Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common pregnancy complication. However, it is often overlooked by medical practitioners and patients alike. This study aimed to describe CTS in relation to pregnancy and assess how significant the disease was among pregnant women.
This retrospective study assessed the surgical outcomes of patients for whom the transobturator polypropylene mesh kit was used for the management of pelvic organ prolapse (Gynecare Prolift) in a tertiary urogynaecological centre in Singapore from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2007.
Gestational hypertension (GH) is a common disorder during pregnancy that can progress to preeclampsia and cause various subsequent fatal complications. A cluster of enzymes, called matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and its specific inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), have been reported to be involved in the pathophysiology of GH. The purpose of this study was to examine circulating levels of MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in pregnant women who had GH and those who were normotensive.
We report a case of systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting with extensive infiltration of the skin. A 56-year-old woman presented with a two-month history of pruritic erythematous plaques and nodules over the neck, trunk and upper limbs. She also had night sweats, weight loss, lethargy and reduced effort tolerance. Systemic examination revealed a pale, ill appearance with hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Blood investigations showed pancytopenia (haemoglobin 6.3 g/dL, total white cell count 3.0 × 10(9)/L, platelet count 138 × 10(9)/L) with a few suspicious mononuclear cells and a mildly elevated lactate dehydrogenase level (478 U/L). Skin biopsy demonstrated diffuse sheets and nodular infiltrates of CD20 and CD79a positive neoplastic cells in the dermis and subcutis. Computed tomography revealed multiple cervical, axillary, mediastinal, para-aortic and mesenteric lymph nodes. Bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy confirmed marrow involvement by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient was treated with chemotherapy, which resulted in resolution of the skin lesions.
Tuberculosis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in underdeveloped and developing nations. Manifestations could be nonspecific and may mimic many other conditions, including malignancies. Oesophageal involvement is surprisingly rare despite the high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis and the close proximity of these two structures. We report two cases of oesophageal tuberculosis; a 73-year-old man with simultaneous oesophageal, stomach and duodenal involvement, and a 45-year-old man with isolated oesophageal involvement. Underlying malignancies were initially suspected in both cases, but they were eventually diagnosed as tuberculosis.
Infection following grade IIIB open tibial fracture is common. The primary aim of managing this condition is to achieve control of infection before the bone reconstruction procedure is performed. The outcomes for such patients have not been evaluated in the literature. This study was conducted to examine the outcome of a multi-stage procedure for the treatment of infected grade IIIB open tibial fractures.
Liver transplantation is the only solution for end-stage liver diseases. The common hepatic artery (CHA) arises from the coeliac trunk (CT), and the right (RHA) and left hepatic (LHA) arteries are its terminal branches. An abnormal arterial pattern would influence the surgical outcome. The anterior layer of the lesser omentum of a female cadaver was cleaned to identify the CHA, which was traced backwards for its origin and toward the porta hepatis for its terminal branches. In this case, the replaced RHA originated from the CT and ran posterior to the portal vein and the common bile duct. The replaced LHA arose from the left gastric artery. The CHA originated from the CT and branched out as the middle hepatic and gastroduodenal arteries. The replaced RHA and LHA with alteration in relation to the neighbouring structures is a complex and rare variant. Knowledge of this uncommon arterial anomaly is beneficial for hepatobiliary surgeons.
Cervical cancer caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV) is a common cancer in women. There is no published data on the recent incidence of cervical dysplasia, cervical cancer and genital warts caused by the different types of HPVs in Brunei Darussalam.
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of risk factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Waist circumference (WC), a surrogate indicator of abdominal fat mass, is used to measure central obesity associated with increased risk of hypertension, insulin resistance and type 2 DM, whereas body mass index (BMI) is traditionally used to measure somatic obesity. This study aimed to identify the WC and BMI cut-off points to predict the metabolic risk factors for MS and to determine which is a better predictor.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted over a period of six months. The study involved 355 subjects aged 13-91 years. Youden's index was used to identify the optimal cut-off points.
RESULTS: The optimal cut-off point of WC to predict individual metabolic risk in females was 84.5-91.0 cm. The BMI cut-off point to predict hypertension and raised fasting blood sugar was 23.7 kg/m², and that for low level high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 22.9 kg/m². For males, the corresponding cut-off points were 86.5-91.0 cm for WC and 20.75-25.5 kg/m² for BMI, with corresponding sensitivities and specificities. Area under the curve and the odds of developing individual and ≥ 2 metabolic risk factors for MS were higher for WC than for BMI.
CONCLUSION: WC is a better predictor of metabolic risk factors for developing MS than BMI. Therefore, we propose that metabolic risk factors be screened when WC ≥ 80 cm is found in both genders regardless of BMI.
The visual status of children with learning disabilities has not been extensively studied. This study aimed to compare vision disorders between children in mainstream classes and those with learning disabilities attending special education classes in government primary schools in Malaysia.
INTRODUCTION:This study aimed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia.
METHODS:This cross-sectional study, conducted at multiple centres, involved 270 patients who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, were on antipsychotic medications for at least one year, and were screened for metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving mood stabilisers were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III criteria modified for Asian waist circumference. Risk for cardiovascular disease was assessed by using Framingham function (all ten-year CHD events).
RESULTS:The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 46.7% (126/270). Among all the antipsychotics used, atypical antipsychotics (monotherapy) were most commonly used in both the metabolic and non-metabolic syndrome groups (50.8% vs. 58.3%). The ten-year risk for CHD was significantly higher in patients with metabolic syndrome. The proportion of patients with high/very high risk for CHD (Framingham ≥ 10%) was greater in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those with non-metabolic syndrome (31.5% vs. 11.0%, odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 2.0-7.6; p < 0.001). The mean body mass index was higher in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those without (29.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2 vs. 25.0 ± 5.6 kg/m2; p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION:Patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia have a very high incidence of metabolic syndrome and increased cardiovascular risk. Urgent interventions are needed to combat these problems in patients.
Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) are at increased risk of future glucose intolerance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the associated antenatal and historical risk factors among women with PGDM.
This was a cross-sectional study conducted at University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A 75-g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was performed in a cohort of multiethnic women with PGDM. Body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, fasting lipid profile and blood pressure were obtained. Data pertaining to the index gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were obtained from medical records and interviews.
448 women were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of prediabetes and T2DM was 26.2% and 35.5%, respectively. On multinomial logistic regression analysis, fasting plasma glucose at diagnosis of index GDM and duration lapse after index GDM were shown to be significantly higher in women with isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), combined IFG/impaired glucose tolerance and T2DM, as compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (p < 0.05). 2-hour plasma glucose at diagnosis of index GDM was significantly higher only in women who progressed to T2DM when compared to those that remained normal glucose tolerant (p < 0.05).
In this study, duration lapse after index GDM, fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose at diagnosis of index GDM were important risk factors for early identification of women at high risk for future glucose intolerance. These may be useful for developing potential preventive strategies.
Neonatal diabetes mellitus (DM) is defined as insulin-requiring DM in the first six months of life. Unlike type 1 DM, it is a monogenic disorder resulting from a de novo mutation in the genes involved in the development of the pancreas, β-cell mass or secretory function. The majority of neonatal DM cases are caused by a heterozygous activating mutation in the KCNJ11 or ABCC8 genes that encode the Kir6.2 and SUR1 protein subunits, respectively, in the KATP channel. Sulphonylurea, a KATP channel inhibitor, can restore insulin secretion, hence offering an attractive alternative to insulin therapy. We report three cases of neonatal DM and their genetic mutations. Two patients were successfully switched over to sulphonylurea monotherapy with resultant improvement in the quality of life and a more stable blood glucose profile. Patients with neonatal DM should undergo genetic evaluation. For patients with KCNJ11 and ABCC8 gene mutation, oral sulphonylurea should be considered.
Depression affects more women than men in Malaysia. The objective of this paper was to determine the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among women attending a government primary care clinic.
INTRODUCTION: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is an uncommon form of congestive heart failure, affecting obstetric patients around the time of delivery. The epidemiology of PPCM is infrequently reported. This study was undertaken to define the prevalence, presentation and outcome of PPCM among women giving birth in a teaching hospital in Malaysia.
METHODS: A retrospective case record analysis was conducted on all patients admitted and diagnosed with PPCM at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009. All deliveries were undertaken in the same hospital.
RESULTS: A total of 12 patients were diagnosed with PPCM during the ten-year study period. The prevalence of PPCM was 2.48 in 100,000 (1 in 40,322) live births. Nine women were diagnosed with PPCM within five months of delivery. Three women had twin pregnancies. There was one death in the group (mortality rate 8.3%). The mean left ventricular ejection fraction at the time of diagnosis was 28.9% ± 8.5% (range 15%-40%). Following the index event, left ventricular function normalised in six of the nine patients (66.7%) who underwent subsequent echocardiography one year later. All patients were treated with standard heart failure therapy. Two patients with normalised left ventricular function had subsequent pregnancies - one pregnancy was terminated at seven weeks and the other patient delivered uneventfully at full term.
CONCLUSION: PPCM is uncommon. The outcome in our series was favourable, with 66.7% of patients with PPCM recovering their left ventricular function. The mortality rate was 8.3%.
This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in very low birth weight (VLBW; weight < 1,501 g) infants in Malaysian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).
The incidence of synchronous bilateral infiltrating breast cancer has been reported to be 2%. However, synchronous unilateral infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma (ILC) are very rarely reported. We present a woman with palpable ILC who was later found to have synchronous well-circumscribed ductal carcinoma on further imaging. We also discuss the use of diagnostic approaches such as ultrasonography, mammography and histopathology. This case highlights the importance of careful assessment of concurrent lesions in the breast in the presence of an existing carcinoma.
This study aimed to determine the emotional impact on parents of young children who require hospitalisation for acute diarrhoea (AD), and the disruption of daily activities experienced and costs incurred by them.