Observation on predation activities of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) on the larvae of three species of mosquito, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was carried out under laboratory conditions. Male and female guppies were used as predators for predation experiments on the 4th instars of mosquito larvae. The daily feeding rates comparing male and female guppies on mosquito larvae were different; the female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae than male guppies did. The daily feeding rates of female guppies were 121.3 for Ae. aegypti, 105.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 72.3 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The daily feeding rates of male guppies were 98.6 for Ae. aegypti, 73.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 47.6 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In terms of prey preference, there was greater preference towards mosquito larvae of Ae. aegypti, followed by Ae. albopictus, and the least preferred was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Male and female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae during lights on (day time) compared with lights off (night time). The water volume, prey species, number of fish predators available, prey densities, and prey's sex also influenced the predation activities.
Tooth agenesis in Malay children, hitherto unreported, was assessed retrospectively from orthopantomograms of 834 healthy children aged 12-16 years who attended the Dental Clinic of Universiti Sains Malaysia. All teeth, including third molars, were assessed for agenesis. On an average, 2.3 teeth were missing per child. Missing third molars were found in 25.7% of children with one or two third molars found to be missing in 18.3% of children. Three point two percent of children had missing teeth other than third molars. After third molars, the upper lateral incisors were found to be the most common missing tooth (1.7%), followed by upper and lower second premolars (1.5%). Eight missing upper canines were also seen (1%). Bilateral agenesis was more common than unilateral agenesis. There were no significant differences between males and females. There was a significant difference between missing teeth between the maxilla and the mandible and right and left side, with more missing teeth in the maxilla and on the right side. The odds of any 3rd molar missing were increased 3.3 times when there was any other missing tooth. In conclusion, the prevalence of tooth agenesis among the studied population was within the normal range, but less than some Asian countries. Unlike other Asian countries, the upper lateral incisor was the most common missing tooth. The prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis was higher than most previous reports. Missing teeth were associated with missing third molars, which is likely due to a genetic abnormality.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is common among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the components of MetS and the prevalence of CVD among patients with T2DM. We studied 313 patients aged > or = 30 years diagnosed with T2DM at two tertiary care hospitals. Patients were recruited by systematic random sampling. Clinical data was obtained using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire and from a review of their medical records. MetS was diagnosed using NCEP ATP III, WHO, IDF and the new Harmonized definitions. Specific MetS components such as BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, hypertension, HDL-C and triglyceride levels were evaluated to determine if they had an association with CVD. Thirty-six point one percent of the subjects had CVD. The mean age of the subjects was 55.7 +/- 9.2 years and the mean duration of having diabetes was 10.1 +/- 8.1 years. The overall prevalences of MetS (> or = 3 of 5 components) (95% CI) were 96.1% (94.0-98.3), 95.8% (93.6-98.1), 84.8% (80.8-88.9) and 97.7% (96.1-99.4) using NCEP ATP III, WHO, IDF and Harmonized definitions, respectively. Patients with MetS had a higher prevalence of CVD using NCEP ATP III (98.2% vs 93.5%), WHO (98.2% vs 93.0%), IDF (87.6% vs 82.0%) and Harmonized criteria (98.2% vs 96.0%). The greater the number of MetS components, the greater the chance of having CVD using three definitions for diagnosing MetS: WHO, IDF and Harmonized (p < 0.05). MetS and the combination of the individual components of MetS were significantly associated with CVD among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. Aggressive treatment of MetS components is required to reduce cardiovascular risk in T2DM.
Partial gene sequences of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS) and RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) were evaluated for species delineation and detection of recombination among enterococci populations recovered from a bathing beach impacted by low tide river flow. At inter-species level, a maximum similarity of 86.5% and 94.8% was observed among the enterococci pheS and rpoA sequence, respectively. A superimposed plot of delimited pairwise similarity values obtained for 266 pair-wise observations revealed that while there was a harmony between species identity obtained from both genes, pheS was more discriminatory than rpoA. The difference was more pronounced for inter-species comparison. A number of putative recombination events between indigenous and non-indigenous strains was detected based on a library of aligned sequences. Virulence genes cyl, esp, gelE and asa were detected in 7, 22, 100 and 63%, respectively among river isolates but at lower proportion of 0, 20, 67 and 42%, respectively among beach water isolates. Random amplified polymorphic DNA profiling presented evidence suggesting low tide river as a source of fecal enterococci entering the recreation beach water. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of a number of Enterococcus faecalis isolates presented four sequence types, ST59, 117, 181 and 474. The presence of genetically diverse fecal enterococci with associated virulence traits and a background of recombination events in surface recreational water could present a potential public health risk.
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality particularly among diabetics. We evaluated 228 isolates of B. pseudomallei for antimicrobial sensitivity during 2005-2010 using the disc diffusion technique, of which 144 were obtained from blood culture. More than 90% of the strains were susceptible to cefoperazone, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol and imipenem. Eighty-two percent of the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline and amoxicillin/clavulanate. The susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin was 78% and to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxezole was 47%. The susceptibilities to aminoglycoside antibiotics were low (21% to gentamicin and 6% to amikacin). The susceptibilities were similar between isolates from females and males, bacteremic and abacteremic cases, diabetics and non-diabetics, pneumonia and non-pneumonia cases and between those who died and those who survived. Our findings show antibiotic susceptibility patterns are not a major factor in determining outcomes of B. pseudomallei infection. Monitoring the drug susceptibilities among B. pseudomallei isolates needs to be conducted regularly to guide empiric therapy for melioidosis, as it causes high mortality, especially among diabetic cases.
We conducted mosquito surveillance at outdoor breeding habitat in 459 households at 7 urban locations in Putrajaya, Malaysia from January to December 2010 to determine the predominant species and breeding locations. The most common species found at all locations was Aedes albopictus. Gardening utensils were the most common breeding sites. Of the 1,885 mosquito larvae specimens found, 1,774 (94.1%) were Ae. albopictus larvae, 84 (4%) were Ae. aegypti larvae and 27 (1%) were Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The Aedes index for each of the locations was higher than the goal set by the Ministry of Health for Malaysia. However, the container index at each of the locations was within the goal. The Breateau index was above the goal set by the Ministry of Health at Precinct 9B1 but the other locations were within the goal.
Onychomycosis increases the risk of developing secondary bacterial infection and cellulitis if left untreated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of onychomycosis among diabetics and its associated factors. A cross sectional study using universal sampling of all type 1 and 2 diabetic patients attending a primary care facility of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) from January to March 2011 was conducted. Samples were taken from clinically abnormal nails and from the first right toenail in the absence of nail abnormalities and cultured for fungal elements. A total of 151 diabetics participated in the study. The mean patient age was 60.7 +/- 9.1 years. A total of 123 nail samples (81.5%) were culture positive for fungal elements. A positive correlation was found between onychomycosis and increasing age (p = 0.011) and clinically abnormal nails (p < 0.05). There were no significant correlations with gender, ethnic group, duration of diabetes, types of diabetes or glycemic control. The prevalence of onychomycosis among diabetics in our study was high.
Salmonella sp are important causes of meningitis among neonates and young children in Malaysia. We present a case of Salmonella enteritidis meningitis in a six week old female who presented with a one week history of fever, diarrhea and seizures which was unsuccessfully treated with a third generation cephalosporin. She had a relapse of meningitis complicated with ventriculitis and hydrocephalus, requiring an eleven week course of meropenem. She improved clinically, but did not have improvement in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose level despite prolonged antibiotic use. This case illustrates the dilemma in determining the duration of antibiotic needed to successfully treat Salmonella enteritidis ventriculitis.
Rubella infection in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy can lead to fetal anomalies, commonly known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The objective of our study was to analyze the serological test results among infants suspected of having CRS aged < or = 12 months compared with their clinical status. Between January 2002 and December 2011, 3,279 serum samples from infants aged < or = 12 months from government hospitals in Malaysia were examined for rubella specific IgM and IgG antibodies using a Axsym, automated analyzer (Abbott Laboratories). Forty-eight samples were positive for rubella specific IgM antibodies and 494 samples were positive for rubella specific IgG antibodies. These were then age stratified and their clinical history reviewed for any CRS symptoms. Fifteen of 38 rubella IgM positive infants (39.5%) aged < 3 months, had a clinical appearance compatible with CRS. However, only 1 IgM positive infant aged 3 to 6 months and one infant aged 7 to 11 months had clinical appearance compatible with CRS. The most common abnormal findings in these cases were congenital heart defects and cataracts. Forty-eight point eight percent of IgM positive cases and 53.1% of IgG positive cases, had inadequate information in the chart to determine the presence of CRS. Clinical findings and timely laboratory diagnosis to determine the presence of CRS are important in infants born with congenital defects. Physicians should also be aware of the appropriate interpretation of these findings.
Peripheral vascular injuries result from penetrating or blunt trauma to the extremities. We describe here an unusual cause of a radial artery injury by the spine from the pectoral fin of Pangasius sutchi in a 51 year-old man and we review the literature.
We report a series of dermatitis cases caused by the staphilinid beetles, Paederusfuscipes Curtis, among university students staying in the residential college in Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia from 1 January to 31 December 2010. A total of 360 cases (6.0%) were recorded in the Student Health Center throughout the year; the majority of patients stayed at a hostel near an oil palm plantation. Skin symptoms included erythema, edema, vesicular papules, painful blisters, burning sensation, pruritus, hyper pigmentation and peeling of skin. The commonly involved sites were the face, neck, shoulders and arms. Most students noticed the symptoms upon awakening in the morning. The patients were treated with fusidic acid cream and the symptoms resolved within 5 days. These beetles are nocturnally active and enter the room whenever a light source is available. The unintentional crushing of these beetles during sleep causes the release of its hemolymph (paederin) which is the cause of the dermatitis.
The larval growth of Liosarcophaga dux Thompson (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was studied under varying indoor room temperatures in Malaysia. Five replicates were established. The immature growth of this species from first instar until adult emergence was 307.0+/-3.0 hours. The mean larval length measured for second instar, third instar, post-feeding stage and puparia were 6.5+/-0.5 mm (n=10), 11.8+/-3.7 mm (n=31), 12.7+/-0.8 mm (n=16), and 9.5+/-0.5 mm (n=15), respectively.
Two insular settlements (Kampung Pulau Ketam and Kampung Sungai Lima) were selected to study the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, vectors of dengue and chikungunya infections. Ovitrap surveillance was conducted between October 2007 and October 2008. There was an inverse negative association between ovitrap index and rainfall at the time of collection, probably because rainfall increased the number of available oviposition sites. Rainfall and ovitrap index were positively associates the 25th day after rainfall occurred. A minor, second peak was observed from the 38th to the 42nd day. The first peak was consistent with the minimum 18-day period between the hatching of eggs to the first oviposition. The second minor peak could be due to the second gonotrophic cycle of the female mosquitoes. Rainfall is an important environmental factor associated with Aedes breeding at the study sites.
Although the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome has been previously firmly established, the prevalence of NAFLD and its risk factors in rural communities remains incompletely defined. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD amongst a rural community in Sarawak. An indigenous village was randomly selected where all adults aged 21 years and above underwent an abdominal ultrasound, biochemical tests and an anthropometric assessment. Respondents with a score > or =8 on an alcohol-use disorders-identification test (AUDIT) indicating harmful or hazardous drinking were excluded. Seventy-seven respondents (46.8% male, mean age 48.4 SD 16.64), met inclusion criteria. The prevalence of ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD was 44.2% (n=34), among them 52.9% had moderate NAFLD. There were no significant age or gender differences between respondents with and without NAFLD, although those with NAFLD were older. Respondents with NAFLD had a significantly higher BMI t,han those without NAFLD (p<0.001). Both male and female respondents with NAFLD had a significantly higher waist circumference than those without NAFLD (p<0.001). Prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia were significantly higher among those with NAFLD. However, there were no significant differences in terms of percentage of unhealthy body fat and muscle, and serum HDL levels. Risk factors independently associated with NAFLD included male gender (odd ratio 0.06; 95% CI 0.008-0.523) and waist circumference (odd ratio 1.2; 95% CI 1.036-1.421). There was a high prevalence of NAFLD and the presence of more severe stages of disease in this indigenous population. Life-style related diseases, such as fatty liver disease, can occur in rural as well as urban populations.
A twelve-week controlled intervention trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of combined physical activity and dietary intervention on obesity and metabolic risk factors among employees of Universiti Putra Malaysia. Participants consisted of adults aged 25-55 years with no reported chronic diseases but with abdominal obesity. They were assigned to either a combined physical activity and dietary intervention group or a control group. The final sample consisted of 56 participants, with an equal number of 28 for each study group. No significant group effect was observed for any variable except for hip circumference (HC) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). There was a significant increase in HC (p=0.007) and reduction in FPG (p=0.02) in the intervention group compared to the control group. In the intervention group, HC (p=0.002), triglycerides (TG) (p=0.0001), total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.0001), LDL cholesterol (LDLC) (p=0.0001) and FPG (p=0.005) were significantly reduced, while waist circumference (WC) (p=0.025) and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (p=0.027) were significantly reduced in the control group. No significant change in steps/day or calorie intake'was observed in either group. Taken together, these data indicate that the combined physical activity and dietary intervention was not effective at improving diet or physical activity level. However, the intervention was effective in improving FPG among participants with abdominal obesity. The significant increase in HC in the interventions group warrants further study. These findings will be useful to further improve group-based intervention for the prevention and management of obesity.
Abstract. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a pathogen recognized to be distinct in both phenotype and genotype from hospital-acquired MRSA. We have identified CA-MRSA cases in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, including their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and genotypic characteristics. Cases were identified during January to December 2009 from routine clinical specimens, where culture and antibiotic susceptibility results yielded pauci-resistant MRSA isolates suspected as being CA-MRSA. The patients' clinical data were collected and their specimens were sent for molecular confirmation and analysis. Five cases of CA-MRSA were identified, which had a multi-sensitive pattern on antibiotic susceptibility tests and were resistant to only penicillin and oxacillin. All cases were skin and soft-tissue infections, including diabetic foot with gangrene, infected scalp hematoma, philtrum abscess in a healthcare worker, thrombophlebitis complicated with abscess and infected bedsore. All five cases were confirmed MRSA by detection of mecA. SCCmec typing (ccr and mec complex) revealed SCCmec type IV for all cases except the infected bedsore case. Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene was positive in all isolates. As clinical features among methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, CA-MRSA and "nosocomial CA-MRSA" are indistinct, early recognition is necessary in order to initiate appropriate antibiotics and infection control measures. Continual surveillance of pauci-resistant MRSA and molecular analysis are necessary in order to identify emerging strains as well as their epidemiology and transmission, both in the community and in healthcare setting.
Dengue fever is a major public health problem in Malaysia. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever among a selected population in Malaysia. A descriptive, community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 300 participants from three different geographical settings in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas within the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever. Mean age of respondents was 34.4 (+/- 5.7) years, and the age ranged from 18 to 65 years. The majority of respondents were married (54.7%), Malays (72.7%) and heard about dengue fever (89.7%). Television was the common source of information about dengue fever (97.0%). Participants answered 4 out of 15 items of knowledge incorrectly. There was no significant association between knowledge score and socio-demographic factors. About one-fifth of the respondents (24%) believed that immediate treatment is not necessary for dengue fever, and the majority of them were not afraid of the disease (96.0%). Attitudes toward dengue fever were significantly associated with the level of education and employment status (p < 0.05). Practice was associated significantly with age, marital status, and geographic area (p < 0.05) and knowledge on dengue fever (p = 0.030). There is a need to increase health promotion activities through campaigns and social mobilization to increase knowledge regarding dengue fever. This would help to mold positive attitudes and cultivate better preventive practices among the public to eliminate dengue in the country.