Neodiplostomum (Conodiplostomum) Brachylaima, Ectosiphonus and Euparadistomum are reported for the first time from small mammals in Malaysia. New host and locality records are given for Echinostoma, Achillurbainia, Beaveria, Odeningotrema, Leipertrema, Athesmia, Skrjabinus and Zonorchis. Possible-life-cycles of the parasites are discussed in relation to the ecology and feeding habits of the hosts.
A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites from different groups of mammals housed in a zoological garden in Malaysia. A total of 197 faecal samples were collected randomly from various primates (99), hoofed mammals (70) and feline (28). It was discovered that 89.3% of feline, 54.5% of primates and 45.7% of hoofed mammals were infected with intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasites found in primates were Balantidium coli (19.2%), Cryptosporidium spp. (14.1%), hookworm (10.1%), Trichuris spp. (5.1%), Ascaris (4.0%) and Blastocystis spp. (2.0%). For hoofed mammals, hookworm had the highest prevalence (34.3%) followed by Trichuris spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.7%). Meanwhile, for feline, Toxocara cati was the most prevalent (64.3%), followed by Cryptosporidium spp. (14.3%), Spirometra spp. (7.1%), and hookworm (3.6%). Animals that were infected were all asymptomatic with low parasite load. Routine monitoring of the presence of parasites in animals kept in the zoo is imperative in assisting zoo management in the formulation and implementation of preventive and control measures against the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among animals within the zoo or to humans.
Schistosoma sinensium Pao, 1959, was first isolated from an unidentified snail in Szechuan Province, China, and was described on the basis of adult worms and eggs recovered from experimentally infected mice. We discovered snails, Tricula bollingi Davis, and rodents, Rattus rattus (L.) and Crocidura attenuata Milne-Edwards, infected with S. sinensium near Fang in northwest Thailand. Adult worms were recovered from small veins immediately adjacent to the small intestine. Eggs first appeared in the feces of experimentally infected mice at 25 days postinfection. Cercariae first emerged from experimentally infected T. bollingi at 40 days postinfection. Shortly after emerging, cercariae were found at the water surface, their bodies flat against the meniscus and tails hanging free in the water column. Our morphometric results for adults and eggs from naturally infected hosts agree well with those presented in the original description. The occurrence of a lateral spine on the egg of this Asian schistosome has created some confusion as to the affinities of S. sinensium. A comparison of 8 character states, including snail hosts, cercarial behavior, geographical distribution, and morphology of life cycle stages, indicates that S. sinensium is more closely related to S. japonicum Katsurada than it is to S. mansoni Sambon.
A total of fifty anurans, comprising of Rana limnocharis and Bufo melanostictus were collected from Sungai Pinang, Balik Pulau, Penang. The prevalence, mean intensity and distribution of parasite species along the digestive tract were reported. Seven species of parasites were recorded. Blood parasites recovered were trypansomes and microfilariae.
S. mansoni and S. japonicum complex schistosomes cause hepatosplenic and hepatointestinal schistosomiasis. The prevalence and incidence of this disease is increasing in all the endemic areas. Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis is seen in a small subset of clinically infected patients and represents a good model of intrahepatic portal hypertension characterised by a presinusoidal portal block and a well preserved liver parenchyma. Symmers' fibrosis is seen in a significant proportion of patients with high worm load. While the pathogenesis of Symmers' pipe stem fibrosis has not been well established, experimental and clinical data point to egg induced granulomata. The main consequences are presinusoidal portal hypertension, oesophageal varices and hepatosplenomegaly. The most striking symptoms are haematemesis or melena secondary to variceal and gastrointestinal bleeding. Cofactors associated with the pathogenesis include aflatoxins, malnutrition, alcoholism, hepatitis B and C virus. While stool examination is the best technique for diagnosis, a number of immunological tests though sensitive are not specific. Ultrasonography is sensitive for detection of Symmer's fibrosis. Praziquantel and oxaminiquine are drugs found to be effective in the treatment of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Recently beta-blockers have been found to be effective in the treatment of gastrointestinal rebleeding. Endoscopic sclerotherapy has been found to be effective for treatment of bleeding oesophageal varices. The treatment of choice for portal hypertension is oesophagogastric devascularization with splenectomy (EGDS).
Food-borne parasitic zoonoses have emerged as a major public health problem in many countries and are posing a medical challenge. They are not only important from the economic point of view but also because of their severe sequelae. In Malaysia, these parasitoses are a tip of an iceberg problem. The article documents all the food-borne parasitic zoonoses reported in Malaysia. An epidemiological assessment of the diseases with research needs is highlighted.
The development of H. brayi was followed mainly in C. variipenis up to the stage of mature oocysts. Unlike H. kochi, the oocysts of H. brayi develop at the same site as those of Plasmodium between the epithelium and the basal membrane of the stomach.
Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent for human amoebiasis, is among the most deadly parasites, accounting for the second highest mortality rate among parasitic diseases. Because this parasite dwells in low oxygen tension, for its cultivation, microaerophilic conditions are required to mimick the human gut environment. Several methods developed for optimal growth environment are commercially available and some are conventionally modified in-house which include the Anaerocult A and oil blocking preparation methods. This study was undertaken to compare the reliability of the Anaerocult A and the oil blocking methods in generating anaerobic environment for cultivation of E. histolytica. The trophozoites of E. histolytica HM1: IMSS strains were axenically cultivated in TYI-S-33 medium in culture incubated anaerobically by using Anaerocult A (Merck) and mineral oil blocking method. The outcomes of both methods were determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of metronidazole against E. histolytica by giving a score to the growth pattern of the trophozoites. The reliability of both methods was assessed based on susceptibility testing of E. histolytica to metronidazole. The MIC obtained by both anaerobic condition methods was 6.25 ug/ ml, thus showing that oil-blocking method is comparable to the Anaerocult A method and therefore, considered as a reliable method for generating an anaerobic environment for the cultivation of E. histolytica.
The transformation of Lambornella stegomyiae trophonts to theronts, the distribution of invasion cysts on larval Aedes albopictus cuticle, and the virulence of L. stegomyiae to Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti were studied in the laboratory. Transformation of trophonts into theronts was induced by a morphogenic agent released from larval Ae. albopictus homogenate. The first transformation was observed 4 hr after exposure to larval mosquito homogenate, but most transformations occurred between 12 and 16 hr. Distribution of invasion cysts on the cuticle of mosquito larvae was not uniform and most cysts were formed on the abdomen and head. L. stegomyiae was highly infective and virulent to Ae. albopictus (mortality rate: 99.53%) and Ae. aegypti (mortality rate: 90.83%) larvae.