Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Yatabe Y, Kerr KM, Utomo A, Rajadurai P, Tran VK, Du X, et al.
    J Thorac Oncol, 2015 Mar;10(3):438-45.
    PMID: 25376513 DOI: 10.1097/JTO.0000000000000422
    The efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors in EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients necessitates accurate, timely testing. Although EGFR mutation testing has been adopted by many laboratories in Asia, data are lacking on the proportion of NSCLC patients tested in each country, and the most commonly used testing methods.
  2. Liam CK, Wahid MI, Rajadurai P, Cheah YK, Ng TS
    J Thorac Oncol, 2013 Jun;8(6):766-72.
    PMID: 23575413 DOI: 10.1097/JTO.0b013e31828b5228
    Despite available data from other Asian countries, the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations among lung adenocarcinoma patients has not been reported in Malaysia. This study sought to determine the frequency of EGFR mutations among multiethnic Malaysian patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma.
  3. Wu YL, Lu S, Lu Y, Zhou J, Shi YK, Sriuranpong V, et al.
    J Thorac Oncol, 2018 10;13(10):1539-1548.
    PMID: 29966800 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtho.2018.06.012
    INTRODUCTION: The phase III randomized PROFILE 1014 study demonstrated superiority of crizotinib to first-line chemotherapy in prolonging progression-free survival (PFS) in previously untreated patients with ALK receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK)-positive advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. This result was consistent with that in the smaller subset of East Asian patients in PROFILE 1014. The subsequent study reported here prospectively evaluated crizotinib in a larger East Asian patient population.

    METHODS: In this open-label phase III study (PROFILE 1029), patients were randomized 1:1 to receive orally administered crizotinib 250 mg twice daily continuously (3-week cycles) or intravenously administered chemotherapy (pemetrexed 500 mg/m2, plus cisplatin 75 mg/m2, or carboplatin [at a dose to produce area under the concentration-time curve of 5-6 mg·min/mL]) every 3 weeks for a maximum of six cycles. PFS confirmed by independent radiology review was the primary end point.

    RESULTS: Crizotinib significantly prolonged PFS (hazard ratio, 0.402; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.286-0.565; p < 0.001). The median PFS was 11.1 months with crizotinib and 6.8 months with chemotherapy. The objective response rate was 87.5% (95% CI: 79.6-93.2%) with crizotinib versus 45.6% (95% CI: 35.8-55.7%) with chemotherapy (p < 0.001). The most common adverse events were increased transaminase levels, diarrhea, and vision disorders with crizotinib and leukopenia, neutropenia, and anemia with chemotherapy. Significantly greater improvements from baseline in patient-reported outcomes were seen in crizotinib-treated versus chemotherapy-treated patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: First-line crizotinib significantly improved PFS, objective response rate, and patient-reported outcomes compared with standard platinum-based chemotherapy in East Asian patients with ALK-positive advanced NSCLC, which is similar to the results from PROFILE 1014. The safety profiles of crizotinib and chemotherapy were consistent with those previously published.

  4. Cho BC, Chewaskulyong B, Lee KH, Dechaphunkul A, Sriuranpong V, Imamura F, et al.
    J Thorac Oncol, 2019 01;14(1):99-106.
    PMID: 30240852 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtho.2018.09.004
    INTRODUCTION: Here we report efficacy and safety data of an Asian subset of the phase III FLAURA trial (NCT02296125), which compares osimertinib with standard of care (SoC) EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with previously untreated advanced NSCLC with tumors harboring exon 19 deletion (Ex19del)/L858R EGFR TKI-sensitizing mutations.

    METHODS: Eligible Asian patients (enrolled at Asian sites) who were at least 18 years of age (≥20 years in Japan) and had untreated EGFR-mutated advanced NSCLC were randomized 1:1 to receive osimertinib (80 mg, orally once daily) or an SoC EGFR TKI (gefitinib, 250 mg, or erlotinib, 150 mg, orally once daily). The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). The key secondary end points were overall survival, objective response rate, central nervous system efficacy, and safety.

    RESULTS: The median PFS was 16.5 versus 11.0 months for the osimertinib and SoC EGFR TKI groups, respectively (hazard ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.41-0.72, p < 0.0001). The overall survival data were immature (24% maturity). The objective response rates were 80% for osimertinib and 75% for an SoC EGFR TKI. The median central nervous system PFS was not calculable for the osimertinib group and was 13.8 months for the SoC EGFR TKI group (hazard ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.25-1.17, p = 0.118). Fewer adverse events of grade 3 or higher (40% versus 48%) and fewer adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation (15% versus 21%) were reported with osimertinib versus with an SoC EGFR TKI, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: In this Asian population, first-line osimertinib demonstrated a clinically meaningful improvement in PFS over an SoC EGFR TKI, with a safety profile consistent with that for the overall FLAURA study population.

  5. Tan WL, Chua KLM, Lin CC, Lee VHF, Tho LM, Chan AW, et al.
    J Thorac Oncol, 2020 03;15(3):324-343.
    PMID: 31733357 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtho.2019.10.022
    Stage III NSCLC represents a heterogeneous disease for which optimal treatment continues to pose a clinical challenge. Recent changes in the American Joint Commission on Cancer staging to the eighth edition has led to a shift in TNM stage grouping and redefined the subcategories (IIIA-C) in stage III NSCLC for better prognostication. Although concurrent chemoradiotherapy has remained standard-of-care for stage III NSCLC for almost 2 decades, contemporary considerations include the impact of different molecular subsets of NSCLC, and the roles of tyrosine kinase inhibitors post-definitive therapy and of immune checkpoint inhibitors following chemoradiotherapy. With rapid evolution of diagnostic algorithms and expanding treatment options, the need for interdisciplinary input involving multiple specialists (medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pulmonologists, radiologists, pathologists and thoracic surgeons) has become increasingly important. The unique demographics of Asian NSCLC pose further challenges when applying clinical trial data into clinical practice. This includes differences in smoking rates, prevalence of oncogenic driver mutations, and access to health care resources including molecular testing, prompting the need for critical review of existing data and identification of current gaps. In this expert consensus statement by the Asian Thoracic Oncology Research Group, an interdisciplinary group of experts representing Hong Kong, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, and Mainland China was convened. Standard clinical practices for stage III NSCLC across different Asian countries were discussed from initial diagnosis and staging through to multi-modality approaches including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, targeted therapies, and immunotherapy.
  6. Rajadurai P, How SH, Liam CK, Sachithanandan A, Soon SY, Tho LM
    J Thorac Oncol, 2020 03;15(3):317-323.
    PMID: 32093853 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtho.2019.10.021
  7. Lam DC, Liam CK, Andarini S, Park S, Tan DSW, Singh N, et al.
    J Thorac Oncol, 2023 Oct;18(10):1303-1322.
    PMID: 37390982 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtho.2023.06.014
    INTRODUCTION: The incidence and mortality of lung cancer are highest in Asia compared with Europe and USA, with the incidence and mortality rates being 34.4 and 28.1 per 100,000 respectively in East Asia. Diagnosing lung cancer at early stages makes the disease amenable to curative treatment and reduces mortality. In some areas in Asia, limited availability of robust diagnostic tools and treatment modalities, along with variations in specific health care investment and policies, make it necessary to have a more specific approach for screening, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with lung cancer in Asia compared with the West.

    METHOD: A group of 19 advisors across different specialties from 11 Asian countries, met on a virtual Steering Committee meeting, to discuss and recommend the most affordable and accessible lung cancer screening modalities and their implementation, for the Asian population.

    RESULTS: Significant risk factors identified for lung cancer in smokers in Asia include age 50 to 75 years and smoking history of more than or equal to 20 pack-years. Family history is the most common risk factor for nonsmokers. Low-dose computed tomography screening is recommended once a year for patients with screening-detected abnormality and persistent exposure to risk factors. However, for high-risk heavy smokers and nonsmokers with risk factors, reassessment scans are recommended at an initial interval of 6 to 12 months with subsequent lengthening of reassessment intervals, and it should be stopped in patients more than 80 years of age or are unable or unwilling to undergo curative treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Asian countries face several challenges in implementing low-dose computed tomography screening, such as economic limitations, lack of efforts for early detection, and lack of specific government programs. Various strategies are suggested to overcome these challenges in Asia.

  8. Reungwetwattana T, Cho BC, Lee KH, Pang YK, Fong CH, Kang JH, et al.
    J Thorac Oncol, 2023 Oct;18(10):1351-1361.
    PMID: 37702629 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtho.2023.06.016
    INTRODUCTION: Lazertinib is a third-generation central nervous system-penetrant tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting mutant EGFR in NSCLC. Lazertinib exhibited improved efficacy versus gefitinib in the LASER301 study; this subset analysis compared lazertinib with gefitinib among Asian patients.

    METHODS: The phase 3 LASER301 study evaluated lazertinib efficacy and safety in treatment-naive patients with EGFR-mutated (exon 19 deletion or L858R) locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC. Patients were randomized one-to-one and received either lazertinib or gefitinib. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. Secondary end points included overall survival, objective response rate, duration of response, and safety.

    RESULTS: Between February 13, 2020, and July 29, 2022, among 258 patients of Asian descent, the median progression-free survival was significantly longer with lazertinib than gefitinib (20.6 versus 9.7 mo; hazard ratio: 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-0.63, p < 0.001), and the benefit was consistent across predefined subgroups (exon 19 deletion, L858R, baseline central nervous system metastases). Objective response rate and disease control rates were similar between treatment groups. The median duration of response was 19.4 months (95% CI: 16.6-24.9) versus 9.6 months (95% CI: 6.9-12.4) in the lazertinib versus gefitinib group. Adverse event rates in Asian patients were comparable with the overall LASER301 population. Adverse events leading to discontinuation in the lazertinib and gefitinib groups were 13% and 12%, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: In LASER301, efficacy and safety results in Asian patients were consistent with the overall population. Lazertinib exhibited better efficacy than gefitinib in Asian patients with a tolerable safety profile.

  9. Soo RA, Cho BC, Kim JH, Ahn MJ, Lee KH, Zimina A, et al.
    J Thorac Oncol, 2023 Dec;18(12):1756-1766.
    PMID: 37865896 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtho.2023.08.017
    INTRODUCTION: Lazertinib, a third-generation mutant-selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, improved progression-free survival compared with gefitinib in the phase 3 LASER301 study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04248829). Here, we report the efficacy of lazertinib and gefitinib in patients with baseline central nervous system (CNS) metastases.

    METHODS: Treatment-naive patients with EGFR-mutated advanced NSCLC were randomized one-to-one to lazertinib (240 mg/d) or gefitinib (250 mg/d). Patients with asymptomatic or stable CNS metastases were included if any planned radiation, surgery, or steroids were completed more than 2 weeks before randomization. For patients with CNS metastases confirmed at screening or subsequently suspected, CNS imaging was performed every 6 weeks for 18 months, then every 12 weeks. End points assessed by blinded independent central review and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 included intracranial progression-free survival, intracranial objective response rate, and intracranial duration of response.

    RESULTS: Of the 393 patients enrolled in LASER301, 86 (lazertinib, n = 45; gefitinib, n = 41) had measurable and or non-measurable baseline CNS metastases. The median intracranial progression-free survival in the lazertinib group was 28.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.8-28.2) versus 8.4 months (95% CI: 6.7-not reached [NR]) in the gefitinib group (hazard ratio = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20-0.89, p = 0.02). Among patients with measurable CNS lesions, the intracranial objective response rate was numerically higher with lazertinib (94%; n = 17) versus gefitinib (73%; n = 11, p = 0.124). The median intracranial duration of response with lazertinib was NR (8.3-NR) versus 6.3 months (2.8-NR) with gefitinib. Tolerability was similar to the overall LASER301 population.

    CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CNS metastases, lazertinib significantly improved intracranial progression-free survival compared with gefitinib, with more durable responses.

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