Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 887 in total

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  1. Mohamed Haflah NH, Mat Nor NF, Abdullah S, Sapuan J
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Oct;55(10):e159-61.
    PMID: 25631904
    Scaphoid stress fracture is rare and occurs mainly in gymnasts. The current literature has only two reported cases: unilateral scaphoid stress fracture in a platform diver and bilateral scaphoid stress fracture in a gymnast. We herein report bilateral stress fracture of the scaphoid in a platform diver who presented with only one symptomatic side. Our patient was a 16-year-old competitive platform diver with an 18-month history of pain in the right wrist. Radiography revealed fracture of the right scaphoid at the waist. As part of our preoperative plan of measuring the scaphoid length to determine the appropriate screw, radiography of the contralateral side was performed, revealing an unexpected fracture of the left scaphoid. Due to the frequency of stress fractures in competitive sports, especially gymnastics, we recommend that bilateral scaphoid radiography be performed for athletes presenting with a unilateral scaphoid fracture, to avoid missing a fracture in the contralateral side.
  2. Anpalakhan S, Ramasamy D, Fan KS
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Oct;55(10):e156-8.
    PMID: 25631903
    Myxomas are uncommon primary cardiac tumours that usually affect the left atrium. We herein report the case of a patient who presented with right heart failure and proteinuria, leading to the diagnosis of atrial myxoma. Surgical resection resulted in resolution of the patient's symptoms.
  3. Singh VA, Haseeb A, Alkubaisi AA
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Oct;55(10):539-46.
    PMID: 25631896
    INTRODUCTION: Morbidity and mortality from malignant diseases are usually the result of metastasis. The bone is the third most common site of metastasis.

    METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with metastatic bone disease who were referred to the Orthopaedic Department of University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, between January 2004 and October 2009.

    RESULTS: A total of 151 patients (51.0% men, 49.0% women) had metastatic bone disease, with the highest incidence at the age range of 50-59 years. The commonest primary cancer was breast (23.3%), followed by lung (21.2%), prostate (9.3%), thyroid (7.3%) and renal cell carcinoma (5.3%); unknown primary cancer was 6.6%. There was long bone involvement in 52.7% of cases, axial bone in 44.5%, and both long and axial bones in 2.8%. The majority (90.1%) were symptomatic, with pain as the commonest symptom. 106 (70.2%) patients had pathological fractures. Neurological deficit was reported in 90.7% of patients, with 41.1% having extraskeletal metastases. 67.8% of the lesions were osteolytic, 24.3% were sclerotic, and 7.9%, mixed. Palliative and therapeutic interventions were undertaken for 62.0% of patients. The mean survival times were: breast 21.0; thyroid 20.7; prostate 20.3; lung 16.0; and unknown primary cancer 32.6 months.

    CONCLUSION: In our study, breast and lung cancers were the commonest primary cancers in metastatic bone disease. Most patients had more than one site of involvement, pain at presentation and pathological fractures. Surgery is beneficial to relieve pain and improve function and neurology. Duration of survival depends on the type of primary cancer and whether systemic metastasis is present.
  4. Sridharan R, Low SF, Mohd MR, Kew TY
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Oct;55(10):e165-8.
    PMID: 25631906
    Epistaxis is commonly encountered in otorhinolaryngologic practice. However, severe and recurrent epistaxis is rarely seen, especially that originating from a pseudoaneurysm of the intracavernous internal carotid artery (ICA). We herein present the case of a 32-year-old man who was involved in a motor vehicle accident and subsequently developed recurrent episodes of profuse epistaxis for the next three months, which required blood transfusion and nasal packing to control the bleeding. Computed tomography angiography revealed a large intracavernous ICA pseudoaneurysm measuring 1.7 cm × 1.2 cm × 1.0 cm. The patient underwent emergent four-vessel angiography and coil embolisation and was discharged one week later without any episode of bleeding. He remained asymptomatic after three-month and one‑year intervals. This case report highlights a large intracavernous ICA pseudoaneurysm as a rare cause of epistaxis, which requires a high index of suspicion in the right clinical setting and emergent endovascular treatment to prevent mortality.
  5. Tan WL, Asahar SF, Harun NL
    Singapore Med J, 2015 Apr;56(4):224-7.
    PMID: 25532511 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2014170
    INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is a rising non-communicable disease in Malaysia. Insulin therapy refusal is a great challenge for healthcare providers, as it results in delayed insulin initiation. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of insulin therapy refusal and its associated factors.
    METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted at seven public health clinics in Kubang Pasu district, Malaysia, from March to October 2012. A newly developed and validated questionnaire was used and participants were selected via systematic random sampling. Only patients diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and under the public health clinic care in Kubang Pasu were included in the study. Multiple logistic regressions were used to study the association between insulin therapy refusal and its associated factors.
    RESULTS: There were 461 respondents and the response rate was 100%. Among these 461 patients with T2DM, 74.2% refused insulin therapy. The most common reason given for refusal was a lack of confidence in insulin injection (85.4%). Multiple logistic regression revealed that respondents who had secondary education were 55.0% less likely to refuse insulin therapy than those who had primary or no formal education (p = 0.009, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.25-0.82). There was also a significant inverse association between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and insulin therapy refusal (p = 0.047, adjusted OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76-1.00).
    CONCLUSION: Insulin therapy refusal is common in Kubang Pasu. Education status and HbA1c should be taken into consideration when counselling patients on insulin therapy initiation.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Kubang Pasu, Kedah, Malaysia
  6. Gopal CP, Ranga A, Joseph KL, Tangiisuran B
    Singapore Med J, 2015 Apr;56(4):217-23.
    PMID: 25532514 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2014190
    Although heart failure (HF) management is available at primary and secondary care facilities in Malaysia, the optimisation of drug therapy is still suboptimal. Although pharmacists can help bridge the gap in optimising HF therapy, pharmacists in Malaysia currently do not manage and titrate HF pharmacotherapy. The aim of this study was to develop treatment algorithms and monitoring protocols for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers and spironolactone based on extensive literature review for validation and utilization by pharmacists involved in HF management.
  7. Boo NY, Suhaida AR, Rohana J
    Singapore Med J, 2015 Mar;56(3):164-8.
    PMID: 25532513
    This case-control study aimed to determine whether catheter use was significantly associated with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) colonisation and/or sepsis in neonates.
  8. Akhavan Hejazi SM, Mazlan M, Abdullah SJ, Engkasan JP
    Singapore Med J, 2015 Feb;56(2):116-9.
    PMID: 25715857
    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the direct cost of outpatient care for patients with stroke, as well as the relationship between the aforementioned cost and the sociodemographic and stroke characteristics of the patients.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients with first-ever stroke who were attending outpatient stroke rehabilitation, and their family members. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to obtain information regarding the cost of outpatient care. Stroke severity was measured using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale.

    RESULTS: This study comprised 49 patients (28 men, 21 women) with a mean age of 60.2 (range 35-80) years. The mean total cost incurred was USD 547.10 (range USD 53.50-4,591.60), of which 36.6% was spent on attendant care, 25.5% on medical aids, 15.1% on travel expenses, 14.1% on medical fees and 8.5% on out-of-pocket expenses. Stroke severity, age > 70 years and haemorrhagic stroke were associated with increased cost. The mean cost of attending outpatient therapy per patient was USD 17.50 per session (range USD 6.60-30.60), with travelling expenses (41.8%) forming the bulk of the cost, followed by medical fees (38.1%) and out-of-pocket expenses (10.9%). Multiple regression analysis showed that stroke severity was the main determinant of post-stroke outpatient care cost (p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Post-stroke outpatient care costs are significantly influenced by stroke severity. The cost of attendant care was the main cost incurred during the first three months after hospital discharge, while travelling expenses was the main cost incurred when attending outpatient stroke rehabilitation therapy.
  9. King TL, Kho EK, Tiong YH, Julaihi SN
    Singapore Med J, 2015 Feb;56(2):103-8.
    PMID: 25715856
    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate whether multimedia counselling (MC) using a touchscreen computer is as effective and time-efficient as conventional counselling (CC) in promoting correct metered-dose inhaler (MDI) technique, with or without the valved holding chamber (VHC).

    METHODS: Participants in the MDI-only and MDI-with-VHC groups were randomly assigned to the MC group or CC group. No blinding was imposed. Inhalation technique was assessed using checklists before and after counselling. Time spent on counselling was determined for all participants, while time taken to perfect the technique was determined only for participants who achieved perfect technique within one hour.

    RESULTS: The CC group had more elderly participants than the MC group, but the difference was not significant. MDI-only and MDI-with-VHC users showed significant improvement in their inhaler technique after multimedia (44.5 ± 28.0% and 44.1 ± 14.4%, respectively) and conventional counselling (36.8 ± 20.5% and 37.0 ± 14.6%, respectively). No significant difference in MDI technique enhancement was found between the two groups. Although no significant difference was found between the MC and CC groups with regard to the time spent on counselling and the time taken to perfect the technique, the average time spent on counselling was longer for MDI-only users. MDI-only users had 13.5 times the odds of failing to achieve perfect technique compared to MDI-with-VHC users (95% confidence interval 1.50-121.32, p = 0.020).

    CONCLUSION: MC and CC significantly improved MDI technique. Both methods showed comparable short-term effectiveness and time-efficiency in MDI technique education. VHC was beneficial, especially for MDI-users with hand-lung coordination problems.
  10. Teo BW, Koh YY, Toh QC, Li J, Sinha AK, Shuter B, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Dec;55(12):656-9.
    PMID: 25630321
    INTRODUCTION: Clinical practice guidelines recommend using creatinine-based equations to estimate glomerular filtration rates (GFRs). While these equations were formulated for Caucasian-American populations and have adjustment coefficients for African-American populations, they are not validated for other ethnicities. The Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaborative Group (CKD-EPI) recently developed a new equation that uses both creatinine and cystatin C. We aimed to assess the accuracy of this equation in estimating the GFRs of participants (healthy and with chronic kidney disease [CKD]) from a multiethnic Asian population.

    METHODS: Serum samples from the Asian Kidney Disease Study and the Singapore Kidney Function Study were used. GFR was measured using plasma clearance of 99mTc-DTPA. GFR was estimated using the CKD-EPI equations. The performance of GFR estimation equations were examined using median and interquartile range values, and the percentage difference from the measured GFR.

    RESULTS: The study comprised 335 participants (69.3% with CKD; 38.5% Chinese, 29.6% Malays, 23.6% Indians, 8.3% others), with a mean age of 53.5 ± 15.1 years. Mean standardised serum creatinine was 127 ± 86 μmol/L, while mean standardised serum cystatin C and mean measured GFR were 1.43 ± 0.74 mg/L and 67 ± 33 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The creatinine-cystatin C CKD-EPI equation performed the best, with an estimated GFR of 67 ± 35 mL/min/1.73 m2.

    CONCLUSION: The new creatinine-cystatin C equation estimated GFR with little bias, and had increased precision and accuracy in our multiethnic Asian population. This two-biomarker equation may increase the accuracy of population studies on CKD, without the need to consider ethnicity.
  11. Teo BW, Bagchi S, Xu H, Toh QC, Li J, Lee EJ
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Dec;55(12):652-5.
    PMID: 25630320
    INTRODUCTION: Clinical practice guidelines recommend using creatinine-based equations to estimate glomerular filtration rates (GFRs). While these equations were formulated for Caucasian-American populations and have adjustment coefficients for African-American populations, they are not validated for other ethnicities. The Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaborative Group (CKD-EPI) recently developed a new equation that uses both creatinine and cystatin C. We aimed to assess the accuracy of this equation in estimating the GFRs of participants (healthy and with chronic kidney disease [CKD]) from a multiethnic Asian population.

    METHODS: Serum samples from the Asian Kidney Disease Study and the Singapore Kidney Function Study were used. GFR was measured using plasma clearance of 99mTc-DTPA. GFR was estimated using the CKD-EPI equations. The performance of GFR estimation equations were examined using median and interquartile range values, and the percentage difference from the measured GFR.

    RESULTS: The study comprised 335 participants (69.3% with CKD; 38.5% Chinese, 29.6% Malays, 23.6% Indians, 8.3% others), with a mean age of 53.5 ± 15.1 years. Mean standardised serum creatinine was 127 ± 86 μmol/L, while mean standardised serum cystatin C and mean measured GFR were 1.43 ± 0.74 mg/L and 67 ± 33 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The creatinine-cystatin C CKD-EPI equation performed the best, with an estimated GFR of 67 ± 35 mL/min/1.73 m2.

    CONCLUSION: The new creatinine-cystatin C equation estimated GFR with little bias, and had increased precision and accuracy in our multiethnic Asian population. This two-biomarker equation may increase the accuracy of population studies on CKD, without the need to consider ethnicity.
  12. Sazlina SG, Mastura I, Cheong AT, Bujang Mohamad A, Jamaiyah H, Lee PY, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2015 May;56(5):284-90.
    PMID: 25814074 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2015055
    We assessed the predictors of poor glycaemic control among older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Malaysia.
  13. Singh TS, Sadagatullah AN, Yusof AH
    Singapore Med J, 2015 Oct;56(10):562-6.
    PMID: 25814075 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2015130
    The purpose of this study was to examine the differing curves of the volar distal radius of healthy Malaysian Malays, so as to obtain detailed morphological information that will further the understanding of volar plate osteosynthesis in Malaysian Malays.
  14. Lim KK, Sivasampu S, Khoo EM
    Singapore Med J, 2015 May;56(5):291-7.
    PMID: 25597751 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2015019
    As the population ages, the prevalence of hypertension also increases. Although primary care is usually the patient's first point of contact for healthcare, little is known about the management of hypertension among elderly patients at the primary care level. This study aimed to determine the antihypertensive prescription trend for elderly patients, the predictors of antihypertensive use and any inappropriate prescribing practices in both public and private primary care settings.
  15. Maniam R, Subramanian P, Singh SK, Lim SK, Chinna K, Rosli R
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Sep;55(9):476-82.
    PMID: 25273932
    INTRODUCTION: Fatigue and quality of sleep are the main factors that contribute to a poor quality of life among patients on long-term haemodialysis. Studies have also emphasised the importance of exercise for improving the wellbeing of dialysis patients. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a predialysis low-to-moderate-intensity exercise programme for reducing fatigue and improving sleep disorders among long-term haemodialysis patients.

    METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, an exercise programme was conducted three times a week for 12 weeks before long-term haemodialysis patients underwent dialysis at two centres. The patients were categorised into either the exercise group (n = 28) or control group (n = 27). The latter was asked to maintain their current lifestyles. Assessments of fatigue and sleep disorder levels were performed for both groups using self-reported questionnaires at baseline and after intervention. The patients' perception of the exercise programme was also determined using self-reported questionnaires.

    RESULTS: Paired sample t-test indicated improvements in fatigue level in the exercise group (mean fatigue score: post-treatment 40.5 ± 7.9 vs. pre-treatment 30.0 ± 10.9). Improvements in sleep disorders were also observed in the exercise group (mean score: post-treatment 7.6 ± 3.3 vs. pre-treatment 10.1 ± 3.8). However, sleep quality deteriorated in the control group (mean score: post-treatment 10.7 ± 2.9 vs. pre-treatment 9.3 ± 2.9).

    CONCLUSION: Simple low-to-moderate-intensity exercise is effective for improving fatigue, sleep disorders and the overall quality of life among haemodialysis patients.
  16. Htwe TT, Ismail SB, Low GK
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Sep;55(9):502-5.
    PMID: 25273936
    INTRODUCTION: Assessment is an important factor that drives student learning, as students tend to mainly focus on the material to be assessed. The current practice in teaching pathology extensively applies objective-structured practical examination for the assessment of students. As students will have to deal with real patients during clinical years, it is preferred that students learn and practise via potted specimens and slides instead of picture plates. This study aimed to assess the preferred assesment method of pathology practical exercises.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey carried out in two consecutive batches of Phase 2 medical students. Student competency was assessed using both the traditional (TD) (i.e. use of potted specimens and slides) and picture plate (PP) methods. To compare the two assessment methods, we compared the mean scores obtained by the students and examined student perception of the two methods.

    RESULTS: The mean scores obtained via the PP method were significantly higher than those obtained via the TD method for almost all the components tested.

    CONCLUSION: We found that students performed significantly better (p < 0.05) when assessed using the PP method instead of the TD method. PP preparations might provide better visuals, thus aiding understanding, than the TD method. The findings of this study are valuable in identifying and improving our current teaching and assessment methods of medical students, in line with advancements in information technology.
  17. Chew KS, Ghani ZA
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Aug;55(8):439-42.
    PMID: 25189307
    INTRODUCTION: Family presence (FP) during resuscitation is an increasingly favoured trend, as it affords many benefits to the critically ill patient's family members. However, a previously conducted study showed that only 15.8% of surveyed Malaysian healthcare staff supported FP during resuscitation.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a bilingual self-administered questionnaire to examine the attitudes and perceptions of the general Malaysian public toward the presence of family members during resuscitation of their loved ones. The questionnaires were randomly distributed to Malaysians in three different states and in the federal territory of Kuala Lumpur.

    RESULTS: Out of a total of 190 survey forms distributed, 184 responses were included for analysis. Of the 184 respondents, 140 (76.1%) indicated that they favoured FP during resuscitation. The most common reason cited was that FP during resuscitation provides family members with the assurance that everything possible had been done for their loved ones (n = 157, 85.3%). Respondents who had terminal illnesses were more likely to favour FP during resuscitation than those who did not, and this was statistically significant (95.0% vs. 73.8%; p = 0.04).

    CONCLUSION: FP during resuscitation was favoured by a higher percentage of the general Malaysian public as compared to Malaysian healthcare staff. This could be due to differences in concerns regarding the resuscitation process between members of the public and healthcare staff.
  18. Lee CK, Kwan MK, Merican AM, Ng WM, Saw LB, Teh KK, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Aug;55(8):436-8.
    PMID: 25189306
    INTRODUCTION: Hip arthroplasty is commonly performed worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the diameter of the femoral head in the Malaysian population in relation to gender and race (i.e. among Malay, Chinese and Indian patients).

    METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study performed between January 1995 and December 2006, evaluating the femoral head diameters of all patients aged 50 years and above who underwent hemiarthroplasty at two major hospitals in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: A total of 945 femoral heads (663 women, 282 men) were evaluated. The mean age of the patients in our cohort was 75.2 ± 9.4 (range 50-101) years. The mean femoral head diameter (with intact articular cartilage) was 44.9 ± 3.2 (range 38-54) mm. In our study, men had a significantly larger mean femoral head diameter than women (47.7 ± 2.8 mm vs. 43.7 ± 2.4 mm; p < 0.05). Patients of Chinese ethnicity were also found to have significantly larger femoral head diameters, when compared among the three races studied (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Malaysians have a mean femoral head diameter of 44.9 ± 3.2 mm. Among our patients, Chinese patients had a significantly larger femoral head size than Malay and Indian patients. We also found that, in our cohort, men had significantly larger femoral head diameters than women.
  19. Zueter AM, Mohamed Z, Abdullah AD, Mohamad N, Arifin N, Othman N, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Jul;55(7):367-71.
    PMID: 25091885
    INTRODUCTION: Strongyloidiasis is one of the most commonly neglected but clinically important parasitic infections worldwide, especially among immunocompromised patients. Evidence of infection among immunocompromised patients in Malaysia is, however, lacking. In this study, microscopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to detect Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) infection among cancer patients in a Malaysian hospital.

    METHODS: A total of 192 stool and serum samples were collected from cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy with or without steroid treatment at a hospital in northeastern Malaysia. Stool samples were examined for S. stercoralis using parasitological methods and real-time PCR. Serology by ELISA was performed to detect parasite-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. For comparison, IgG4- and IgG-ELISAs were also performed on the sera of 150 healthy individuals from the same area.

    RESULTS: Of the 192 samples examined, 1 (0.5%) sample was positive for S. stercoralis by microscopy, 3 (1.6%) by real-time PCR, 8 (4.2%) by IgG-ELISA, 6 (3.1%) by IgG4-ELISA, and none was positive by IgE-ELISA. In comparison, healthy blood donors had significantly lower prevalence of parasite-specific IgG (2.67%, p < 0.05) and IgG4 (2.67%, p < 0.05) responses.

    CONCLUSION: This study showed that laboratory testing may be considered as a diagnostic investigation for S. stercoralis among immunocompromised cancer patients.
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