Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 130 in total

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  1. Mienda BS
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2017 Jul;35(9):1863-1873.
    PMID: 27251747 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2016.1197153
    Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) have been developed and used in guiding systems' metabolic engineering strategies for strain design and development. This strategy has been used in fermentative production of bio-based industrial chemicals and fuels from alternative carbon sources. However, computer-aided hypotheses building using established algorithms and software platforms for biological discovery can be integrated into the pipeline for strain design strategy to create superior strains of microorganisms for targeted biosynthetic goals. Here, I described an integrated workflow strategy using GEMs for strain design and biological discovery. Specific case studies of strain design and biological discovery using Escherichia coli genome-scale model are presented and discussed. The integrated workflow presented herein, when applied carefully would help guide future design strategies for high-performance microbial strains that have existing and forthcoming genome-scale metabolic models.
  2. Al-Khatib RM, Rashid NA, Abdullah R
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2011 Aug;29(1):1-26.
    PMID: 21696223
    The secondary structure of RNA pseudoknots has been extensively inferred and scrutinized by computational approaches. Experimental methods for determining RNA structure are time consuming and tedious; therefore, predictive computational approaches are required. Predicting the most accurate and energy-stable pseudoknot RNA secondary structure has been proven to be an NP-hard problem. In this paper, a new RNA folding approach, termed MSeeker, is presented; it includes KnotSeeker (a heuristic method) and Mfold (a thermodynamic algorithm). The global optimization of this thermodynamic heuristic approach was further enhanced by using a case-based reasoning technique as a local optimization method. MSeeker is a proposed algorithm for predicting RNA pseudoknot structure from individual sequences, especially long ones. This research demonstrates that MSeeker improves the sensitivity and specificity of existing RNA pseudoknot structure predictions. The performance and structural results from this proposed method were evaluated against seven other state-of-the-art pseudoknot prediction methods. The MSeeker method had better sensitivity than the DotKnot, FlexStem, HotKnots, pknotsRG, ILM, NUPACK and pknotsRE methods, with 79% of the predicted pseudoknot base-pairs being correct.
  3. Wahab HA, Yam WK, Samian MR, Najimudin N
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2008 Aug;26(1):131-46.
    PMID: 18533733
    Macrolides are a group of diverse class of naturally occurring and synthetic antibiotics made of macrocyclic-lactone ring carrying one or more sugar moieties linked to various atoms of the lactone ring. These macrolides selectively bind to a single high affinity site on the prokaryotic 50S ribosomal subunit, making them highly effective towards a wide range of bacterial pathogens. The understanding of binding between macrolides and ribosome serves a good basis in elucidating how they work at the molecular level and these findings would be important in rational drug design. Here, we report refinement of reconstructed PDB structure of erythromycin-ribosome system using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Interesting findings were observed in this refinement stage that could improve the understanding of the binding of erythromycin A (ERYA) onto the 50S subunit. The results showed ERYA was highly hydrated and water molecules were found to be important in bridging hydrogen bond at the binding pocket during the simulation time. ERYA binding to ribosome was also strengthened by hydrogen bond network and hydrophobic interactions between the antibiotic and the ribosome. Our MD simulation also demonstrated direct interaction of ERYA with Domains II, V and with C1773 (U1782EC), a residue in Domain IV that has yet been described of its role in ERYA binding. It is hoped that this refinement will serve as a starting model for a further enhancement of our understanding towards the binding of ERYA to ribosome.
  4. Kabir MZ, Feroz SR, Mukarram AK, Alias Z, Mohamad SB, Tayyab S
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2016 Aug;34(8):1693-704.
    PMID: 26331959 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2015.1089187
    Interaction of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vandetanib (VDB), with the major transport protein in the human blood circulation, human serum albumin (HSA), was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and molecular docking analysis. The binding constant of the VDB-HSA system, as determined by fluorescence quenching titration method was found in the range, 8.92-6.89 × 10(3 )M(-1) at three different temperatures, suggesting moderate binding affinity. Furthermore, decrease in the binding constant with increasing temperature revealed involvement of static quenching mechanism, thus affirming the formation of the VDB-HSA complex. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding reaction between VDB and HSA yielded positive ΔS (52.76 J mol(-1) K(-1)) and negative ΔH (-6.57 kJ mol(-1)) values, which suggested involvement of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding in stabilizing the VDB-HSA complex. Far-UV and near-UV CD spectral results suggested alterations in both secondary and tertiary structures of HSA upon VDB-binding. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results also showed significant microenvironmental changes around the Trp residue of HSA consequent to the complex formation. Use of site-specific marker ligands, such as phenylbutazone (site I marker) and diazepam (site II marker) in competitive ligand displacement experiments indicated location of the VDB binding site on HSA as Sudlow's site I (subdomain IIA), which was further established by molecular docking results. Presence of some common metal ions, such as Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Ba(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) in the reaction mixture produced smaller but significant alterations in the binding affinity of VDB to HSA.
  5. Mienda BS, Shamsir MS, Md Illias R
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2016 Aug;34(8):1705-16.
    PMID: 26513379 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2015.1090341
    Succinic acid is an important platform chemical with a variety of applications. Model-guided metabolic engineering strategies in Escherichia coli for strain improvement to increase succinic acid production using glucose and glycerol remain largely unexplored. Herein, we report what are, to our knowledge, the first metabolic knockout of the atpE gene to have increased succinic acid production using both glucose and alternative glycerol carbon sources in E. coli. Guided by a genome-scale metabolic model, we engineered the E. coli host to enhance anaerobic production of succinic acid by deleting the atpE gene, thereby generating additional reducing equivalents by blocking H(+) conduction across the mutant cell membrane. This strategy produced 1.58 and .49 g l(-1) of succinic acid from glycerol and glucose substrate, respectively. This work further elucidates a model-guided and/or system-based metabolic engineering, involving only a single-gene deletion strategy for enhanced succinic acid production in E. coli.
  6. Mienda BS, Shamsir MS, Md Illias R
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2016 Nov;34(11):2305-16.
    PMID: 26510527 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2015.1113387
    Succinic acid is an important platform chemical that has broad applications and is been listed as one of the top twelve bio-based chemicals produced from biomass by the US Department of Energy. The metabolic role of Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase-O (fdoH) under anaerobic conditions in relation to succinic acid production remained largely unspecified. Herein we report, what are to our knowledge, the first metabolic fdoH gene knockout that have enhanced succinate production using glucose and glycerol substrates in E. coli. Using the most recent E. coli reconstruction iJO1366, we engineered its host metabolism to enhance the anaerobic succinate production by deleting the fdoH gene, which blocked H(+) conduction across the mutant cell membrane for the enhanced succinate production. The engineered mutant strain BMS4 showed succinate production of 2.05 g l(-1) (41.2-fold in 7 days) from glycerol and .39 g l(-1) (6.2-fold in 1 day) from glucose. This work revealed that a single deletion of the fdoH gene is sufficient to increase succinate production in E. coli from both glucose and glycerol substrates.
  7. Kamarulzaman EE, Vanderesse R, Gazzali AM, Barberi-Heyob M, Boura C, Frochot C, et al.
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2017 Jan;35(1):26-45.
    PMID: 26766582 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2015.1131196
    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its co-receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) are important targets of many pro-angiogenic factors. In this study, nine peptides were synthesized and evaluated for their molecular interaction with NRP-1 and compared to our previous peptide ATWLPPR. Docking study showed that the investigated peptides shared the same binding region as shown by tuftsin known to bind selectively to NRP-1. Four pentapeptides (DKPPR, DKPRR, TKPPR and TKPRR) and a hexapeptide CDKPRR demonstrated good inhibitory activity against NRP-1. In contrast, peptides having arginine residue at sites other than the C-terminus exhibited low activity towards NRP-1 and this is confirmed by their inability to displace the VEGF165 binding to NRP-1. Docking study also revealed that replacement of carboxyl to amide group at the C-terminal arginine of the peptide did not affect significantly the binding interaction to NRP-1. However, the molecular affinity study showed that these peptides have marked reduction in the activity against NRP-1. Pentapeptides having C-terminal arginine showed strong interaction and good inhibitory activity with NRP thus may be a good template for anti-angiogenic targeting agent.
  8. Mazlan NS, Ahmad Khairudin NB
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2016 Jul;34(7):1486-94.
    PMID: 26261863 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2015.1081570
    Paenibacillus polymyxa β-glucosidase B (BglB), belongs to a GH family 1, is a monomeric enzyme that acts as an exo-β-glucosidase hydrolysing cellobiose and cellodextrins of higher degree of polymerization using retaining mechanism. A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed at 300 K under periodic boundary condition for 5 ns using the complexes structure obtained from previous docking study, namely BglB-Beta-d-glucose and BglB-Cellobiose. From the root-mean-square deviation analysis, both enzyme complexes were reported to deviate from the initial structure in the early part of the simulation but it was stable afterwards. The root-mean-square fluctuation analysis revealed that the most flexible regions comprised of the residues from 26 to 29, 43 to 53, 272 to 276, 306 to 325 and 364 to 367. The radius of gyration analysis had shown the structure of BglB without substrate became more compact towards the end of the simulation compare to other two complexes. The residues His122 and Trp410 were observed to form stable hydrogen bond with occupancy higher than 10%. In conclusion, the behaviour of BglB enzyme towards the substrate binding was successfully explored via MD simulation approaches.
  9. Mahita J, Harini K, Rao Pichika M, Sowdhamini R
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2016 Jun;34(6):1345-62.
    PMID: 26264972 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2015.1079243
    Precise functioning and fine-tuning of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is a critical requirement for the smooth functioning of the innate immune system, since aberrant TLR4 activation causes excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferons. This can result in life threatening conditions such as septic shock and other inflammatory disorders. The TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM) adaptor protein is unique to the TLR4 signaling pathway and abrogation of TRAM-mediated TLR4 signaling is a promising strategy for developing therapeutics aimed at disrupting TRAM interactions with other components of the TLR4 signaling complex. The VIPER motif from the vaccinia virus-producing protein, A46 has been reported to disrupt TRAM-TLR4 interactions. We have exploited this information, in combination with homology modeling and docking approaches, to identify a potential binding site on TRAM lined by the BB loop and αC helix. Virtual screening of commercially available small molecules targeting the binding site enabled to short-list 12 small molecules to abrogate TRAM-mediated TLR4 signaling. Molecular dynamics and molecular mechanics calculations have been performed for the analysis of these receptor-ligand interactions.
  10. Mienda BS, Shamsir MS
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2015;33(11):2380-9.
    PMID: 25921851 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2015.1036461
    Systems metabolic engineering and in silico analyses are necessary to study gene knockout candidate for enhanced succinic acid production by Escherichia coli. Metabolically engineered E. coli has been reported to produce succinate from glucose and glycerol. However, investigation on in silico deletion of ptsG/b1101 gene in E. coli from glycerol using minimization of metabolic adjustment algorithm with the OptFlux software platform has not yet been elucidated. Herein we report what is to our knowledge the first direct predicted increase in succinate production following in silico deletion of the ptsG gene in E. coli GEM from glycerol with the OptFlux software platform. The result indicates that the deletion of this gene in E. coli GEM predicts increased succinate production that is 20% higher than the wild-type control model. Hence, the mutant model maintained a growth rate that is 77% of the wild-type parent model. It was established that knocking out of the ptsG/b1101 gene in E. coli using glucose as substrate enhanced succinate production, but the exact mechanism of this effect is still obscure. This study informs other studies that the deletion of ptsG/b1101 gene in E. coli GEM predicted increased succinate production, enabling a model-driven experimental inquiry and/or novel biological discovery on the underground metabolic role of this gene in E. coli central metabolism in relation to increasing succinate production when glycerol is the substrate.
  11. Edbeib MF, Aksoy HM, Kaya Y, Wahab RA, Huyop F
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2020 Aug;38(12):3452-3461.
    PMID: 31422756 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2019.1657498
    Halophiles are extremophilic microorganisms that grow optimally at high salt concentrations by producing a myriad of equally halotolerant enzymes. Structural haloadaptation of these enzymes adept to thriving under high-salt environments, though are not fully understood. Herein, the study attempts an in silico investigation to identify and comprehend the evolutionary structural adaptation of a halotolerant dehalogenase, DehHX (GenBank accession number: KR297065) of the halotolerant Pseudomonas halophila, over its non-halotolerant counterpart, DehMX1 (GenBank accession number KY129692) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. GC content of the halotolerant DehHX DNA sequence was distinctively higher (58.9%) than the non-halotolerant dehalogenases (55% average GC). Its acidic residues, Asp and Glu were 8.27% and 12.06%, respectively, compared to an average 5.5% Asp and 7% Glu, in the latter; but lower contents of basic and hydrophobic residues in the DehHX. The secondary structure of DehHX interestingly revealed a lower incidence of α-helix forming regions (29%) and a higher percentage of coils (57%), compared to 49% and 29% in the non-halotolerant homologues, respectively. Simulation models showed the DehHX is stable under a highly saline environment (25% w/v) by adopting a highly negative-charged surface with a concomitant weakly interacting hydrophobic core. The study thus, established that a halotolerant dehalogenase undergoes notable evolutionary structural changes related to GC content over its non-halotolerant counterpart, in order to adapt and thrive under highly saline environments.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
  12. Kandandapani S, Ridzwan NFW, Mohamad SB, Tayyab S
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2020 Sep;38(14):4134-4142.
    PMID: 31552810 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2019.1673210
    Tyrphostin 9 (Tyr 9) is a potent platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor, which induces apoptosis in various cancer cell types. The binding of Tyr 9 to the major transport protein, human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using several spectroscopic techniques and molecular docking method. Fluorescence quenching titration results showed progressive decrease in the protein fluorescence with increasing drug concentrations. A decreasing trend of the Stern-Volmer constant, Ksv with increasing temperature characterized the drug-induced quenching as static quenching, thus pointed towards the formation of Tyr 9-HSA complex. The binding constant of Tyr 9-HSA interaction was found to lie within the range 3.48-1.69 × 105 M-1 at three different temperatures, i.e. 15 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C, respectively and suggested intermediate binding affinity between Tyr 9 and HSA. The drug-HSA complex seems to be stabilized by hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds, as suggested from the thermodynamic data as well as molecular docking results. The far-UV and the near-UV CD spectral results showed slight alteration in the secondary and tertiary structures, respectively, of the protein upon Tyr 9 binding. Interaction of Tyr 9 with HSA also produced microenvironmental perturbations around protein fluorophores, as evident from the three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results but increased protein's thermal stability. Both competitive drug binding results and molecular docking analysis suggested Sudlow's Site I of HSA as the preferred Tyr 9 binding site. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
  13. Lim WZ, Cheng PG, Abdulrahman AY, Teoh TC
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2020 Sep;38(14):4273-4288.
    PMID: 31595837 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2019.1678523
    The number of global dengue incidences is alarmingly high in recent years. The global distribution of four dengue serotypes has also added economic burden in the dengue-endemic countries. To discover the potent dengue virus inhibitors in the antler form of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi), the water extraction of normal G. lucidum and its antler form were conducted and the chemical compounds were identified by LC-MS. Six distinct chemical compounds identified in high abundance were hesperetin, thymidine, lucidenic acid, 11-aminoundecanoic acid, 5-carboxyvanillic acid and ganocin B. The water extracts of G. lucidum in its antler form inhibited the DENV2 NS2B-NS3 protease activity at 84.6 ± 0.7%, higher than the normal G. lucidum. Then, molecular docking was performed on the homology model built from an in-house sequence. Docking simulation results showed that hesperetin and ganocin B were the best leads to bind at the catalytic triad of DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro via hydrogen bonding, van der Waals and pi-pi interactions. Extensive overlapping of HOMO-LUMO orbitals at the ringed regions of hesperetin helped to facilitate the entry of ligand to the catalytic triad cleft. LC-MS, molecular docking and density functional theory analyses confirmed that hesperetin was the strongest inhibitor against NS2B-NS3 protease. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
  14. Bahaman AH, Abdul Wahab R, Hamid AAA, Halim KBA, Kaya Y, Edbeib MF
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2020 Sep;38(14):4246-4258.
    PMID: 31608812 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2019.1679667
    Fungi of the Trichoderma species are valued industrial enzymes in support of the 'zero-waste' technology to convert agro-industrial biomass into valuable products, i.e. nanocellulose (NC). In this study, an in silico approach using substrate docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was used to predict the order of which the multilayers of cellulosic polymers, i.e. lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose in oil palm leaves (OPL) are degraded by fungal enzymes, endocellulase and exocellulase. The study aimed to establish the catalytic tendencies of the enzymes to optimally degrade the cellulosic components of OPL for high yield production of NC. Energy minimized endocellulase and exocellulase models revealed satisfactory scores of PROCHECK (90.0% and 91.2%), Verify3D (97.23% and 98.85%) and ERRAT (95.24% and 91.00%) assessments. Active site prediction by blind docking, COACH meta-server and multiple sequence alignment indicated the catalytic triads for endocellulase and exocellulase were Ser116-His205-Glu249 and Ser382-Arg124-Asp385, respectively. Binding energy of endocellulase docked with hemicellulose (-6.0   kcal mol-1) was the most favourable followed by lignin (-5.6   kcal mol-1) and cellulose (-4.4   kcal mol-1). Exocellulase, contrarily, bonded favorably with lignin (-8.7   kcal mol-1), closely followed by cellulose (-8.5   kcal mol-1) and hemicellulose (-8.4   kcal mol-1). MDs simulations showed that interactions of complexes, endocellulase-hemicellulose and the exocellulase-cellulose being the most stable. Thus, the findings of the study successfully identified the specific actions of sugar-acting enzymes for NC production. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
  15. Anuar NFSK, Wahab RA, Huyop F, Halim KBA, Hamid AAA
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2020 Sep;38(15):4493-4507.
    PMID: 31630644 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2019.1683074
    Alkaline-stable lipases are highly valuable biocatalysts that catalyze reactions under highly basic conditions. Herein, computational predictions of lipase from Acinetobacter haemolyticus and its mutant, Mut-LipKV1 was performed to identify functionally relevant mutations that enhance pH performance under increasing basicity. Mut-LipKV1 was constructed by in silico site directed mutagenesis of several outer loop acidic residues, aspartic acid (Asp) into basic ones, lysine (Lys) at positions 51, 122 and 247, followed by simulation under extreme pH conditions (pH 8.0-pH 12.0). The energy minimized Mut-LipKV1 model exhibited good quality as shown by PROCHECK, ERRAT and Verify3D data that corresponded to 79.2, 88.82 and 89.42% in comparison to 75.2, 86.15, and 95.19% in the wild-type. Electrostatic surface potentials and charge distributions of the Mut-LipKV1 model was more stable and better adapted to conditions of elevated pHs (pH 8.0 - 10.0). Mut-LipKV1 exhibited a mixture of neutral and positive surface charge distribution compared to the predominantly negative charge in the wild-type lipase at pH 8.0. Data of molecular dynamics simulations also supported the increased alkaline-stability of Mut-LipKV1, wherein the lipase was more stable at a higher pH 9.0 (RMSD = ∼0.3 nm, RMSF = ∼0.05-0.2 nm), over the optimal pH 8.0 of the wild-type lipase (RMSD = 0.3 nm, RMSF = 0.05-0.20 nm). Thus, the adaptive strategy of replacing surface aspartic acid to lysine in lipase was successful in yielding a more alkaline-stable Mut-LipKV1 under elevated basic conditions.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
  16. Musa KA, Ridzwan NFW, Mohamad SB, Tayyab S
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2021 Feb;39(2):691-702.
    PMID: 31913089 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1713215
    Binding of lumefantrine (LUM), an antimalarial drug to human serum albumin (HSA), the main carrier protein in human blood circulation was investigated using fluorescence quenching titration, UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy as well as molecular docking. LUM-induced quenching of the protein (HSA) fluorescence was characterized as static quenching, as revealed by the decrease in the value of the Stern-Volmer quenching constant, K
    sv
    with increasing temperature, thus suggesting LUM-HSA complex formation. This was also confirmed from the UV-vis absorption spectral results. Values of the association constant, Ka for LUM-HSA interaction were found to be within the range, 7.27-5.01 × 104 M-1 at three different temperatures, i.e. 288 K, 298 K and 308 K, which indicated moderate binding affinity between LUM and HSA. The LUM-HSA complex was stabilized by hydrophobic interactions, H-bonds, as well as van der Waals forces, as predicted from the thermodynamic data (ΔS = +50.34 J mol-1 K-1 and ΔH = -12.3 kJ mol-1) of the binding reaction. Far-UV and near-UV CD spectral results demonstrated smaller changes in both secondary and tertiary structures of HSA upon LUM binding, while three-dimensional fluorescence spectra suggested alterations in the microenvironment around protein fluorophores (Trp and Tyr). LUM binding to HSA offered stability to the protein against thermal stress. Competitive drug displacement results designated Sudlow's Site I, located in subdomain IIA of HSA as the preferred binding site of LUM on HSA, which was well supported by molecular docking analysis.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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