Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

  1. Wan Abdullah WMAN, Tan NP, Low LY, Loh JY, Wee CY, Md Taib AZ, et al.
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2021 Apr;161:131-142.
    PMID: 33581621 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.01.046
    Lignosulfonate (LS) is a commonly used to promote plant growth. However, the underlying growth promoting responses of LS in plant remain unknown. Therefore, this study was undertaken to elucidate the underlying growth promoting mechanisms of LS, specifically calcium lignosulfonate (CaLS). Addition of 100 mg/L CaLS in phytohormone-free media enhanced recalcitrant indica rice cv. MR219 callus proliferation rate and adventitious root formation. Both, auxin related genes (OsNIT1, OsTAA1 and OsYUC1) and tryptophan biosynthesis proteins were upregulated in CaLS-treated calli which corroborated with increased of endogenous auxin content. Moreover, increment of OsWOX11 gene on CaLS-treated calli implying that the raised of endogenous auxin was utilized as a cue to enhance adventitious root development. Besides, CaLS-treated calli showed higher nutrient ions content with major increment in calcium and potassium ions. Consistently, increased of potassium protein kinases genes (OsAKT1, OsHAK5, OsCBL, OsCIPK23 and OsCamk1) were also recorded. In CaLS treated calli, the significant increase of calcium ion was observed starting from week one while potassium ion only recorded significant increase on week two onwards, suggesting that increment of potassium ion might be dependent on the calcium ion content in the plant cell. Additionally, reduced callus blackening was also coherent with downregulation of ROS scavenging protein and reduced H2O2 content in CaLS-treated calli suggesting the role of CaLS in mediating cellular homeostasis via prevention of oxidative burst in the cell. Taken together, CaLS successfully improved MR219 callus proliferation and root formation by increasing endogenous auxin synthesis, enhancing nutrients uptake and regulating cellular homeostasis.
  2. Satyaveanthan MV, Suhaimi SA, Ng CL, Muhd-Noor ND, Awang A, Lam KW, et al.
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2021 Apr;161:143-155.
    PMID: 33588320 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.01.050
    The juvenile hormones (JH) in plants are suggested to act as a form of plant defensive strategy especially against insect herbivory. The oxidation of farnesol to farnesoic acid is a key step in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis pathway. We herein present the purification and characterisation of the recombinant Theobroma cacao farnesol dehydrogenase enzyme that catalyses oxidation of farnesol to farnesal. The recombinant enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme was characterised in terms of its deduced amino acid sequences, phylogeny, substrate specificity, kinetic parameters, structural modeling, and docking simulation. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the T. cacao farnesol dehydrogenase (TcFolDH) showed a close relationship with A. thaliana farnesol dehydrogenase gene. The TcFolDH monomer had a large N-terminal domain which adopted a typical Rossmann-fold, harboring the GxxGxG motif (NADP(H)-binding domain) and a small C-terminal domain. The enzyme was a homotrimer comprised of subunits with molecular masses of 36 kDa. The TcFolDH was highly specific to NADP+ as coenzyme. The substrate specificity studies showed trans, trans-farnesol was the most preferred substrate for the TcFolDH, suggesting that the purified enzyme was a NADP+-dependent farnesol dehydrogenase. The docking of trans, trans-farnesol and NADP+ into the active site of the enzyme showed the important residues, and their interactions involved in the substrate and coenzyme binding of TcFolDH. Considering the extensive involvement of JH in both insects and plants, an in-depth knowledge on the recombinant production of intermediate enzymes of the JH biosynthesis pathway could help provide a potential method for insect control.
  3. Tan TL, Zulkifli NA, Zaman ASK, Jusoh MB, Yaapar MN, Rashid SA
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2021 May;162:737-751.
    PMID: 33799185 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.03.031
    Photosynthesis is one of the most fundamental biochemical processes on earth such that it is vital to the existence of most lives on this planet. In fact, unravelling the potentials in enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and electron transfer process, which are thought to improve plant growth is one of the emerging approaches in tackling modern agricultural shortcomings. In light of this, zero-dimensional carbon quantum dots (CQD) have emerged and garnered much interest in recent years which can enhance photosynthesis by modulating the associated electron transfer process. In this work, CQD was extracted from empty fruit bunch (EFB) biochar using a green acid-free microwave method. The resulting CQD was characterized using HRTEM, PL, UV-Vis and XPS. Typical rice (C3) and corn (C4) crops were selected in the present study in order to compare the significant effect of CQD on the two different photosynthetic pathways of crops. CQD was first introduced into crop via foliar spraying application instead of localised placement of CQD before seedling development. The influence of CQD on the photosynthetic efficiency of rice (C3) and corn (C4) leaves was determined by measuring both carbon dioxide conversion and the stomatal conductance of the leaf. As a result, the introduction of CQD greatly enhanced the photosynthesis in CQD-exposed crops. This is the first study focusing on phylogenetically constrained differences in photosynthetic responses between C3 and C4 crops upon CQD exposure, which gives a better insight into the understanding of photosynthesis process and shows considerable promise in nanomaterial research for sustainable agriculture practices.
  4. Azzeme AM, Abdullah SNA, Aziz MA, Wahab PEM
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2017 Mar;112:129-151.
    PMID: 28068641 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.025
    Dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) transcription factor plays an important role in controlling the expression of abiotic stress responsive genes. An intronless oil palm EgDREB1 was isolated and confirmed to be a nuclear localized protein. Electrophoretic mobility shift and yeast one-hybrid assays validated its ability to interact with DRE/CRT motif. Its close evolutionary relation to the dicot NtDREB2 suggests a universal regulatory role. In order to determine its involvement in abiotic stress response, functional characterization was performed in oil palm seedlings subjected to different levels of drought severity and in EgDREB1 transgenic tomato seedlings treated by abiotic stresses. Its expression in roots and leaves was compared with several antioxidant genes using quantitative real-time PCR. Early accumulation of EgDREB1 in oil palm roots under mild drought suggests possible involvement in the initiation of signaling communication from root to shoot. Ectopic expression of EgDREB1 in T1 transgenic tomato seedlings enhanced expression of DRE/CRT and non-DRE/CRT containing genes, including tomato peroxidase (LePOD), ascorbate peroxidase (LeAPX), catalase (LeCAT), superoxide dismutase (LeSOD), glutathione reductase (LeGR), glutathione peroxidase (LeGP), heat shock protein 70 (LeHSP70), late embryogenesis abundant (LeLEA), metallothionine type 2 (LeMET2), delta 1-pyrroline-5- carboxylate synthetase (LePCS), ABA-aldehyde oxidase (LeAAO) and 9-cis- Epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (LeECD) under PEG treatment and cold stress (4 °C). Altogether, these findings suggest that EgDREB1 is a functional regulator in enhancing tolerance to drought and cold stress.
  5. Tan CS, Hassan M, Mohamed Hussein ZA, Ismail I, Ho KL, Ng CL, et al.
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2018 Feb;123:359-368.
    PMID: 29304481 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.12.033
    Geraniol degradation pathway has long been elucidated in microorganisms through bioconversion studies, yet weakly characterised in plants; enzyme with specific nerol-oxidising activity has not been reported. A novel cDNA encodes nerol dehydrogenase (PmNeDH) was isolated from Persicaria minor. The recombinant PmNeDH (rPmNeDH) is a homodimeric enzyme that belongs to MDR (medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases) superfamily that catalyses the first oxidative step of geraniol degradation pathway in citral biosynthesis. Kinetic analysis revealed that rPmNeDH has a high specificity for allylic primary alcohols with backbone ≤10 carbons. rPmNeDH has ∼3 fold higher affinity towards nerol (cis-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol) than its trans-isomer, geraniol. To our knowledge, this is the first alcohol dehydrogenase with higher preference towards nerol, suggesting that nerol can be effective substrate for citral biosynthesis in P. minor. The rPmNeDH crystal structure (1.54 Å) showed high similarity with enzyme structures from MDR superfamily. Structure guided mutation was conducted to describe the relationships between substrate specificity and residue substitutions in the active site. Kinetics analyses of wild-type rPmNeDH and several active site mutants demonstrated that the substrate specificity of rPmNeDH can be altered by changing any selected active site residues (Asp280, Leu294 and Ala303). Interestingly, the L294F, A303F and A303G mutants were able to revamp the substrate preference towards geraniol. Furthermore, mutant that exhibited a broader substrate range was also obtained. This study demonstrates that P. minor may have evolved to contain enzyme that optimally recognise cis-configured nerol as substrate. rPmNeDH structure provides new insights into the substrate specificity and active site plasticity in MDR superfamily.
  6. Ahmadi F, Akmar Abdullah SN, Kadkhodaei S, Ijab SM, Hamzah L, Aziz MA, et al.
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2018 Jun;127:320-335.
    PMID: 29653435 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.04.004
    Oil palm is grown in tropical soils with low bioavailability of Pi. A cDNA clone specifically expressed under phosphate-starvation condition in oil palm roots was identified as a high-affinity phosphate transporter (EgPHT1). The deduced amino acid sequence has 6 transmembrane domains each at the N- and C-termini separated by a hydrophilic linker. Comparison of promoter motifs within 1500 bp upstream of ATG of 10 promoters from high- and low-affinity phosphate transporter from both dicots and monocots including EgPHT1 was performed. The EgPHT1 promoter was fused to β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and its activity was analysed by histochemical and fluorometric GUS assays in transiently transformed oil palm tissues and T3 homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In response to Pi-starvation, no GUS activity was detected in oil palm leaves, but a strong inducible activity was observed in the roots (1.4 times higher than the CaMV35S promoter). GUS was specifically expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis roots under Pi deficiency and starvation of the other macronutrients (N and K) did not induce GUS activity. Eight motifs including ABRERATCAL (abscisic-acid responsive), RHERPATEXPA7 (root hair-specific), SURECOREATSULTR11 (sulfur-deficiency response), LTRECOREATCOR15 (temperature-stress response), MYB2CONSENSUSAT and ACGTATERD1 (water-stress response) as well as two novel motifs, 3 (TAAAAAAA) and 26 (TTTTATGT) identified through pattern discovery, occur at significantly higher frequency (p 
  7. Azizi P, Osman M, Hanafi MM, Sahebi M, Yusop MR, Taheri S
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2019 Nov;144:466-479.
    PMID: 31655345 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.10.014
    Pyricularia oryzae (P. oryzae), one of the most devastating fungal pathogens, is the cause of blast disease in rice. Infection with a blast fungus induces biological responses in the host plant that lead to its survival through the termination or suppression of pathogen growth, and metabolite compounds play vital roles in plant interactions with a wide variety of other organisms. Numerous studies have indicated that rice has a multi-layered plant immune system that includes pre-developed (e.g., cell wall and phytoanticipins), constitutive and inducible (phytoalexins) defence barriers against stresses. Significant progress towards understanding the basis of the molecular mechanisms underlying the defence responses of rice to P. oryzae has been achieved. Nonetheless, even though the important metabolites in the responses of rice to pathogens have been identified, their exact mechanisms and their contributions to plant immunity against blast fungi have not been elucidated. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss recent advances towards the understanding of the integrated metabolite variations in rice after P. oryzae invasion.
  8. Pak Dek MS, Padmanabhan P, Tiwari K, Todd JF, Paliyath G
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2020 Mar;148:180-192.
    PMID: 31972387 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.01.014
    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are characterized by the presence of a C2 domain at the N-terminal end (class I, III); or at both the N-terminal and C-terminal ends (class II), sometimes including a Plextrin homology domain and/or a Ras domain. Plant PI3Ks are analogous to the class III mammalian PI3K. An N-terminal fragment (~170 aa) of the tomato PI3K regulatory domain including the C2 domain, was cloned and expressed in a bacterial system. This protein was purified to homogeneity and its physicochemical properties analyzed. The purified protein showed strong binding with monophosphorylated phosphatidylinositols, and the binding was dependent on calcium ion concentration and pH. In the overall tertiary structure of PI3K, C2 domain showed unique characteristics, having three antiparallel beta-sheets, hydrophobic regions, acidic as well as alkaline motifs, that can enable its membrane binding upon activation. To elucidate the functional significance of C2 domain, transgenic tobacco plants expressing the C2 domain of PI3K were generated. Transgenic plants showed defective pollen development and disrupted seed set. Flowers from the PI3K-C2 transgenic plants showed delayed wilting, and a decrease in ethylene production. It is likely that introduction of the PI3K-C2 segment may have interfered with the normal binding of PI3K to the membrane, delaying the onset of membrane lipid catabolism that lead to senescence.
  9. Tan YC, Wong MY, Ho CL
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2015 Nov;96:296-300.
    PMID: 26322853 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2015.08.014
    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system.
  10. Khandaker MM, Boyce AN, Osman N
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2012 Apr;53:101-10.
    PMID: 22349652 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2012.01.016
    The present study represents the first report of the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on the growth, development and quality of the wax apple fruit, a widely cultivated fruit tree in South East Asia. The wax apple trees were spray treated with 0, 5, 20 and 50 mM H(2)O(2) under field conditions. Photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll and dry matter content of the leaves and total soluble solids and total sugar content of the fruits of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense, var. jambu madu) were significantly increased after treatment with 5 mM H(2)O(2). The application of 20 mM H(2)O(2) significantly reduced bud drop and enhanced fruit growth, resulting in larger fruit size, increased fruit set, fruit number, fruit biomass and yield compared to the control. In addition, the endogenous level of H(2)O(2) in wax apple leaves increased significantly with H(2)O(2) treatments. With regard to fruit quality, 20 mM H(2)O(2) treatment increased the K(+), anthocyanin and carotene contents of the fruits by 65%, 67%, and 41%, respectively. In addition, higher flavonoid, phenol and soluble protein content, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activities were recorded in the treated fruits. There was a positive correlation between peel colour (hue) and TSS, between net photosynthesis and SPS activity and between phenol and flavonoid content with antioxidant activity in H(2)O(2)-treated fruits. It is concluded that spraying with 5 and 20 mM H(2)O(2) once a week produced better fruit growth, maximising the yield and quality of wax apple fruits under field conditions.
  11. Masura SS, Parveez GK, Ti LL
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2011 Jul;49(7):701-8.
    PMID: 21549610 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2011.04.003
    We have characterized an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) constitutive promoter that is derived from a translationally control tumor protein (TCTP) gene. The TCTP promoter was fused transcriptionally with the gusA reporter gene and transferred to monocot and dicot systems in order to study its regulatory role in a transient expression study. It was found that the 5' region of TCTP was capable of driving the gusA expression in all the oil palm tissues tested, including immature embryo, embryogenic callus, embryoid, young leaflet from mature palm, green leaf, mesocarp and stem. It could also be used in dicot systems as it was also capable of driving gusA expression in tobacco leaves. The results indicate that the TCTP promoter could be used for the production of recombinant proteins that require constitutive expression in the plant system.
  12. Lazan H, Ng SY, Goh LY, Ali ZM
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2004 Dec;42(11):847-53.
    PMID: 15694277
    The potential significance of the previously reported papaya (Carica papaya L.) beta-galactosidase/galactanase (beta-d-galactoside galactohydrolase; EC isoforms, beta-gal I, II and III, as softening enzymes during ripening was evaluated for hydrolysis of pectins while still structurally attached to unripe fruit cell wall, and hemicelluloses that were already solubilized in 4 M alkali. The enzymes were capable of differentially hydrolyzing the cell wall as evidenced by increased pectin solubility, pectin depolymerization, and degradation of the alkali-soluble hemicelluloses (ASH). This enzyme catalyzed in vitro changes to the cell walls reflecting in part the changes that occur in situ during ripening. beta-Galactosidase II was most effective in hydrolyzing pectin, followed by beta-gal III and I. The reverse appeared to be true with respect to the hemicelluloses. Hemicellulose, which was already released from any architectural constraints, seemed to be hydrolyzed more extensively than the pectins. The ability of the beta-galactanases to markedly hydrolyze pectin and hemicellulose suggests that galactans provide a structural cross-linkage between the cell wall components. Collectively, the results support the case for a functional relevance of the papaya enzymes in softening related changes during ripening.
  13. Nusaibah SA, Siti Nor Akmar A, Idris AS, Sariah M, Mohamad Pauzi Z
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2016 Dec;109:156-165.
    PMID: 27694009 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.09.014
    Understanding the mechanism of interaction between the oil palm and its key pathogen, Ganoderma spp. is crucial as the disease caused by this fungal pathogen leads to a major loss of revenue in leading palm oil producing countries in Southeast Asia. Here in this study, we assess the morphological and biochemical changes in Ganoderma disease infected oil palm seedling roots in both resistant and susceptible progenies. Rubber woodblocks fully colonized by G. boninense were applied as a source of inoculum to artificially infect the roots of resistant and susceptible oil palm progenies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure an array of plant metabolites in 100 resistant and susceptible oil palm seedling roots treated with pathogenic Ganoderma boninense fungus. Statistical effects, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify key-Ganoderma disease associated metabolic agitations in both resistant and susceptible oil palm root tissues. Ganoderma disease related defense shifts were characterized based on (i) increased antifungal activity in crude extracts, (ii) increased lipid levels, beta- and gamma-sitosterol particularly in the resistant progeny, (iii) detection of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds, benzo [h] quinoline, pyridine, pyrimidine (iv) elevation in antioxidants, alpha- and beta-tocopherol (iv) degraded cortical cell wall layers, possibly resulting from fungal hydrolytic enzyme activity needed for initial penetration. The present study suggested that plant metabolites mainly lipids and heterocyclic aromatic organic metabolites could be potentially involved in early oil palm defense mechanism against G. boninense infection, which may also highlight biomarkers for disease detection, treatment, development of resistant variety and monitoring.
  14. Loh SC, Thottathil GP, Othman AS
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2016 Oct;107:45-55.
    PMID: 27236227 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.05.011
    The natural rubber of Para rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is the main crop involved in industrial rubber production due to its superior quality. The Hevea bark is commercially exploited to obtain latex, which is produced from the articulated secondary laticifer. The laticifer is well defined in the aspect of morphology; however, only some genes associated with its development have been reported. We successfully induced secondary laticifer in the jasmonic acid (JA)-treated and linolenic acid (LA)-treated Hevea bark but secondary laticifer is not observed in the ethephon (ET)-treated and untreated Hevea bark. In this study, we analysed 27,195 gene models using NimbleGen microarrays based on the Hevea draft genome. 491 filtered differentially expressed (FDE) transcripts that are common to both JA- and LA-treated bark samples but not ET-treated bark samples were identified. In the Eukaryotic Orthologous Group (KOG) analysis, 491 FDE transcripts belong to different functional categories that reflect the diverse processes and pathways involved in laticifer differentiation. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and KOG analysis, the profile of the FDE transcripts suggest that JA- and LA-treated bark samples have a sufficient molecular basis for secondary laticifer differentiation, especially regarding secondary metabolites metabolism. FDE genes in this category are from the cytochrome (CYP) P450 family, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, or cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) family. The data includes many genes involved in cell division, cell wall synthesis, and cell differentiation. The most abundant transcript in FDE list was SDR65C, reflecting its importance in laticifer differentiation. Using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) as part of annotation and functional prediction, several characterised as well as uncharacterized transcription factors and genes were found in the dataset. Hence, the further characterization of these genes is necessary to unveil their role in laticifer differentiation. This study provides a platform for the further characterization and identification of the key genes involved in secondary laticifer differentiation.
  15. Chua LS
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2016 Sep;106:16-22.
    PMID: 27135814 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.04.040
    The identification of plant metabolites is very important for the understanding of plant physiology including plant growth, development and defense mechanism, particularly for herbal medicinal plants. The metabolite profile could possibly be used for future drug discovery since the pharmacological activities of the indigenous herbs have been proven for centuries. An untargeted mass spectrometric approach was used to identify metabolites from the leaves and stems of Impatiens balsamina using LC-DAD-MS/MS. The putative compounds are mostly from the groups of phenolic, organic and amino acids which are essential for plant growth and as intermediates for other compounds. Alanine appeared to be the main amino acid in the plant because many alanine derived metabolites were detected. There are also several secondary metabolites from the groups of benzopyrones, benzofuranones, naphthoquinones, alkaloids and flavonoids. The widely reported bioactive components such as kaempferol, quercetin and their glycosylated, lawsone and its derivatives were detected in this study. The results also revealed that aqueous methanol could extract flavonoids better than water, and mostly, flavonoids were detected from the leaf samples. The score plots of component analysis show that there is a minor variance in the metabolite profiles of water and aqueous methanolic extracts with 21.5 and 30.5% of the total variance for the first principal component at the positive and negative ion modes, respectively.
  16. Kameel NI, Wong YH, Shuib AS, Tayyab S
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2016 Jan;98:57-63.
    PMID: 26642433 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2015.11.007
    Conformational analysis of champedak galactose-binding (CGB) lectin under different urea concentrations was studied in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2) using far-ultraviolet circular dichroism (far-UV CD), tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence and ANS fluorescence. In all cases, CGB lectin displayed a two-step, three-state transition. The first transition (from the native state to the intermediate state) started at ∼2.0 M urea and ended at ∼4.5 M urea, while the second transition (from the intermediate state to the completely denatured state) was characterized by the start- and end-points at ∼5.75 M and ∼7.5 M urea, respectively, when analyzed by the emission maximum of Trp fluorescence. A marked increase in the Trp fluorescence, ANS fluorescence and -CD values at 218 nm (-CD218 nm) represented the first transition, whereas a decrease in these parameters defined the second transition. On the other hand, emission maximum of the Trp fluorescence showed a continuous increase throughout the urea concentration range. Transformation of tetramer into monomer represented the first transition, whereas the second transition reflected the unfolding of monomer. Far-UV CD, Trp fluorescence and ANS fluorescence spectra were used to characterize the native, the intermediate and the completely denatured states of CGB lectin, obtained at 0.0 M, 5.0 M and 9.0 M urea, respectively. The intermediate state was characterized by the presence of higher secondary structures, increased ANS binding as well as increased Trp fluorescence intensity. A gradual decrease in the hemagglutination activity of CGB lectin was observed with increasing urea concentrations, showing complete loss at 4.0 M urea.
  17. Abdullahi ZH, Marselin FN, Khaironizam NIA, Fauzi NFA, Wan Maznah WO
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2023 Apr;197:107633.
    PMID: 36965319 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2023.03.010
    As part of the lampenflora that inhabit limestone caves, microalgae play an important role in cave ecosystems but are understudied in tropical ecoregions. In the present study, the dominant eukaryotic and prokaryotic microalgae identified in lampenflora samples collected from Gua Tempurung, a cave in Malaysia, and growth stage-related microalgal attributes were determined. Stichococcus bacillaris, Synechococcus sp., and Trentepohlia aurea were selected and cultured in Bold's Basal Medium (S. bacillaris and T. aurea) or BG-11 medium (Synechococcus sp.) under laboratory conditions. The highest specific growth rate (0.72 ± 0.21 day-1) and dry weight (0.11 ± 0.04 mg L-1) were recorded in S. bacillaris in the early stationary phase. Trentepohlia aurea and Synechococcus sp. had the highest ash-free dry weight and total ash percentage (11.18 ± 4.64 mg L-1 and 8.55% ± 6.73%, respectively) in the early stationary phase. Stichococcus bacillaris had the highest moisture content (84.26% ± 0.64%) in the exponential phase. Chlorophylls a and b were highest in the early stationary phase in T. aurea (0.706 ± 0.40 mg L-1 and 1.094 ± 0.589 mg L-1, respectively). Carotenoid levels were highest in Synechococcus sp. in the early stationary stage (0.07 ± 0.02 mg L-1). Lipids were the major biochemical compound identified at the highest levels in Synechococcus sp. (67.87% ± 7.75%) in the early stationary phase, followed by protein recorded at the highest levels in T. aurea (57.99% ± 4.99%) in the early stationary phase. Carbohydrates were the compound identified least often with the highest recorded levels found in T. aurea (9.94% ± 0.49%) in the late stationary phase. Biomass, pigments, and biochemical accumulation varied at different growth stages in the studied microalgae, and this variation was species-specific. The present study provides a benchmark for the growth phases of aerophytic cave microalgae, which will be useful for determining their optimum harvest time and obtaining biochemical compounds of interest.
  18. Pang WQ, Lai CS, Mad' Atari MF, Pandian BR, Mohamad Ibrahim MN, Tan ST, et al.
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2023 Nov;204:108104.
    PMID: 37862933 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2023.108104
    Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel nanomaterial with distinct physical properties and significant biological applications. The use of GO in plant tissue culture offers several new properties and potential applications. This research is vital due to the growing need for innovative techniques to promote plant growth, improve plant productivity and mitigate challenges posed by environmental stressors. This study focused on the rare Cameron Highlands white strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa) and addressed issues such as callus production during direct shoot induction and hyperhydricity. The research aimed to investigate the effects of GO on the regeneration process and genetic stability of white strawberry plants and to use molecular markers to ensure that plants propagated in vitro are true to type. For this purpose, shoot tip explants were used and different concentrations of GO (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10 mg/L) were added to the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for six weeks. The results showed that the optimum concentration for promoting the development of white strawberry seedlings was 7.5 mg/L of GO. The study also revealed that the addition of 7.5 mg/L GO in combination with 8 μM TDZ to the MS medium facilitated the induction of multiple shoots. Moreover, the clonal fidelity of the in vitro plants treated with GO showed a genetic similarity of over 97%. These results confirm that lower GO concentrations improve plant development and stability. Consequently, this nanomaterial has a positive effect on the growth of strawberry plants and is therefore well suited for strawberry tissue culture.
  19. Zhang S, Cao K, Wei Y, Jiang S, Ye J, Xu F, et al.
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2023 Sep;202:107972.
    PMID: 37611487 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2023.107972
    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are phytohormones that play numerous roles in a plant's response to environmental stress. While BES/BZR transcription factors are essential components in BR signaling, their role in regulating postharvest fruit responses to cold stress is largely unknown. In this study, the application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) to peaches alleviated chilling injury (CI) during postharvest cold storage. We further characterized a key BES/BZR gene, PpBZR1, which regulates peach cold resistance. Transient expression PpBZR1 in peaches showed that PpBZR1 inhibits PpVIN2 expression and VIN activity, resulting in an elevated level of sucrose, which protects fruit from CI. Arabidopsis thaliana expressing PpBZR1 that had a high germination and seedling survival rate at low temperatures, which may be due to higher level of sucrose and lower oxidative damage. Mechanistically, we confirmed that PpBZR1 directly binds to the PpVIN2 promoter and functions as a negative regulator for sucrose metabolism. In addition, PpCBF1/5/6 were induced by EBR treatment and AtCBFs were upregulated in PpBZR1 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. Combined with previous findings, we hypothesize that PpBZR1 regulates PpVIN2 and may also be mediated by CBF. In conclusion, PpBZR1 expression is induced by EBR treatment during cold storage, which futher inhibite sucrose degradation gene PpVIN2 transcription via direct binding its promoter and indirectly regulating PpVIN2, resulting in slower sucrose degradation and higher chilling tolerance of peach.
  20. Faizan M, Cheng SH, Tonny SH, Robab MI
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2022 Dec 01;192:186-195.
    PMID: 36244191 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2022.10.004
    Strigolactones (SLs) have been implicated in various developmental processes of the plant, including the response against several abiotic stresses. It is well known as a class of endogenous phytohormones that regulates shoot branching, secondary growth and root morphology. This hormone facilitates plants in responding to nitrogen and phosphorus starvation by shaping the above and below ground structural design. SLs actively participate within regulatory networks of plant stress adaptation that are governed by phytohormones. Heavy metals (HMs) in soil are considered a serious environmental problem that causes various harmful effects on plants. SLs along with other plant hormones imply the role in plant architecture is far from being fully understood. Strategy to remove/remediation of HMs from the soil with the help of SLs has not been defined yet. Therefore, the present review aims to comprehensively provide an overview of SLs role in fine-tuning plant architectures, relation with other plant hormones under abiotic stress, and remediation of HMs contaminated soil using SLs.
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