MATERIALS AND METHODS: Test medias used in this study included carbonated beverage, noncarbonated beverage, high-energy sports drink medicated cough syrup, distilled water as the control. A total of 110 previously extracted human premolar teeth were selected for the study. Teeth were randomly divided into two groups. Test specimens were randomly distributed to five beverages groups and comprised 12 specimens per group. Surface roughness (profilometer) readings were performed at baseline and again, following immersion for 14 days (24 h/day). Microleakage was evaluated. The results obtained were analyzed for statistical significance using SPSS-PC package using the multiple factor ANOVA at a significance level of P < 0.05. Paired t-test, Friedman test ranks, and Wilcoxon signed ranks test.
RESULTS: For surface roughness high-energy sports drink and noncarbonated beverage showed the highly significant difference with P values of 0.000 and 0.000, respectively compared to other test media. For microleakage high-energy sports drink had significant difference in comparison to noncarbonated beverage (P = 0.002), medicated syrup (P = 0.000), and distilled water (P = 0.000).
CONCLUSION: High-energy sports drink showed highest surface roughness value and microleakage score among all test media and thus greater erosive potential to enamel while medicated syrup showed least surface roughness value and microleakage among all test media.
Methods: An extensive literature review was done using Google-Scholar and PubMed to find out scales that utilized to assess quality of life among DM patients. Four relevant scales, three diabetes specific and one general, were selected. The selected scales were carefully evaluated to find out domains that are commonly used to assess quality of life and then the items within the selected domains were reviewed to choose relevant and comprehensive items for Iraqi type 2 DM patients. Ten items were selected to formulate the quality of life scale for Iraqi DM patients (QOLSID). The content validity of QOLSID was established via an expert panel. For concurrent validity QOLSID was compared to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C). For psychometric evaluation, a cross sectional study for 103 type 2 DM patients was conducted at the National Diabetes Center, Iraq. Test-retest reliability was measured by re-administering QOLSID to 20 patients 2-4 weeks later.
Results: The internal consistency of the QOLSID was 0.727. All items had a corrected total-item correlation above 0.2. There was a negative significant correlation between QOLSID score and the HbA1C level (-0.518, P = 0.000). A significant positive correlation was obtained after re-testing (0.967, P = 0.000).
Conclusion: The QOLSID is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used for assessing quality of life among Iraqi type 2 DM patients.
Objective: To assess the impact of pharmacist-supervised intervention on HRQoL of newly diagnosed diabetics using an Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL) questionnaire.
Materials and Methods: A pre-post comparison study was conducted among the control group (CG), test 1 group (T1G) and test 2 group (T2G) patients with three treatment arms to explore the impact of pharmacist-supervised intervention on HRQoL of newly diagnosed diabetics for 18 months. Patients' HRQoL scores were determined using ADDQoL questionnaire at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12-months. T1G patients received pharmacist's intervention whereas T2G patients received diabetic kit demonstration in addition to pharmacist's intervention. CG patients were deprived of pharmacist intervention and diabetic kit demonstration, and only received care from attending physician/nurses. Non-parametric tests were used to find the differences in an average weighted impact scores (AWIS) among the groups before and after the intervention at P ≤ 0.05.
Results: Friedman test identified significant (P < 0.001) improvement in AWIS among the test groups' patients. Differences in scores were significant between T1G and T2G at 6-months (P = 0.033), 9-months (P < 0.001) and 12-months (P < 0.001); between CG and T1G at 12-months (P < 0.001) and between CG and T2G at 9-months (P < 0.001) and 12-months (P < 0.0010) on Mann.Whitney U test.
Conclusion: Pharmacist's intervention improved AWIS of test groups' diabetics. Diabetic kit demonstration strengthened the disease understanding and selfcare skills of T2G patients. Disease and self-care awareness among diabetics should be increased in Nepali healthcare system by involving pharmacists for better patient's related outcomes.
Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of a high-impact PMMA denture base resin material and flexural strength of a commonly available heat cure PMMA denture base material with Kevlar, glass, and nylon fibers.
Materials and Methods: The test samples were studied under two groups. The Group I (control group) comprised pre-reinforced PMMA (Lucitone 199; Dentsply Sirona Prosthetics, York, Pennsylvania, USA) consisting of 12 samples and second group comprised regular PMMA (DPI, Mumbai, India) reinforced with different fibers. The second test group was further divided into three subgroups as Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 comprising 12 samples each designated by the letters a-l. All the samples were marked on both ends. A total of 48 samples were tested. Results were analyzed and any P value ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant (t test).
Results: All the 48 specimens were subjected to a 3-point bending test on a universal testing machine (MultiTest 10-i, Sterling, VA, USA) at a cross-head rate of 2 mm/min. A load was applied on each specimen by a centrally located rod until fracture occurred; span length taken was 50 mm. Flexural strength was then calculated.
Conclusion: Reinforcement of conventional denture base resin with nylon and glass fibers showed statistical significance in the flexural strength values when compared to unreinforced high impact of denture base resin.
Materials and Methods: Eugenol was ozonated using ozonator machine and the samples were divided into two groups: Group I: zinc oxide eugenol (n = 10) and Group II: zinc oxide-ozonated eugenol (OZOE; n = 10). The pH of the fresh sealer samples and the set samples was measured using calibrated pH meter after predetermined time intervals. Cytotoxicity of the set sealer was evaluated on mouse L929 fibroblasts using cellular metabolic assay.
Results: pH of the samples in Group II was higher when compared to Group I. Group II showed higher cell viability than the Group I.
Conclusion: OZOE sealers can be used as an alternative to the conventional ZOE sealers.