Spauligodon bintangensis n. sp. from the intestines of Cyrtodactylus bintangrendah (Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia is described and illustrated. Spauligodon bintangensis n. sp. represents the 51st species assigned to the genus and the first species from the Oriental Region. The new species is most similar to Spauligodon atlanticus, Spauligodon eremiasi, and Spauligodon occidentalis, but is easily separated by position of vulva, prebulbar in S. atlanticus and S. occidentalis , postbulbar in the new species, and location of lateral alae; in S. eremiasi, the lateral alae occur only in the fourth quarter of the body, whereas in the new species the lateral alae begin just posterior to lips.
Opisthioglyphe sharmai n. sp. is described from the gall bladder of the Malayan box turtle, Cuora amboinensis, and the black marsh turtle, Siebenrockiella crassicollis, in Malaysia. The new species is morphologically similar to Opisthioglyphe ranae and some other members of the genus parasitic in amphibians and reptiles. Opisthioglyphe sharmai n. sp. is easily differentiated from all other members of the genus by the cirrus sac extending posterior to the ventral sucker, while in all previously known species the cirrus sac is entirely or mostly preacetabular with the base of the structure not reaching beyond mid-line of the ventral sucker. Despite the overall stable morphology, O. sharmai n. sp. is characterized by highly variable arrangement of testes, from tandem to opposite. It is only the second representative of the genus described from turtles and the first species of Opisthioglyphe parasitic in gall bladder, while all previously described members of the genus are parasitic in the intestine of their hosts.
: Baracktrema obamai n. gen., n. sp. infects the lung of geoemydid turtles (black marsh turtle, Siebenrockiella crassicollis [type host] and southeast Asian box turtle, Cuora amboinensis ) in the Malaysian states of Perak, Perlis, and Selangor. Baracktrema and Unicaecum Stunkard, 1925 are the only accepted turtle blood fluke genera having the combination of a single cecum, single testis, oviducal seminal receptacle, and uterine pouch. Baracktrema differs from Unicaecum by having a thread-like body approximately 30-50× longer than wide and post-cecal terminal genitalia. Unicaecum has a body approximately 8-12× longer than wide and terminal genitalia that are anterior to the distal end of the cecum. The new genus further differs from all other accepted turtle blood fluke genera by having a cecum that is highly convoluted for its entire length, a spindle-shaped ovary between the cirrus sac and testis, a uterine pouch that loops around the primary vitelline collecting duct, a Laurer's canal, and a dorsal common genital pore. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1-D3 domains of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S) revealed, with high nodal support and as predicted by morphology, that Baracktrema and Unicaecum share a recent common ancestor and form a clade sister to the freshwater turtle blood flukes of Spirorchis, paraphyletic Spirhapalum, and Vasotrema and that, collectively, these flukes were sister to all other tetrapod blood flukes (Hapalorhynchus + Griphobilharzia plus the marine turtle blood flukes and schistosomes). Pending a forthcoming emended morphological diagnosis of the family, the clade including Spirorchis spp., paraphyletic Spirhapalum, Vasotrema, Baracktrema, and Unicaecum is a likely placeholder for "Spirorchiidae Stunkard, 1921 " (type genus Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918 ; type species Spirorchis innominatus Ward, 1921 ). The present study comprises the 17th blood fluke known to infect geoemydid turtles and the first proposal of a new genus of turtle blood fluke in 21 yr.
In order to obtain basic data on parasitic infections of Bornean orangutans, Pongo pygmaeus morio (Owen, 1837), in Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia, fecal examinations were conducted. Based on a total of 73 fecal samples from 25 individuals, cysts of Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba spp., and Chilomastix mesnili, cysts and trophozoites of Balantidium coli, and eggs of Trichuris sp. or spp., unknown strongylid(s), Strongyloides fuelleborni, and an unknown oxyurid, plus a rhabditoid larva of Strongyloides sp., were found. Mature and immature worms of Pongobius hugoti Baruš et al., 2007 and Pongobius foitovae n. sp. (Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) were recovered from fecal debris and described. Pongobius foitovae is readily distinguished from P. hugoti by having a much longer esophageal corpus, a longer and distally hooked spicule in males, and a more posteriorly positioned vulva in female. Presence of plural species of non- Enterobius pinworms is a remarkable feature of the orangutan-pinworm relationship, which may reflect speciation process of the orangutans, host switching, and coevolution by pinworms.
Three species of flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus, P. vampyrus, and P. lylei) from Malaysia and Vietnam were screened for apicomplexan parasites by thin blood smears and polymerase chain reaction. Only 1 of 16 bats sampled from 3 localities in southeast Asia was found to be infected (P. hypomelanus from Pulau Pangkor, Malaysia). We observed micro- and macrogametocytes, with morphology consistent with Hepatocystis sp. parasites, using light microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytochrome b gene showed that the parasite from P. hypomelanus groups with 2 published sequences from Hepatocystis spp., including one from Cynopterus brachyotis, another fruit bat in the Pteropodidae.
Strongyloides callosciureus n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditoidea), from Asian sciurids, is described based on morphology, morphometry, and the small and large subunit (SSU/LSU) ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences. This new species was collected from Pallas's squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) in the central part of mainland Japan (Honshu), which were originally introduced from Taiwan some decades ago, and plantain squirrels (Callosciurus notatus) imported from Malaysia as personal pets. For comparison, Strongyloides robustus Chandler, 1942 was collected from American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) imported from the United States as personal pets. The parasitic females found in North American and Asian sciurids shared some key morphological features such as the ovary running spirally around the gut, and the shapes of the stoma in the apical view and the tail. However, morphometric features of parasitic females in North American and Asian sciurids differed significantly from each other; the former was larger than the latter, and the relative position of the vulva to the whole body length from the mouth was different. The SSU/LSU rDNA sequences supported the division of sciurid Strongyloides isolates by geographical distribution of the host and morphological features, leading us to propose the erection of new species.
A new species of parasitic nematode, Paracapillaria malayensis n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the small intestine of the toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus imported from the Malayan Peninsula to the Czech Republic. The new species differs from the only other congeneric species, Paracapillaria spratti, mainly in the shape and structure of the spicular proximal end (with a lobular rim), smaller eggs (45-51 x 21-24 microm), longer spicule (336 microm), and the number (37-38) of stichocytes in gravid females; whereas P. spratti parasitizes frogs of the Microhylidae in Papua New Guinea, P. malayensis is a parasite of Bufonidae in the Malayan Peninsula. Other Paracapillaria spp. are parasites of fishes, birds, or mammals and they mostly differ from P. malayensis in the structure of eggs and some other morphological features.
Empruthotrema stenophallus n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) is described from specimens from the nasal tissue of the blue-spotted maskray Dasyatis kuhlii (Muller and Henle, 1841) collected in shallow waters off Pulau Banggi and Pulau Mabul, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia. This is the first monogenean species to be described from an elasmobranch collected from Sabah. E. stenophallus can be distinguished from the other 6 members of the genus by the morphology of the sclerotized male copulatory organ, which is narrow, short, and distally tapered. E. dasyatidis Whittington and Kearn, 1992, previously documented from the nasal tissue of several of elasmobranch species from Australia, is recorded from 8 host species distributed around Malaysian Borneo. These represent new host and locality records for this monocotylid. The difficulties in identifying species of Empruthotrema and the apparent lack of host specificity by some members of the genus are discussed.
A Giardia varani Lavier, 1923-like flagellate was found in the feces of a captive water monitor, Varanus salvator, originally caught wild from an unknown location in Malaysia. The parasite is similar in size and shape to Giardia lamblia, except that median bodies are rare and cysts are binucleate. A description of both the trophozoite and cyst stage of this flagellate is provided.
The synlophe of Batrachonema synaptospicula Yuen, 1965 collected from Rana limnocharis Boie, 1835 of peninsular Malaysia was found to be identical morphologically to that in the specimens from Rana narina Stejneger, 1901 of Okinawa, and R. limnocharis of Taiwan. In the midbody, 20-22 ridges are present, and the ridges increase gradually in size and are oriented from right to left in the dorsal and left ventral fields, whereas the right ventral ridges are small and almost perpendicular to the body wall. The orientation of ridges from right to left is considered to be a key characteristic of the genus Batrachonema. Because Amphibiophilus ranae Wang et al., 1978 and Amphibiophilus sp. from R. limnocharis of south China are regarded to be conspecific with B. synaptospicula, this nematode is surmised to be distributed widely in southeast and east Asia.
During 3 collecting expeditions between October 1996 and December 1996, fecal samples were obtained from 43 adult Gonocephalus grandis from Tanah Rata and the Cameron Highlands in Peninsular Malaysia. Two species of coccidia (Isospora gonocephali n. sp. [9/43, 23%] and Eimeria cameronensis n. sp. [3/43, 7%]) were discovered. Sporulated oocysts of I. gonocephali are subspherical to ovoidal, 22.3 x 18.7 (19-25 x 17-23) microm with a bilayered wall composed of a thin inner wall and a striated outer wall with a pitted surface; oocyst residuum absent; 1 polar granule present; sporocysts are almond-shaped, 13.5 x 9.2 (12-15 x 8.5-10) microm, Stieda body broad, domelike, substieda body fanlike, sporocyst residuum consisting of coarse, nonuniform granules in an amorphous cluster; sporozoites sausage-shaped with 1 large terminal, refractile body and lay randomly in the sporocyst. Sporulated oocysts of E. cameronensis are bilayered, smooth-walled, ellipsoidal, 26.5 x 12.4 (25-28 x 12-13) microm; with 1, small, polar granule composed of 2-3 splinter-like structures fused together; oocyst residuum absent; sporocysts ovoidal, almost rectangular-shaped 8.8 x 6.6 (8-9 x 5-7) microm, with no Stieda or substieda bodies, containing scattered residuum and 2 sausage-shaped sporozoites with 1 terminal, ovoidal refractile body. No individual lizard was host to both coccidian species.
Two new nematodes belonging to the subfamily Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea: Heligmonellidae) are described based on specimens from endemic murines of Sulawesi, Indonesia: Hasanuddinia maxomyos n. gen., n. sp. from Maxomys musschenbroekii and Eropeplus canus, and Heligmonoides musseri n. sp. from M. musschenbroekii, E. canus, and Margaretamys elegans. Hasanuddinia is closest to Rattusstrongylus of Malaysian rats in lacking a carene and in having a lateromedian gradient in the size of the synlophe ridges in the ventral side of the midbody but is distinguished in that the dorsal ray is divided in the distal half. Heligmonoides musseri most resembles H. bulbosus of Maxomys whiteheadi of Malaysia in having a carene supported by slender ridges of which the proximal portion is not thickened but is distinguished in having longer externodorsal rays and longer spicules. The ancestors of the present Sulawesi nematodes seem to have originated on the southeast Asian continent, were introduced to Sulawesi with the dispersal of some murines, and subsequently speciated.
The ultrastructure of the human skeletal muscle sarcocyst found in Malaysia is reported. Sarcocyst-positive, formalin-fixed tongue tissues were postfixed in osmium tetroxide. The primary cyst wall consisted of a thin membrane supported by osmiophilic material that was interrupted regularly by vesicle-like invaginations. Although there were no cytophaneres, stubby protrusions of the primary wall were observed. These protrusions were accentuated by dense, curvilinear material externally. The primary wall was wavy over about half the cross section of the cyst. The granular ground substance underlying the primary wall occasionally contained hitherto undescribed coiled microtubular structures. Branching septa extended from the ground substance into the cyst, separating mature merozoites into compartments. A few peripheral metrocytes and many laminated myelin figure-like structures, probably degenerating merozoites, were found. Although the human muscular sarcocyst has the same basic ultrastructure as those found in other animals, the stubby protrusions and coiled microtubular structures in the ground substance have not been described previously in nonhuman animals.
Six clones were derived from each Malaysian Plasmodium falciparum isolate and characterized for their susceptibilities against type II antifolate drugs, cycloguanil and pyrimethamine. Results showed that these isolates were of a heterogeneous population, with average IC50 values of Gombak C clones at 0.012-0.084 microM and 0.027-0.066 microM, ST 9 clones at 0.019-0.258 microM and 0.027-0.241 microM, ST 12 clones at 0.015-0.342 microM and 0.012-0.107 microM, ST 85 clones at 0.022-0.087 microM and 0.024-0.426 microM, and ST 148 clones at 0.027-0312 microM and 0.029-0.690 microM against cycloguanil and pyrimethamine, respectively. Generally, most of these clones displayed susceptibility patterns similar to their parent isolates except ST 9/A4, ST 9/A7, ST 9/B5, ST 9/D9, ST 9/D10, ST 148/A4, ST 148/A5, ST 148/A7, ST 148/F7, ST 148/F8 clones, which were sensitive at 0.027 microM, 0.019 microM, 0.022 microM, 0.063 microM, 0.037 microM, 0.031 microM, 0.042, microM, 0.042 microM, 0.062 microM, and 0.027 microM, whereas, ST 12/D7 clone was resistant at 0.342 microM, against cycloguanil respectively. However, ST 9/A4, ST 9/D8, ST 12/D5, ST 85/A5, ST 85/B3, ST 85/B4, ST 85/D3, ST 85/D7, ST 148/A6, and ST 148/A7 clones were resistant to pyrimethamine at 0.158 microM, 0.241 microM, 0.107 microM, 0.223 microM, 0.393 microM, 0.402 microM, 0.426 microM, 0.115 microM, 0.690 microM, and 0.520 microM, respectively.
Plasmodium inui (Halberstaedter and von Prowazek, 1907), a malarial parasite of Old World monkeys that occurs in isolated pockets throughout the Celebes, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, has traditionally been considered to be related more closely to Plasmodium malariae of humans (and its primate counterpart Plasmodium brasilianum), than to other primate Plasmodium species. This inference was made in part because of the similarities in the periodicities or duration of the asexual cycle in the blood, the extended sporogonic cycle, and the longer period of time for development of the pre-erythrocytic stages in the liver. Both P. inui and P. malariae have quartan (72 hr) periodicities associated with their asexual cycle, whereas other primate malarias, such as Plasmodium fragile and Plasmodium cynomolgi, are associated with tertian periodicities (48 hr), and Plasmodiumn knowlesi, with a quotidian (24 hr) periodicity. Phylogenetic analyses of portions of orthologous small subunit ribosomal genes reveal that P. inui is actually more closely related to the Plasmodium species of the "vivax-type" lineage than to P. malariae. Ribosomal sequence analysis of many different, geographically isolated, antigenically distinct P. inui isolates reveals that the isolates are nearly identical in sequence and thus members of the same species.
Developmental and morphological characteristics of 3 isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis isolated from Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae in Abuta (70 km southwest of Sapporo), Japan (isolate ACR), and from Rattus norvegicus in Sapporo, Japan (isolate SRN) and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (isolate KRN) were compared. Eggs of 3 isolates were administered to several species of rodents. Isolate ACR infected C. rufocanus bedfordiae, Apodemus speciosus, and Apodemus argenteus, but not rats or mice, whereas isolate SRN and isolate KRN were infective to rats, mice, A. speciosus, and A. argenteus, but not to C. rufocanus bedfordiae. The increase in cyst size of isolate ACR continued during the experimental period, whereas that of the other 2 isolates had ceased growing after 30 days postinfection. However, significant differences were observed in the length of the small rostellar hooks, number and distribution of testes, and the length of the cirrus sac between isolate ACR and the other 2 isolates. Thus it is suggested that isolate ACR is a distinct strain or even a new species.
Moniliformis tarsii n. sp. was found in Tarsius bancanus. It is unique in possessing 11-12 longitudinal rows of 6-7 hooks each. Hooks 2 and 3 are conspicuously enlarged, 41-55 microns long. Moniliformis echinosorexi n. sp. differs from all other species in having 12-15 rows of 11-13 hooks that are 34-36 microns long, and in having a proboscis receptacle 1.2-2.0 mm long. Several new host records for M. moniliformis are presented.
Schistosoma sinensium Pao, 1959, was first isolated from an unidentified snail in Szechuan Province, China, and was described on the basis of adult worms and eggs recovered from experimentally infected mice. We discovered snails, Tricula bollingi Davis, and rodents, Rattus rattus (L.) and Crocidura attenuata Milne-Edwards, infected with S. sinensium near Fang in northwest Thailand. Adult worms were recovered from small veins immediately adjacent to the small intestine. Eggs first appeared in the feces of experimentally infected mice at 25 days postinfection. Cercariae first emerged from experimentally infected T. bollingi at 40 days postinfection. Shortly after emerging, cercariae were found at the water surface, their bodies flat against the meniscus and tails hanging free in the water column. Our morphometric results for adults and eggs from naturally infected hosts agree well with those presented in the original description. The occurrence of a lateral spine on the egg of this Asian schistosome has created some confusion as to the affinities of S. sinensium. A comparison of 8 character states, including snail hosts, cercarial behavior, geographical distribution, and morphology of life cycle stages, indicates that S. sinensium is more closely related to S. japonicum Katsurada than it is to S. mansoni Sambon.
Schistosoma malayensis n. sp., a member of the Schistosoma japonicum complex is described from Rattus muelleri in Peninsular Malaysia and 2 strains are characterized. The only morphological differences noted among adults from natural hosts were that S. malayensis are in general smaller than S. mekongi and S. japonicum. But these differences may be the result of host-induced variations and therefore are of little taxonomic value. To minimize the effects of host-induced variations, adult worms recovered from laboratory mice with similar worm burdens at 50-56 days postinfection were compared. These comparisons revealed only minor morphometric differences among these 3 species. Schistosoma malayensis eggs from naturally and experimentally infected hosts are most similar to those of S. mekongi, with eggs of both species being, in general, smaller than those of S. japonicum. The egg index for S. malayensis is usually higher than for S. japonicum and lower than for S. mekongi. Differences were noted in the developmental rates in mice for 2 isolates of S. malayensis, S. mekongi, and S. japonicum (Philippine strain), but relatively large differences observed between isolates of S. malayensis indicate that, in this case, the developmental rate is not a useful taxonomic character. Schistosoma malayensis is erected principally on the basis of differences, reported elsewhere, in the life histories and in the electrophoretic migration patterns of isoenzymes of adult worms as compared to S. mekongi and S. japonicum. These comparisons indicate that S. malayensis is more closely related to S. mekongi than to S. japonicum.