Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 4098 in total

  1. Chandran A, Selva Kumar S, Hairi NN, Low WY, Mustapha FI
    Front Public Health, 2021;9:698741.
    PMID: 34295873 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.698741
    In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) set a comprehensive set of nine global voluntary targets, including the landmark "25 by 25" mortality reduction target, and 25 indicators. WHO has also highlighted the importance of Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) surveillance as a key action by Member States in addressing NCDs. This study aimed to examine the current national NCD surveillance tools, activities and performance in Malaysia based on the WHO Global Monitoring Framework for NCDs and to highlight gaps and priorities moving forward. A desk review was conducted from August to October in 2020, to examine the current national NCD surveillance activities in Malaysia from multiple sources. Policy and program documents relating to NCD surveillance in Malaysia from 2010 to 2020 were identified and analyzed. The findings of this review are presented according to the three major themes of the Global Monitoring Framework: monitoring of exposure/risk factor, monitoring of outcomes and health system capacity/response. Currently, there is a robust monitoring system for NCD Surveillance in Malaysia for indicators that are monitored by the WHO NCD Global Monitoring Framework, particularly for outcome and exposure monitoring. However, Malaysia still lacks data for the surveillance of the health system indicators of the framework. Although Malaysia has an NCD surveillance in place that is adequate for the WHO NCD Global Monitoring Framework, there are areas that require strengthening. The country must also look beyond these set of indicators in view of the increasing burden and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes incorporating mental health indicators and leveraging on alternate sources of data relating to behaviors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  2. Idris ZM, Zainal FNS, Ching LS, Azmin A, Hamdan Z, Kamaruzaman UA, et al.
    Travel Med Infect Dis, 2021 04 03;41:102055.
    PMID: 33823288 DOI: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2021.102055
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  3. Tang KHD, Chin BLF
    Public Health, 2021 Sep;198:96-101.
    PMID: 34391039 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2021.07.007
    OBJECTIVES: The transmission of COVID-19 has sent Malaysia into cycles of tightening and relaxation of movement control, which are still continuing currently in line with local fluctuations of new COVID-19 cases. During movement control, measures comprising physical distancing, hand cleaning or sanitizing, and sanitization of premises are consistently implemented while self-isolation and travel restrictions are adaptively enforced. This study aims to examine if the control of COVID-19 transmission has an effect on the national influenza occurrences as some measures for COVID-19 control are similar to those for influenza.

    STUDY DESIGN: For this study, data of weekly new cases of influenza and COVID-19 were obtained from official platforms for non-parametric statistical analysis.

    METHODS: This study compared the influenza occurrences before and after the onset of COVID-19 using the Mann-Whitney U-test and explored Spearman's correlations between COVID-19 and influenza incidences after the onset of COVID-19.

    RESULTS: It shows that influenza incidences before and after the onset of COVID-19 were significantly different and that influenza cases have significantly reduced after the onset of COVID-19. The weekly cases of influenza and COVID-19 were significantly and negatively correlated.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores the co-benefits of COVID-19 control measures and alleviates the concern for the risk of COVID-19 and influenza co-infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  4. Rajadurai P, How SH, Liam CK, Sachithanandan A, Soon SY, Tho LM
    J Thorac Oncol, 2020 03;15(3):317-323.
    PMID: 32093853 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtho.2019.10.021
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  5. Jayasundara P, Peariasamy KM, Law KB, Abd Rahim KNK, Lee SW, Ghazali IMM, et al.
    Epidemics, 2021 12;37:100517.
    PMID: 34739906 DOI: 10.1016/j.epidem.2021.100517
    INTRODUCTION: As of 3rd June 2021, Malaysia is experiencing a resurgence of COVID-19 cases. In response, the federal government has implemented various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) under a series of Movement Control Orders and, more recently, a vaccination campaign to regain epidemic control. In this study, we assessed the potential for the vaccination campaign to control the epidemic in Malaysia and four high-burden regions of interest, under various public health response scenarios.

    METHODS: A modified susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered compartmental model was developed that included two sequential incubation and infectious periods, with stratification by clinical state. The model was further stratified by age and incorporated population mobility to capture NPIs and micro-distancing (behaviour changes not captured through population mobility). Emerging variants of concern (VoC) were included as an additional strain competing with the existing wild-type strain. Several scenarios that included different vaccination strategies (i.e. vaccines that reduce disease severity and/or prevent infection, vaccination coverage) and mobility restrictions were implemented.

    RESULTS: The national model and the regional models all fit well to notification data but underestimated ICU occupancy and deaths in recent weeks, which may be attributable to increased severity of VoC or saturation of case detection. However, the true case detection proportion showed wide credible intervals, highlighting incomplete understanding of the true epidemic size. The scenario projections suggested that under current vaccination rates complete relaxation of all NPIs would trigger a major epidemic. The results emphasise the importance of micro-distancing, maintaining mobility restrictions during vaccination roll-out and accelerating the pace of vaccination for future control. Malaysia is particularly susceptible to a major COVID-19 resurgence resulting from its limited population immunity due to the country's historical success in maintaining control throughout much of 2020.

    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  6. Ahmad Zaki R, Xin NZ
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2023 Jan;35(1):62-64.
    PMID: 36341513 DOI: 10.1177/10105395221134655
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  7. Aziz NA, Othman J, Lugova H, Suleiman A
    J Infect Public Health, 2020 Dec;13(12):1823-1829.
    PMID: 32896496 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2020.08.007
    Malaysia recorded its first case of COVID-19 on January 24th, 2020 with a stable number of reported cases until March 2020, where there was an exponential spike due to a massive religious gathering in Kuala Lumpur. This caused Malaysia to be the hardest hit COVID-19 country in South East Asia at the time. In order to curb the transmission and better managed the clusters, Malaysia imposed the Movement Control Order (MCO) which is now in its fourth phase. The MCO together with targeted screening have slowed the spread of COVID-19 epidemic. The government has also provided three economic stimulus packages in order to cushion the impact of the shrinking economy. Nonetheless, early studies have shown that the MCO would greatly affect the lower and medium income groups, together with small and medium businesses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  8. Wong MTJ, Dhaliwal SS, Balakrishnan V, Nordin F, Norazmi MN, Tye GJ
    PMID: 36674401 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph20021647
    (1) Background: The assessment of vaccine effectiveness against the Omicron variant is vital in the fight against COVID-19, but research on booster vaccine efficacy using nationwide data was lacking at the time of writing. This study investigates the effectiveness of booster doses on the Omicron wave in Malaysia against COVID-19 infections and deaths; (2) Methods: This study uses nationally representative data on COVID-19 from 1 January to 31 March 2022, when the Omicron variant was predominant in Malaysia. Daily new infections, deaths, ICU utilization and Rt values were compared. A screening method was used to predict the vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 infections, whereas logistic regression was used to estimate vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19-related deaths, with efficacy comparison between AZD1222, BNT162b2 and CoronaVac; (3) Results: Malaysia's Omicron wave started at the end of January 2022, peaking on 5 March 2022. At the time of writing, statistics for daily new deaths, ICU utilization, and effective reproductive values (Rt) were showing a downtrend. Boosted vaccination is 95.4% (95% CI: 95.4, 95.4) effective in curbing COVID-19 infection, compared to non-boosted vaccination, which is 87.2% (95% CI: 87.2, 87.2). For symptomatic infection, boosted vaccination is 97.4% (95% CI: 97.4, 97.4) effective, and a non-boosted vaccination is 90.9% (95% CI: 90.9, 90.9). Against COVID-19-related death, boosted vaccination yields a vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 91.7 (95% CI: 90.6, 92.7) and full vaccination yields a VE of 65.7% (95% CI: 61.9, 69.1). Looking into the different vaccines as boosters, AZD1222 is 95.2% (CI 95%: 92.7, 96.8) effective, BNT162b2 is 91.8% (CI 95%: 90.7, 92.8) effective and CoronaVac is 88.8% (CI 95%: 84.9, 91.7) effective against COVID-19 deaths. (4) Conclusions: Boosters are effective in increasing protection against COVID-19, including the Omicron variant. Given that the VE observed was lower, CoronaVac recipients are encouraged to take boosters due to its lower VE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  9. Tok PSK, Kamarudin N', Jamaludin M, Ab Razak MF, Ahmad MAS, Abu Bakar FA, et al.
    Infect Dis (Lond), 2022 Mar;54(3):235-237.
    PMID: 34772327 DOI: 10.1080/23744235.2021.2000636
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  10. Jayaram M
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Dec;60(5):531-4.
    PMID: 16515101
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  11. George R, Lam SK
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1997 Nov;26(6):815-9.
    PMID: 9522985
    Since dengue was first documented in Malaysia in 1902 and made notifiable in 1973, the disease pattern has changed from major outbreaks every four years to one of increasing trend yearly. The largest outbreak was seen in 1996 with 14,255 dengue cases reported and 32 deaths. The case fatality rate varied from a high of 10.43% in 1985 when dengue type 3 was the predominant type to a low of 1.29% when dengue type 1 predominated. Severe disease patterns have been observed with dengue 2 and 3 serotypes in the country. The clinical spectrum has also been changing and multisystem involvement with more severe manifestations are being seen. Liver involvement has been documented since 1987. Fulminant hepatitis with encephalopathy can resemble Reye's syndrome. Dengue type 3 has been isolated from liver biopsy specimens. Neurological manifestations can very from irritability, convulsions, coma to peripheral neuritis. The isolation of dengue viruses from cerebrospinal fluids recently strongly suggests that dengue viruses can be neurovirulent. Adult respiratory distress syndrome was seen in three children admitted with shock. Deaths were more frequent in children in the early period but since 1982, over 50% of deaths have occurred in patients over the age of 15 years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  12. Lim A
    Med J Malaysia, 1991 Jun;46(2):114-5.
    PMID: 1839413
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  13. Abu Hanifah Y
    Med J Malaysia, 1990 Dec;45(4):293-7.
    PMID: 2152049
    The occurrence of post-operative wound infection was studied respectively over an eight month period in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. One hundred and seventy four (3.4%) surgical wounds out of 5129 operations became infected. The clean wound infection rate was 2.9%, rising to 5.4% and 12.2% for clean-contaminated and contaminated surgical wounds respectively. Of the wound infections, 80.8% occurred within the first two weeks post-operatively. Bacteriological studies revealed that the commonest bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (36.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4%) and Klebsiella species (10.1%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  14. Safuan S, Edinur HA
    Acta Biomed, 2020 11 10;91(4):e2020154.
    PMID: 33525245 DOI: 10.23750/abm.v91i4.10345
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  15. Hamzan MI, Sulaiman WAW
    Cleft Palate Craniofac J, 2020 08;57(8):1051-1054.
    PMID: 32476501 DOI: 10.1177/1055665620926346
    OBJECTIVES: The author presents 4 cases and attempts to analyze the prevalence of true median cleft lip (MCL) in one center. Embryology, associated anomalies, and surgical treatment are discussed.

    DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study.

    SETTING: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: All patients with congenital facial cleft deformities from 2005 to 2019 were retrieved from the Plastic Surgery OR Registry. All characteristics in interest were individually tabulated and evaluated. Four cases were reviewed and discussed.

    OUTCOME: Prevalence of true MCL.

    RESULTS: Out of the 494 patients included in the study, only 4 (0.81%) were affected with a median cleft, and the prevalence of true median cleft was hence determined to be 3 (0.61%) among the cleft population.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of the true MCL is rare which makes it hard to categorize these clefts, and the surgical protocol needs to be established for the definitive treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  16. Ernieenor FCL, Ernna G, Mariana A
    Exp Appl Acarol, 2017 Apr;71(4):387-400.
    PMID: 28409404 DOI: 10.1007/s10493-017-0120-3
    Morphotaxonomy based on phenotypic traits of immature hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) is a skill challenge and has prompted many inexperienced acarologists to adopt DNA-based methods for identifying and discriminating the species. The aim of this study is therefore to utilize COI gene for verifying the morphological status of Haemaphysalis ticks in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 19 on-host ticks collected from four localities were first identified using specific illustrated taxonomic keys that lead to the genus of Haemaphysalis. Genotypic traits of tick species were then verified molecularly based on cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene using polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Clustering analysis was carried out by constructing a phylogenetic tree to determine the genetic variation and diversity of local Haemaphysalis ticks. Based on external morphological characterizations, all immature ticks were successfully identified down to the genus level only. Molecular analysis of the genotypic using COI gene revealed 16 individuals (84%) as Haemaphysalis hystricis, and three individuals as H. humerosa with sequence homology of 97-99 and 86-87%, respectively. Haemaphysalis hystricis were clustered in their respective monophyletic group in the phylogeny trees with a bootstrap of 100%. Furthermore, a low intraspecific variation (<0.3%) was observed among Malaysian H. hystricis but high interspecific value (>15%) recorded. This study morphologically and molecularly confirms the presence of H. hystricis in Malaysia and the findings will add value to the existing knowledge in identification of ticks in this country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  17. Law KB, Peariasamy KM, Gill BS, Singh S, Sundram BM, Rajendran K, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 12 10;10(1):21721.
    PMID: 33303925 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-78739-8
    The susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model offers the simplest framework to study transmission dynamics of COVID-19, however, it does not factor in its early depleting trend observed during a lockdown. We modified the SIR model to specifically simulate the early depleting transmission dynamics of COVID-19 to better predict its temporal trend in Malaysia. The classical SIR model was fitted to observed total (I total), active (I) and removed (R) cases of COVID-19 before lockdown to estimate the basic reproduction number. Next, the model was modified with a partial time-varying force of infection, given by a proportionally depleting transmission coefficient, [Formula: see text] and a fractional term, z. The modified SIR model was then fitted to observed data over 6 weeks during the lockdown. Model fitting and projection were validated using the mean absolute percent error (MAPE). The transmission dynamics of COVID-19 was interrupted immediately by the lockdown. The modified SIR model projected the depleting temporal trends with lowest MAPE for I total, followed by I, I daily and R. During lockdown, the dynamics of COVID-19 depleted at a rate of 4.7% each day with a decreased capacity of 40%. For 7-day and 14-day projections, the modified SIR model accurately predicted I total, I and R. The depleting transmission dynamics for COVID-19 during lockdown can be accurately captured by time-varying SIR model. Projection generated based on observed data is useful for future planning and control of COVID-19.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  18. Danial M, Arulappen AL, Ch'ng ASH, Looi I
    J Glob Health, 2020 Dec;10(2):0203105.
    PMID: 33403108 DOI: 10.7189/jogh.10.0203105
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  19. Sirol Aflah SS, Mohd Thabit AA, Chidambaram SK
    Respirology, 2021 06;26(6):624-626.
    PMID: 33843115 DOI: 10.1111/resp.14057
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  20. Salman AM, Ahmed I, Mohd MH, Jamiluddin MS, Dheyab MA
    Comput Biol Med, 2021 06;133:104372.
    PMID: 33864970 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104372
    COVID-19 is a major health threat across the globe, which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and it is highly contagious with significant mortality. In this study, we conduct a scenario analysis for COVID-19 in Malaysia using a simple universality class of the SIR system and extensions thereof (i.e., the inclusion of temporary immunity through the reinfection problems and limited medical resources scenarios leads to the SIRS-type model). This system has been employed in order to provide further insights on the long-term outcomes of COVID-19 pandemic. As a case study, the COVID-19 transmission dynamics are investigated using daily confirmed cases in Malaysia, where some of the epidemiological parameters of this system are estimated based on the fitting of the model to real COVID-19 data released by the Ministry of Health Malaysia (MOH). We observe that this model is able to mimic the trend of infection trajectories of COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia and it is possible for transmission dynamics to be influenced by the reinfection force and limited medical resources problems. A rebound effect in transmission could occur after several years and this situation depends on the intensity of reinfection force. Our analysis also depicts the existence of a critical value in reinfection threshold beyond which the infection dynamics persist and the COVID-19 outbreaks are rather hard to eradicate. Therefore, understanding the interplay between distinct epidemiological factors using mathematical modelling approaches could help to support authorities in making informed decisions so as to control the spread of this pandemic effectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
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