Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 5916 in total

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  1. Wong HB
    Family Practitioner, 1986;9:25-34.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetics
  2. Yong HS
    PMID: 3070769
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/genetics; Genetics, Population*; Insect Vectors/genetics*
  3. Goot-Heah K, Kwai-Lin T, Froemming GR, Abraham MT, Nik Mohd Rosdy NM, Zain RB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(12):6109-13.
    PMID: 23464414
    BACKGROUND: Oral cancer has become one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide and human Papillomavirus is one of the risk factors for developing oral cancer. For this study HPV18 was chosen as it is one of the high risk HPV types and may lead to carcinogenesis. However, prevalence of HPV18 infection in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Malaysia remains unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the viral load of HPV18 DNA in OSCC and potentially malignant lesions using saliva samples.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNAs of thirty saliva samples of normal subjects and thirty saliva samples compromised of 16 samples from potentially malignant lesions and 14 of OSCC patients were amplified for HPV18 DNA using a nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. All PCR products were then analyzed using the Bioanalyzer to confirm presence of HPV18 DNA.

    RESULT: From thirty patients examined, only one of 30 (3.3%) cases was found to be positive for HPV18 in this study.

    CONCLUSION: The finding of this study revealed that there is a low viral detection of HPV18 in Malaysian OSCC by using saliva samples, suggesting that prevalence of HPV18 may not be important in this group of Malaysian OSCC.

    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics; Mouth Neoplasms/genetics; Papillomaviridae/genetics
  4. Dai W, Chen J, Guo X, Su Z
    Tumour Biol., 2015 Jun;36(6):4089.
    PMID: 26025112 DOI: 10.1007/s13277-015-3481-4
    With great interest, we read the article "Relationships between PTEN gene mutations and prognosis in glioma: a meta-analysis" (by Xiao et al. Tumor Biol 35(7):6687-6693, 2014), which has reached important conclusions that the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutations were closely related to poor prognosis of glioma patients. Through quantitative analysis, the investigators (Xiao WZ et al.) showed that glioma patients with PTEN gene mutations exhibited a significantly shorter overall survival (OS) than those without PTEN gene mutations (HR = 3.66, 95 % CI = 2.02∼5.30, P  0.05). The meta-analysis results are encouraging. Nevertheless, some deficiencies still existed that we would like to raise.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain Neoplasms/genetics*; Glioma/genetics*; PTEN Phosphohydrolase/genetics*
  5. Rongnopaurt P, Rodpradit P, Kongsawadworakul P, Sithiprasasna R, Linthicum KJ
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2006 Jun;22(2):192-7.
    PMID: 17014059
    Anopheles (Cellia) maculatus Theobald is a major malaria vector in southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia, and previous population genetic studies suggested that mountain ranges act as barriers to gene flow. In this study, we examine the genetic variance among 12 collections of natural populations in southern Thailand by analyzing 7 microsatellite loci. Based on analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), three geographic populations of An. maculatus are suggested. The southern population exists in western Thailand north of 12 degrees north latitude. Mosquitoes to the south fall into two genetic populations: 1) the middle southern collections located on the west side of the Phuket mountain range between 8 degrees and 10 degrees north latitude, and 2) the southern collections located on the east of the Phuket mountain range located between approximately 6.5 degrees and 11.5 degrees north latitude. AMOVA revealed significant genetic differentiation between northern and middle southern and southern populations. The middle southern population was moderately differentiated from the southern population. Furthermore, gene flow was restricted between proximal collections located on different sides of the Phuket mountain range. Collections separated by 50 km exhibited restriction of gene flow when separated by geographic barriers, whereas greater gene flow was evident among collections 650 km apart but without geographic barriers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/genetics*; DNA/genetics; Genetics, Population; Microsatellite Repeats/genetics
  6. Lee XW, Mat-Isa MN, Mohd-Elias NA, Aizat-Juhari MA, Goh HH, Dear PH, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(12):e0167958.
    PMID: 27977777 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167958
    Rafflesia is a biologically enigmatic species that is very rare in occurrence and possesses an extraordinary morphology. This parasitic plant produces a gigantic flower up to one metre in diameter with no leaves, stem or roots. However, little is known about the floral biology of this species especially at the molecular level. In an effort to address this issue, we have generated and characterised the transcriptome of the Rafflesia cantleyi flower, and performed a comparison with the transcriptome of its floral bud to predict genes that are expressed and regulated during flower development. Approximately 40 million sequencing reads were generated and assembled de novo into 18,053 transcripts with an average length of 641 bp. Of these, more than 79% of the transcripts had significant matches to annotated sequences in the public protein database. A total of 11,756 and 7,891 transcripts were assigned to Gene Ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. In addition, 6,019 transcripts could be mapped to 129 pathways in Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. Digital abundance analysis identified 52 transcripts with very high expression in the flower transcriptome of R. cantleyi. Subsequently, analysis of differential expression between developing flower and the floral bud revealed a set of 105 transcripts with potential role in flower development. Our work presents a deep transcriptome resource analysis for the developing flower of R. cantleyi. Genes potentially involved in the growth and development of the R. cantleyi flower were identified and provide insights into biological processes that occur during flower development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics; Angiosperms/genetics*; Flowers/genetics*; Transcriptome/genetics*
  7. Sinding MS, Gopalakrishan S, Vieira FG, Samaniego Castruita JA, Raundrup K, Heide Jørgensen MP, et al.
    PLoS Genet., 2018 11;14(11):e1007745.
    PMID: 30419012 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007745
    North America is currently home to a number of grey wolf (Canis lupus) and wolf-like canid populations, including the coyote (Canis latrans) and the taxonomically controversial red, Eastern timber and Great Lakes wolves. We explored their population structure and regional gene flow using a dataset of 40 full genome sequences that represent the extant diversity of North American wolves and wolf-like canid populations. This included 15 new genomes (13 North American grey wolves, 1 red wolf and 1 Eastern timber/Great Lakes wolf), ranging from 0.4 to 15x coverage. In addition to providing full genome support for the previously proposed coyote-wolf admixture origin for the taxonomically controversial red, Eastern timber and Great Lakes wolves, the discriminatory power offered by our dataset suggests all North American grey wolves, including the Mexican form, are monophyletic, and thus share a common ancestor to the exclusion of all other wolves. Furthermore, we identify three distinct populations in the high arctic, one being a previously unidentified "Polar wolf" population endemic to Ellesmere Island and Greenland. Genetic diversity analyses reveal particularly high inbreeding and low heterozygosity in these Polar wolves, consistent with long-term isolation from the other North American wolves.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetics, Population*; Wolves/genetics*; Coyotes/genetics*
  8. Saleem M, Yusoff NM
    Hematology, 2016 Oct;21(9):501-12.
    PMID: 26871368 DOI: 10.1080/10245332.2015.1106816
    OBJECTIVES: The new World Health Organization's (WHO) classification of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissue neoplasms incorporating the recurrent fusion genes as the defining criteria for different haematopoietic malignant phenotypes is reviewed. The recurrent fusion genes incorporated in the new WHO's classification and other chromosomal rearrangements of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissue neoplasms are reviewed.

    METHODOLOGY: Cytokines and transcription factors in haematopoiesis and leukaemic mechanisms are described. Genetic features and clinical implications due to the encoded chimeric neoproteins causing malignant haematopoietic disorders are reviewed.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Multiple translocation partner genes are well known for leukaemia such as MYC, MLL, RARA, ALK, and RUNX1. With the advent of more sophisticated diagnostic tools and bioinformatics algorithms, an exponential growth in fusion genes discoveries is likely to increase.

    CONCLUSION: Demonstration of fusion genes and their specific translocation breakpoints in malignant haematological disorders are crucial for understanding the molecular pathogenesis and clinical phenotype of cancer, determining prognostic indexes and therapeutic responses, and monitoring residual disease and relapse status.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobinopathies/genetics*; Leukemia/genetics*; Lymphoma/genetics*; Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics*; Cytokines/genetics
  9. Yaacob JS, Loh HS, Mat Taha R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:613635.
    PMID: 23844406 DOI: 10.1155/2013/613635
    Mantled fruits as a result of somaclonal variation are often observed from the oil palm plantlets regenerated via tissue culture. The mantling of fruits with finger-like and thick outer coating phenotypes significantly reduces the seed size and oil content, posing a threat to oil palm planters, and may jeopardize the economic growth of countries that depend particularly on oil palm plantation. The molecular aspects of the occurrence of somaclonal variations are yet to be known, possibly due to gene repression such as DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone deacetylation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), involved in eukaryotic gene regulation by catalyzing the acetyl groups are removal from lysine residues on histone, hence transcriptionally repress gene expression. This paper described the total protein polymorphism profiles of somaclonal variants of oil palm and the effects of histone deacetylation on this phenomenon. Parallel to the different phenotypes, the protein polymorphism profiles of the mantled samples (leaves, fruits, and florets) and the phenotypically normal samples were proven to be different. Higher HDAC activity was found in mantled leaf samples than in the phenotypically normal leaf samples, leading to a preliminary conclusion that histone deacetylation suppressed gene expression and contributed to the development of somaclonal variants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/genetics; Fruit/genetics*; Plant Proteins/genetics*; Genetic Variation/genetics*; Arecaceae/genetics*
  10. Tan SY
    Kidney Blood Press. Res., 2000;23(2):138-42.
    PMID: 10765117 DOI: 10.1159/000025967
    FcgammaRIIs are the most widely distributed of the Fcgamma receptor family and play an important role in the clearance of immune complexes. Evidence that the FcgammaRIIa-R131 allotype is less able to process and clear immune complexes effectively suggests that this may be a disease susceptibility factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Data from studies published thus far do not agree on the potential role of FcgammaRIIa polymorphism in the genetics of SLE. Most studies in fact show no evidence for any correlation between polymorphism of FcgammaRIIa and risk for SLE. However, it remains to be determined whether FcgammaRIIa polymorphism may play a critical role in certain groups of patients, especially in those of differing ethnic background. Polymorphism of FcgammaRIIa may also be important in determining disease phenotype, and identification of this influence may have important implications in patient care and in identifying patients for more aggressive therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics*; Lupus Nephritis/genetics*; Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics*; Antigens, CD/genetics*; Receptors, IgG/genetics*
  11. Gan HM, Tan MH, Lee YP, Hammer MP, Austin CM
    Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal, 2016 11;27(6):4187-4188.
    PMID: 25600740
    The mitogenome of an Australian sample of the mudskipper, Periophthalmus minutus, was recovered from partial sequencing using the MiSeq sequencer. This mudskipper has a mitogenome of 16,506 base pairs (55% A + T content) made up of two ribosomal subunit genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 838 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the first sequenced mitogenome for the genus Periophthalmus and the fifth for the subfamily Oxudercinae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Perciformes/genetics*; RNA/genetics*; RNA, Transfer/genetics*; Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics*; Fish Proteins/genetics*
  12. Zawani MK, Abu HA, Sazaly AB, Zary SY, Darlina MN
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(4):8184-96.
    PMID: 25299203 DOI: 10.4238/2014.October.7.13
    The mosquito Aedes albopictus is indigenous to Southeast Asian and is a vector for arbovirus diseases. Studies examining the population genetics structure of A. albopictus have been conducted worldwide; however, there are no documented reports on the population genetic structure of A. albopictus in Malaysia, particularly in Penang. We examined the population genetics of A. albopictus based on a 445-base pair segment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase 1 gene among 77 individuals from 9 localities representing 4 regions (Seberang Perai Utara, Seberang Perai Tengah, Northeast, and Southwest) of Penang. A total of 37 haplotypes were detected, including 28 unique haplotypes. The other 9 haplotypes were shared among various populations. These shared haplotypes reflect the weak population genetic structure of A. albopictus. The phylogenetic tree showed a low bootstrap value with no genetic structure, which was supported by minimum spanning network analysis. Analysis of mismatch distribution showed poor fit of equilibrium distribution. The genetic distance showed low genetic variation, while pairwise FST values showed no significant difference between all regions in Penang except for some localities. High haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity was observed for cytochrome oxidase 1 mtDNA. We conclude that there is no population genetic structure of A. albopictus mosquitoes in the Penang area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/genetics*; Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics; Genetics, Population*
  13. Watson A, Ghosh S, Williams MJ, Cuddy WS, Simmonds J, Rey MD, et al.
    Nat Plants, 2018 01;4(1):23-29.
    PMID: 29292376 DOI: 10.1038/s41477-017-0083-8
    The growing human population and a changing environment have raised significant concern for global food security, with the current improvement rate of several important crops inadequate to meet future demand 1 . This slow improvement rate is attributed partly to the long generation times of crop plants. Here, we present a method called 'speed breeding', which greatly shortens generation time and accelerates breeding and research programmes. Speed breeding can be used to achieve up to 6 generations per year for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and pea (Pisum sativum), and 4 generations for canola (Brassica napus), instead of 2-3 under normal glasshouse conditions. We demonstrate that speed breeding in fully enclosed, controlled-environment growth chambers can accelerate plant development for research purposes, including phenotyping of adult plant traits, mutant studies and transformation. The use of supplemental lighting in a glasshouse environment allows rapid generation cycling through single seed descent (SSD) and potential for adaptation to larger-scale crop improvement programs. Cost saving through light-emitting diode (LED) supplemental lighting is also outlined. We envisage great potential for integrating speed breeding with other modern crop breeding technologies, including high-throughput genotyping, genome editing and genomic selection, accelerating the rate of crop improvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hordeum/genetics*; Triticum/genetics*; Peas/genetics*; Brassica napus/genetics*; Cicer/genetics*
  14. Ng CH, Lee SL, Tnah LH, Ng KKS, Lee CT, Diway B, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(4):e0176158.
    PMID: 28430826 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176158
    The development of timber tracking methods based on genetic markers can provide scientific evidence to verify the origin of timber products and fulfill the growing requirement for sustainable forestry practices. In this study, the origin of an important Dark Red Meranti wood, Shorea platyclados, was studied by using the combination of seven chloroplast DNA and 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) markers. A total of 27 natural populations of S. platyclados were sampled throughout Malaysia to establish population level and individual level identification databases. A haplotype map was generated from chloroplast DNA sequencing for population identification, resulting in 29 multilocus haplotypes, based on 39 informative intraspecific variable sites. Subsequently, a DNA profiling database was developed from 15 STRs allowing for individual identification in Malaysia. Cluster analysis divided the 27 populations into two genetic clusters, corresponding to the region of Eastern and Western Malaysia. The conservativeness tests showed that the Malaysia database is conservative after removal of bias from population subdivision and sampling effects. Independent self-assignment tests correctly assigned individuals to the database in an overall 60.60-94.95% of cases for identified populations, and in 98.99-99.23% of cases for identified regions. Both the chloroplast DNA database and the STRs appear to be useful for tracking timber originating in Malaysia. Hence, this DNA-based method could serve as an effective addition tool to the existing forensic timber identification system for ensuring the sustainably management of this species into the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Chloroplast/genetics; Microsatellite Repeats/genetics; Forensic Genetics*; Dipterocarpaceae/genetics*
  15. Teh CK, Muaz SD, Tangaya P, Fong PY, Ong AL, Mayes S, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 06 08;7(1):3118.
    PMID: 28596562 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-03225-7
    The fundamental trait in selective breeding of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq.) is the shell thickness surrounding the kernel. The monogenic shell thickness is inversely correlated to mesocarp thickness, where the crude palm oil accumulates. Commercial thin-shelled tenera derived from thick-shelled dura × shell-less pisifera generally contain 30% higher oil per bunch. Two mutations, sh MPOB (M1) and sh AVROS (M2) in the SHELL gene - a type II MADS-box transcription factor mainly present in AVROS and Nigerian origins, were reported to be responsible for different fruit forms. In this study, we have tested 1,339 samples maintained in Sime Darby Plantation using both mutations. Five genotype-phenotype discrepancies and eight controls were then re-tested with all five reported mutations (sh AVROS , sh MPOB , sh MPOB2 , sh MPOB3 and sh MPOB4 ) within the same gene. The integration of genotypic data, pedigree records and shell formation model further explained the haploinsufficiency effect on the SHELL gene with different number of functional copies. Some rare mutations were also identified, suggesting a need to further confirm the existence of cis-compound mutations in the gene. With this, the prediction accuracy of fruit forms can be further improved, especially in introgressive hybrids of oil palm. Understanding causative variant segregation is extremely important, even for monogenic traits such as shell thickness in oil palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chimera/genetics*; Fruit/genetics*; Plant Proteins/genetics*; Arecaceae/genetics*; Haploinsufficiency/genetics*
  16. Hassan MI, McSorley FR, Hotta K, Boddy CN
    J Vis Exp, 2017 06 27.
    PMID: 28715370 DOI: 10.3791/55187
    Co-expression of multiple proteins is increasingly essential for synthetic biology, studying protein-protein complexes, and characterizing and harnessing biosynthetic pathways. In this manuscript, the use of a highly effective system for the construction of multigene synthetic operons under the control of an inducible T7 RNA polymerase is described. This system allows many genes to be expressed simultaneously from one plasmid. Here, a set of four related vectors, pMGX-A, pMGX-hisA, pMGX-K, and pMGX-hisK, with either the ampicillin or kanamycin resistance selectable marker (A and K) and either possessing or lacking an N-terminal hexahistidine tag (his) are disclosed. Detailed protocols for the construction of synthetic operons using this vector system are provided along with the corresponding data, showing that a pMGX-based system containing five genes can be readily constructed and used to produce all five encoded proteins in Escherichia coli. This system and protocol enables researchers to routinely express complex multi-component modules and pathways in E. coli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/genetics*; Genetic Vectors/genetics*; Plasmids/genetics*; DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics*; Viral Proteins/genetics*
  17. Gupta G, Bebawy M, Pinto TJA, Chellappan DK, Mishra A, Dua K
    Crit. Rev. Eukaryot. Gene Expr., 2018;28(3):217-221.
    PMID: 30311568 DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2018021188
    Cancer is a complicated transformational progression that fiercely changes the appearance of cell physiology as well as cells' relations with adjacent tissues. Developing an oncogenic characteristic requires a wide range of modifications in a gene expression at a cellular level. This can be achieved by activation or suppression of the gene regulation pathway in a cell. Tristetraprolin (TTP or ZFP36) associated with the initiation and development of tumors are regulated at the level of mRNA decay, frequently through the activity of AU-rich mRNA-destabilizing elements (AREs) located in their 3'-untranslated regions. TTP is an attractive target for therapeutic use and diagnostic tools due to its characteristic appearance in cancer tissue alone. Thus, the illumination of TTP in diverse types of cancer might deliver additional effective remedies in the coming era for cancer patients. The objective of this review is to familiarize the reader with the TTP proteins, focus on efficient properties that endow them with their effective oncogenic potential, describe their physiological role in cancer cells, and review the unique properties of TT, and of TTP-driven cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasms/genetics*; RNA, Messenger/genetics; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics; RNA Stability/genetics; Tristetraprolin/genetics*
  18. Poh KB, Roslan ZM, Misnan R, Sinang SC
    J. Genet., 2018 Sep;97(4):817-824.
    PMID: 30262693
    Msb069 primer pairs encompassed region is believed to be associated with a quantitative trait loci (QTL) of dorsal fin length in subgenus Poecilia. However, detailed investigation on Msb069 which originated from Xiphophorus on subgenus Poecilia remains unexplored. In this study, full sequence of Msb069 was characterized by sequencing bioinformatics analysis and gene expression. The sequence analysis of Msb069 primer pairs encompassed region on three species of Poecilia revealed higher number of microsatellite tandem repeats in Poecilia latipinna (ATG
    16
    ) compared to P. sphenops (ATG
    13-14
    ). There is no notable pattern of ATGtandem repeats discovered in the hybrids. The full sequence of Msb069 is 734 bp in length and showed a 233 bp conserved region between Xiphophorus and Poecilia. BLAST search performed on this sequence revealed no significant similarities. Nonquantitative RT-PCR exhibited the presence of Msb069 transcripts in three different tissues in subgenus Poecilia. Meanwhile, quantitative RTPCR expression on two different tissues showed relatively higher expression of Msb069 transcript in P. latipinna dorsal fin tissues in both male and female fishes, suggesting a repressive function of this transcript with respect to dorsal fin length. However the exact gene expression event of Msb069 is still unknown and requires further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyprinodontiformes/genetics*; Poecilia/genetics*; Gene Expression/genetics; Microsatellite Repeats/genetics*; Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics
  19. Mirsafian H, Mat Ripen A, Singh A, Teo PH, Merican AF, Mohamad SB
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:639682.
    PMID: 24707212 DOI: 10.1155/2014/639682
    Synonymous codon usage bias is an inevitable phenomenon in organismic taxa across the three domains of life. Though the frequency of codon usage is not equal across species and within genome in the same species, the phenomenon is non random and is tissue-specific. Several factors such as GC content, nucleotide distribution, protein hydropathy, protein secondary structure, and translational selection are reported to contribute to codon usage preference. The synonymous codon usage patterns can be helpful in revealing the expression pattern of genes as well as the evolutionary relationship between the sequences. In this study, synonymous codon usage bias patterns were determined for the evolutionarily close proteins of albumin superfamily, namely, albumin, α-fetoprotein, afamin, and vitamin D-binding protein. Our study demonstrated that the genes of the four albumin superfamily members have low GC content and high values of effective number of codons (ENC) suggesting high expressivity of these genes and less bias in codon usage preferences. This study also provided evidence that the albumin superfamily members are not subjected to mutational selection pressure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins/genetics*; RNA, Messenger/genetics
  20. Hidayat T, Arif SM, Samad AA
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2013 Oct 1;16(19):1072-5.
    PMID: 24502175
    The mango (Mangifer indica L.) is an important species of the family Anacardiaceae and is one of the most important crops cultivated commercially in many parts of the world. Hence, a better understanding of the phylogeny in this species is crucial as it is the basis knowledge of improving its genetic resources which is beneficial for breeding programs. Phylogenetic relationships among 13 mango cultivars from Indonesia, Malaysia and Taiwan were carried out by comparing DNA sequence data sets derived from the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region pfnuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA). Analysis using parsimony method showed that the cultivars were classified into three major groups. The first group composed almost Malaysian cultivars although with low bootstrap value, the second group consisted of mainly Taiwan cultivars and the last group included mostly Indonesia one. The results indicated that some cultivars have a close relationships with each other even it is originated from different countries. With regards to the relationship among these cultivars, this gives better insight for generating new cultivar.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics*; DNA, Plant/genetics*; Mangifera/genetics*
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