*; Flowers/genetics*; Transcriptome/genetics*
  14. Sinding MS, Gopalakrishan S, Vieira FG, Samaniego Castruita JA, Raundrup K, Heide Jørgensen MP, et al.
    PLoS Genet, 2018 11;14(11):e1007745.
    PMID: 30419012 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007745
    North America is currently home to a number of grey wolf (Canis lupus) and wolf-like canid populations, including the coyote (Canis latrans) and the taxonomically controversial red, Eastern timber and Great Lakes wolves. We explored their population structure and regional gene flow using a dataset of 40 full genome sequences that represent the extant diversity of North American wolves and wolf-like canid populations. This included 15 new genomes (13 North American grey wolves, 1 red wolf and 1 Eastern timber/Great Lakes wolf), ranging from 0.4 to 15x coverage. In addition to providing full genome support for the previously proposed coyote-wolf admixture origin for the taxonomically controversial red, Eastern timber and Great Lakes wolves, the discriminatory power offered by our dataset suggests all North American grey wolves, including the Mexican form, are monophyletic, and thus share a common ancestor to the exclusion of all other wolves. Furthermore, we identify three distinct populations in the high arctic, one being a previously unidentified "Polar wolf" population endemic to Ellesmere Island and Greenland. Genetic diversity analyses reveal particularly high inbreeding and low heterozygosity in these Polar wolves, consistent with long-term isolation from the other North American wolves.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetics, Population*; Wolves/genetics*; Coyotes/genetics*
  15. Redjeki ES, Ho WK, Shah N, Molosiwa OO, Ardiarini NR, Kuswanto, et al.
    Genome, 2020 Jun;63(6):319-327.
    PMID: 32097026 DOI: 10.1139/gen-2019-0137
    A total of 170 bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) accessions were evaluated using both simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated using genotyping-by-sequencing (GbS), of which 56 accessions were collected from West and East Java. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), population structure, and cluster analysis suggest that the East Java accessions could be a result of the introduction of selected West Java accessions. In addition, the current Indonesian accessions were likely introduced from Southern Africa, which would have produced a very marked founding effect such that these accessions present only a fraction of the genetic variability that exists within this species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Variation/genetics*; Microsatellite Repeats/genetics*; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics*; Vigna/genetics*
  16. Arai T, Aikawa S, Sudesh K, Kondo T, Kosugi A
    J Microbiol Methods, 2022 01;192:106375.
    PMID: 34793853 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2021.106375
    Caldimonas manganoxidans is a Gram-negative, thermophilic, bioplastic-producing bacterium that is a promising strain to overcome the drawbacks of existing bioplastic manufacturing methods. However, genetic manipulation of this species has not previously been studied. Here, we developed an optimized electrotransformation protocol for C. manganoxidans by screening conditions, including the bacterial growth phase, electroporation buffer, pulse strength, and recovery time. The optimized transformation protocol obtained (3.1 ± 0.78) × 108 colony-forming units/μg DNA of plasmid pBBR1MCS-2. High transformation efficiency was observed when using plasmid DNA isolated from C. manganoxidans. The DNA methylases of Escherichia coli did not affect the transformation efficiency of C. manganoxidans. The electrotransformation technique proposed here will be beneficial for the genetic manipulation of thermophilic Caldimonas species.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Bacterial/genetics; Plasmids/genetics; Transformation, Bacterial/genetics*; Comamonadaceae/genetics*
  17. Gan HM, Tan MH, Lee YP, Hammer MP, Austin CM
    Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal, 2016 11;27(6):4187-4188.
    PMID: 25600740
    The mitogenome of an Australian sample of the mudskipper, Periophthalmus minutus, was recovered from partial sequencing using the MiSeq sequencer. This mudskipper has a mitogenome of 16,506 base pairs (55% A + T content) made up of two ribosomal subunit genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 838 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the first sequenced mitogenome for the genus Periophthalmus and the fifth for the subfamily Oxudercinae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Perciformes/genetics*; RNA/genetics*; RNA, Transfer/genetics*; Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics*; Fish Proteins/genetics*
  18. Zawani MK, Abu HA, Sazaly AB, Zary SY, Darlina MN
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(4):8184-96.
    PMID: 25299203 DOI: 10.4238/2014.October.7.13
    The mosquito Aedes albopictus is indigenous to Southeast Asian and is a vector for arbovirus diseases. Studies examining the population genetics structure of A. albopictus have been conducted worldwide; however, there are no documented reports on the population genetic structure of A. albopictus in Malaysia, particularly in Penang. We examined the population genetics of A. albopictus based on a 445-base pair segment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase 1 gene among 77 individuals from 9 localities representing 4 regions (Seberang Perai Utara, Seberang Perai Tengah, Northeast, and Southwest) of Penang. A total of 37 haplotypes were detected, including 28 unique haplotypes. The other 9 haplotypes were shared among various populations. These shared haplotypes reflect the weak population genetic structure of A. albopictus. The phylogenetic tree showed a low bootstrap value with no genetic structure, which was supported by minimum spanning network analysis. Analysis of mismatch distribution showed poor fit of equilibrium distribution. The genetic distance showed low genetic variation, while pairwise FST values showed no significant difference between all regions in Penang except for some localities. High haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity was observed for cytochrome oxidase 1 mtDNA. We conclude that there is no population genetic structure of A. albopictus mosquitoes in the Penang area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/genetics*; Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics; Genetics, Population*
  19. Yaacob JS, Loh HS, Mat Taha R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:613635.
    PMID: 23844406 DOI: 10.1155/2013/613635
    Mantled fruits as a result of somaclonal variation are often observed from the oil palm plantlets regenerated via tissue culture. The mantling of fruits with finger-like and thick outer coating phenotypes significantly reduces the seed size and oil content, posing a threat to oil palm planters, and may jeopardize the economic growth of countries that depend particularly on oil palm plantation. The molecular aspects of the occurrence of somaclonal variations are yet to be known, possibly due to gene repression such as DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone deacetylation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), involved in eukaryotic gene regulation by catalyzing the acetyl groups are removal from lysine residues on histone, hence transcriptionally repress gene expression. This paper described the total protein polymorphism profiles of somaclonal variants of oil palm and the effects of histone deacetylation on this phenomenon. Parallel to the different phenotypes, the protein polymorphism profiles of the mantled samples (leaves, fruits, and florets) and the phenotypically normal samples were proven to be different. Higher HDAC activity was found in mantled leaf samples than in the phenotypically normal leaf samples, leading to a preliminary conclusion that histone deacetylation suppressed gene expression and contributed to the development of somaclonal variants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/genetics; Fruit/genetics*; Plant Proteins/genetics*; Genetic Variation/genetics*; Arecaceae/genetics*
  20. Saleem M, Yusoff NM
    Hematology, 2016 Oct;21(9):501-12.
    PMID: 26871368 DOI: 10.1080/10245332.2015.1106816
    OBJECTIVES: The new World Health Organization's (WHO) classification of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissue neoplasms incorporating the recurrent fusion genes as the defining criteria for different haematopoietic malignant phenotypes is reviewed. The recurrent fusion genes incorporated in the new WHO's classification and other chromosomal rearrangements of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissue neoplasms are reviewed.

    METHODOLOGY: Cytokines and transcription factors in haematopoiesis and leukaemic mechanisms are described. Genetic features and clinical implications due to the encoded chimeric neoproteins causing malignant haematopoietic disorders are reviewed.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Multiple translocation partner genes are well known for leukaemia such as MYC, MLL, RARA, ALK, and RUNX1. With the advent of more sophisticated diagnostic tools and bioinformatics algorithms, an exponential growth in fusion genes discoveries is likely to increase.

    CONCLUSION: Demonstration of fusion genes and their specific translocation breakpoints in malignant haematological disorders are crucial for understanding the molecular pathogenesis and clinical phenotype of cancer, determining prognostic indexes and therapeutic responses, and monitoring residual disease and relapse status.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobinopathies/genetics*; Leukemia/genetics*; Lymphoma/genetics*; Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics*; Cytokines/genetics
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