METHODS: The Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS) II was a multinational observational study of patients with stable CHD and hospitalised patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A full lipid profile and use of LLT were documented at baseline, and for the ACS cohort, at four months post-hospitalisation.
RESULTS: 325 patients were recruited from four sites in Singapore; 199 had stable CHD and 126 were hospitalised with an ACS. At baseline, 96.5% of the CHD cohort and 66.4% of the ACS cohort were being treated with LLT. In both cohorts, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were lower for the treated than the non-treated patients; accordingly, a higher proportion of patients met the LDL-C goal of < 70 mg/dL (CHD: 28.1% vs. 0%, p = 0.10; ACS: 20.2% vs. 0%, p < 0.01). By the four-month follow-up, a higher proportion of the ACS patients that were originally not treated with LLT had met the LDL-C goal (from 0% to 54.5%), correlating with the increased use of medication. However, there was negligible improvement in the patients who were treated prior to the ACS.
CONCLUSION: Dyslipidaemia is a significant concern in Singapore, with few patients with stable or acute CHD meeting the recommended European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society goal. LLT was widely used but not optimised, indicating considerable scope for improved management of these very-high-risk patients.
METHODS: We modified a validated questionnaire with permission from the original authors at Melaka Manipal Medical College, Melaka, Malaysia. Participants rated 35 characteristics on a 5-point Likert scale. The modified questionnaire was validated in a pilot pool of medical students (n = 69), with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.90, and administered to Year 1-5 medical students (n = 917) at the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
RESULTS: Based on the proportion of favourable Likert scoring, four top desirable characteristics were common across Year 1-5 students: good communication skills (84.4%); sound knowledge of subject (82.7%); enthusiasm (78.4%); and providing effective explanations (74.4%). Approachability (p = 0.005), encouraging participation (p < 0.001) and constructive criticism (p < 0.001) were more important to clinical students (Year 3-5) than preclinical students (Year 1-2).
CONCLUSION: The top four characteristics were consistent across all years of medical students in this study. Characteristics emphasised in the clinical years facilitate active learner participation, consistent with constructivist learning theory.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 385 caregivers of older people who attended a community clinic in Malaysia. Convenience sampling was employed during the study period on caregivers who were aged ≥ 21 years and provided ≥ 4 hours of unpaid support per week. Participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire, which included the Carers of Older People in Europe (COPE) index and the EASYCare Standard 2010 independence score. The COPE index was used to assess the impact of caregiving. A highly burdened caregiver was defined as one whose scores for all three COPE subscales were positive for burden. Care recipients' independence was assessed using the independence score of the EASYCare Standard 2010 questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with caregiver burden.
RESULTS: 73 (19.0%) caregivers were burdened, of whom two were highly burdened. Caregivers' median scores on the positive value, negative impact and quality of support scales were 13.0, 9.0 and 12.0, respectively. Care recipients' median independence score was 18.0. Ethnicity and education levels were found to be associated with caregiver burden.
CONCLUSION: Most caregivers gained satisfaction and felt supported in caregiving. Ethnicity and education level were associated with a caregiver being burdened.
METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was done to investigate the demographic variables, and biochemical and histological changes in children with INS aged 12 months to 18 years between 2001 and 2016 at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. The median renal survival time for progression to CKD stage III or higher was determined using survival curve analysis. Multiple Cox regression analysis was used to identify predictive factors for CKD.
RESULTS: The total number of participants was 112 (boys: n = 71; girls: n = 41) and a majority had steroid-sensitive INS. Only 10% of INS progressed to CKD stage III or higher, with an overall median renal survival time of 19 years. Median renal survival time in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) was 13 years. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was predominant in SRNS. The predictors of progression to CKD were steroid resistance (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 23.8 [2.8-200.9]) and the presence of hypertension at presentation (adjusted HR [95% CI] 8.1 [1.2-55.7]).
CONCLUSION: The median renal survival time in our study was comparable to other studies. SRNS and the presence of hypertension at presentation were the main predictors for developing CKD in our population.
METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on children with orbital cellulitis aged below 18 years who were admitted to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia, between January 2013 and December 2017.
RESULTS: A total of 14 paediatric patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for orbital cellulitis were included. Their mean age was 6.5 ± 1.2 years. Boys were more likely to have orbital cellulitis than girls (71.4% vs. 28.6%). Involvement of both eyes was observed in 14.3% of the patients. Sinusitis (28.6%) and upper respiratory tract infection (21.4%) were the most common predisposing causes. Staphylococcus aureus (28.6%) was the leading pathogen. Longer duration of hospitalisation was observed in those infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia pseudomallei. 10 (71.4%) patients were treated with a combination of two or three antibiotics. In this series, 42.9% had surgical interventions.
CONCLUSION: Young boys were found to be more commonly affected by orbital cellulitis than young girls. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated microorganism. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia pseudomallei caused severe infection. Sinusitis and upper respiratory tract infection were the most common predisposing factors. A majority of the children improved with medical treatment alone. Our findings are in slight disagreement with other published reports on paediatric orbital cellulitis, especially from the Asian region.
METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of Malaysian men aged ≥ 18 years attending two major outpatient clinics in Johor Bahru and Segamat in Johor, Malaysia, between 1 January 2016 and 31 March 2016. Subjects were chosen via simple random sampling and 400 patients were recruited. The study instrument was a survey form that consisted of three sections: sociodemographic and comorbid profile, validated English and Malay versions of the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function, and the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of self-reported ED was 81.5%. The prevalence of ED according to severity was as follows: mild (17.0%), mild to moderate (23.8%), moderate (11.3%) and severe (29.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that ED was associated with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 4.023, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.633-9.913), Indian as compared to Malay ethnicity (OR 3.252, 95% CI 1.280-8.262), secondary as compared to tertiary education (OR 2.171, 95% CI 1.203-3.919), single as compared to married status (OR 6.119, 95% CI 2.542-14.734) and stress (OR 4.259, 95% CI 1.793-10.114).
CONCLUSION: ED has significant prevalence and severity among adult male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. Increasing age, Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, singlehood and stress were significant predictors of ED.
METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among clinical-year medical students from a Malaysian private medical college using a self-administered questionnaire.
RESULTS: There were 330 participants with a female preponderance and a mean age of 22.0 ± 1.1 years. The largest proportion of respondents were from Year 3. The vast majority were ethnically Malay (91.8%) and followed Islam (92.4%). Overall, 60.9% of participants had a positive attitude towards vasectomy and 76.0% showed good acceptance. Gender, academic year, ethnicity and religion variables were not associated with attitudes and acceptance (p > 0.05). A significantly higher proportion of male respondents thought that vasectomy was religiously forbidden and would give a bad impression. A significantly higher proportion of Year 5 students agreed to the statement 'I would recommend vasectomy to relatives, friends and people close to me' compared to Year 3 and 4 students.
CONCLUSION: Students' perception of vasectomy as a contraceptive method was encouraging. Our results suggest that their knowledge improved as medical training progressed, and attitudes evolved for the better irrespective of their traditional, cultural and religious beliefs - highlighting the importance of providing students with evidence-based learning about male sterilisation, which is more cost-effective and is associated with lower morbidity than female sterilisation. A qualitative study involving students from different ethnicities and religions would provide a better understanding of this subject.
METHODS: Healthy subjects of Chinese (n = 12), Malay (n = 12) and Indian (n = 10) ancestry, aged 21-37 years, were enrolled. They provided a baseline stool sample (Day 1) and were then given a course of omeprazole at therapeutic dose (20 mg daily) for seven days. Stool samples were collected again on Day 7 and 14 (one week after stopping omeprazole). Microbial DNA was extracted from the stool samples, followed by polymerase chain reaction, library construction, 16S rRNA sequencing using Illumina MiSeq, and statistical and bioinformatics analyses.
RESULTS: The findings showed an increase in species richness (p = 0.018) after omeprazole consumption on Day 7, which reverted to baseline on Day 14. There were significant increases in the relative abundance of Streptococcus vestibularis (p = 0.0001) and Veillonella dispar (p = 0.0001) on Day 7, which diminished on Day 14. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Sutterella stercoricanis and Bacteroides denticanum were characteristic of Chinese, Malays and Indians, respectively. Lactobacillaceae and Bacteroides xylanisolvens were the signature taxa of male and female subjects, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated alterations in the gut microbiome following omeprazole treatment. This may explain the underlying pathology of increased risk of Clostridium difficile infections associated with omeprazole therapy.