Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 56 in total

  1. Ibrahim IR, Hassali MA, Saleem F, Al Tukmagi HF
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):284-288.
    PMID: 28216951 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.199349
    BACKGROUND: The self-treatment with complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) in chronic diseases is portraying an expanding trend worldwide. Yet, little is known concerning patients' motives to use CAM in the control of blood pressure.
    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the self-use of CAM in the management of hypertension and explore patients' attitudes, perceived benefits, and disclosure to the physician.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative technique was adopted and face-to-face interviews, using a validated interview guide, were carried out among twenty hypertensive patients. A purposive sampling method was used to recruit patients at Al-Karama Teaching Hospital in Baghdad; the capital of Iraq; from January to April 2015. All the interviews were audio-recorded, then transcribed verbatim and examined for thematic relationships.
    RESULTS: Three major themes were identified through thematic content analysis of the interviews. These encompassed patients' understanding of CAM; experience and perceived benefits; and communication with the doctors. The use of CAM was prevalent among the majority of the respondents. The most commonly used therapies were biological-based practices (herbal remedies, special diet, vitamins, and dietary supplements); traditional therapies (Al-Hijama or cupping); and to a less extent of manipulative body-based therapies (reflexology). Factors influencing the use of CAM were traditions, social relationships, religious beliefs, low-cost therapy, and safety of natural products.
    CONCLUSION: The use of CAM was common as a practice of self-treatment among hypertensive patients in Iraq. This was underpinned by the cultural effects, social relationships, religious beliefs, and the perception that natural products are effective and safe. Understanding patients' usage of CAM is of great importance as long as patient's safety and interaction with the standard prescribed treatment are major concerns.
  2. Alhassan AM, Ahmed QU
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):265-271.
    PMID: 28216948 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.199342
    Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. is principally cultivated for medicinal purposes in many tropical and subtropical countries of the world. Literature survey about this plant shows that A. bilimbi is mainly used as a folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and as an antimicrobial agent. The prime objective of this review is to accumulate and organize literature based on traditional claims and correlate those with current findings on the use of A. bilimbi in the management of different ailments. Through interpreting already published scientific manuscripts (1995 through 2015) retrieved from the different scientific search engines, namely Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Science Direct databases, published articles and reports covering traditional and scientific literature related to A. bilimbi's potential role against various ailments have been thoroughly evaluated, interpreted, and discussed. Several pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to act as antidiabetic, antihypertensive, thrombolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic agent. A. bilimbi holds great value in the complementary and alternative medicine as evidenced by the substantial amount of research on it. Therefore, we aimed to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review of A. bilimbi that covers its traditional and folk medicine uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Hence, this paper presents an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the ethnomedicinal uses, different chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi. So far, the biologically active agents have not been isolated from this plant and this can be a good scientific study for the future antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial implications. Hence, this review targets at emphasizing the diverse traditional claims and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi with respect to carrying out more scientific studies to isolate active principles through advanced technology.
  3. Rahim N, Iffat W, Shakeel S, Naeem MI, Qazi F, Rizvi M, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):144-151.
    PMID: 28717338 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_328_16
    AIMS: In flu pandemics, pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices are critical to save patients life. The objective of study was to determine the knowledge of and attitude toward the pandemic influenza among the pharmacy students of Karachi, Pakistan.
    SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2014 by adopting a prevalidated questionnaire distributed to senior pharmacy students (final year) in seven private and public sector universities of Karachi.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 443 pharmacy students responded the survey. Data regarding sociodemographic characteristics of the students, perceptions, level of knowledge and attitudes toward influenza, and prophylactic measures were collected.
    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: To compute the correlation between different variables, data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square statistic method. P < 0.05 was considered statistical significance for all analysis.
    RESULTS: Influenza was identified as a viral disease (n = 423; 95.48%) and 282 (71.2%) students correctly identified it as disease affecting humans and pigs. Textbooks reported as most common source of knowledge (n = 282; 64%). Most common symptoms identified were fever (81.94%), sore throat (64.1%), and nonproductive cough (43.34%). The most common preventive measures were covering nose and mouth (268; 60.5%) and wearing protective coverings (254; 57.3%). Only half of the students correctly reported about the route of administration (180; 40.6%) and strains in vaccine (186; 41.98%). The best time for administration of such vaccine was known by only 156 pharmacy students (35.34%). The majority of the students (82.6%) had no idea about the manifestation of influenza pandemic. Knowledge regarding influenza differed according to gender and institutions differing in their affiliation with tertiary care hospitals.
    CONCLUSION: It was observed that knowledge about disease progression, transmission, vaccination, and treatment in pharmacy students, especially those who are not getting clinical training in tertiary care hospitals was limited. There is an urgent need to develop awareness programs to increase knowledge of influenza among clinical pharmacists as they are more susceptible to infections and community as a whole.
  4. Elnaem MH, Jamshed SQ, Elkalmi RM, Baharuddin MF, Johari MA, Aziz NABA, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):115-120.
    PMID: 28717334 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_336_16
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Students in relevant health-care academic programs are the future professionals who should play an active role in increasing community awareness regarding chronic diseases such as osteoporosis. This research aimed to evaluate the knowledge of osteoporosis, one of the growing health-care burdens in Malaysia, among students belong to three different health occupations programs in a Malaysian University.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was conducted to assess the level of knowledge on osteoporosis and to explore the potential association between the study program and osteoporosis-related knowledge among medicine, pharmacy, and allied health sciences students in a Malaysian University. A total of 348 students were approached. The data were collected using validated revised Osteoporosis Knowledge Test questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The results showed variability in knowledge score between students belonging to different study programs. allied health sciences students have the highest overall total score (median = 20) and nutrition score (median = 16), but for exercise score, both students in allied health sciences and medicine programs shared a similar median score (median = 11.5). More than half of the respondents showed adequate knowledge on osteoporosis. The students from allied health sciences exhibited more knowledge on osteoporosis compared to students in other study programs. Among the Kulliyyah of Pharmacy respondents, the majority did not manage to answer correctly on the whole scale. This was evident by total percentage of 69.91% of the respondents scored below than median score.

    CONCLUSION: There is a considerable gap of knowledge regarding osteoporosis among students in various health occupations academic programs. Pharmacy students particularly need focused learning related to exercise and nutrition in preventing osteoporosis during their academic program.
  5. Rana B, Bukhsh A, Khan TM, Sarwar A, Omer MO, Jamshed SQ
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):121-125.
    PMID: 28717335 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_29_17
    AIM: The present study was aimed to highlight the current prescribing pattern of oral hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of these therapeutic categories in achieving target glycemic control.

    METHODS: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study of 6 months' duration conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Lahore, Pakistan.

    RESULTS: The current research recruited 145 patients presented in diabetes management center of a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. Mean age of the participants was 50.2 (± 8.5) years. Out of the 145 patients, 63% were females and 37% were males. Most patients were diagnosed to have diabetes within the past 5 years. Diabetes-induced neuropathy was the most common complication (71.7%) among the patients. A large proportion of these patients (70.3%) were also suffering from other comorbidities among which the most common one is hypertension. The average number of prescribed medications was 1.31. Metformin was prescribed to a majority of patients (64%) as monotherapy while 28.96% received combination therapy. Mean glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c) before and after 3 months of treatment was 8.5 (± 2.3) and 8.04 (± 2.1), respectively. Inferential statistics show a strong association between HBA1c and life style modifications and adherence to medication therapy (P = 0.05). However, the correlation between HBA1c and Morisky score and duration of disease was inverse and weak (P = 0.6, 0.4). The t-test values show a small difference between HBA1c values before and after 3 months (t = 0.440 and 0.466, respectively).

    CONCLUSION: Optimization of medication regimen and continuous patient education regarding life style modification and adherence to medication therapy are necessitated to bring HBA1c values near to target.
  6. Das SK, Sengupta P, Mustapha MS, Sarker MMR
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):88-93.
    PMID: 28717330 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.183227
    BACKGROUND: Stress is a normal part of everyday life but chronic stress can lead to a variety of stress-related illnesses including hypertension, anxiety, and depression. In the present investigation, standardized leaf extract of Epipremnumaureum was evaluated for its anti-stress potential.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the evaluation of anti-stress activity, groups of mice (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress and anoxic stress tolerance test in mice 1h after daily treatment of E.aureumextract. Diazepam (5 mg/kg) was taken as a reference standard. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as noninvasive biomarkers to assess the anti-stress activity and plasma cortisol, blood ascorbic acid, and weight of adrenal were measured. The 24 h urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The hematological parameters (neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) were also determined.

    RESULTS: Administration of E.aureumat doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg wasfound to be effective in inhibiting the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with E. aureum extract prevents the rise in blood ascorbic acid and plasma cortisol. Moreover, the extract prevented the increase in weight of adrenal gland also significantly increased the anoxia stress tolerance time. Dose-dependent significant reduction in white blood cell count was observed in anoxic stress tolerance test as compared to stressed group.

    CONCLUSION: Hence, the present study provides scientific support for the positiveadaptogenic effect of E. aureum extract.
  7. Elnaem MH, Mohamed MHN, Huri HZ, Azarisman SM, Elkalmi RM
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):80-87.
    PMID: 28717329 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_30_17
    Use of statin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been recommended by most clinical guidelines. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among T2DM patients. It has been proved that statins are effective for primary or secondary CVD prophylaxis. Reports have highlighted the underutilization of statins in clinical practice and the suboptimal adherence to guideline recommendations. This review article points to summarize the current evidence confirming the role of statins in T2DM patients and to provide an overview of factors that may affect statins' prescribing patterns and compliance in clinical practice. Initiatives to enhance statin therapy prescribing should recognize the comprehensive nature of the prescribing process. Attempts to assure proper statin prescribing and utilization can help in achieving better clinical outcomes of statin therapy.
  8. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Malik S, Mohanta GP, Parimalakrishnan S, Patel I, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):335-340.
    PMID: 28216959 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.199340
    BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis and respiratory illnesses are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prescription pattern of antibiotic utilization during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients.

    METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months in pediatric units of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Children under 5 years of age presenting with illness related to diarrhea and/or cough/cold were included in this study. Data were collected by reviewing patient files and then assessed for its appropriateness against the criteria developed in view of the Medication Appropriateness Index and Guidelines of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics. The results were expressed in frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: A total of 303 patients were studied during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 3.5 ± 0.6 years. The majority of children were admitted mainly due to chief complaint of fever (63%) and cough and cold (56.4%). The appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions was higher in bloody and watery diarrhea (83.3% and 82.6%; P < 0.05). Cephalosporins (46.2%) and penicillins (39.9%) were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics, though the generic prescriptions of these drugs were the lowest (13.5% and 10%, respectively). The seniority of prescriber was significantly associated with the appropriateness of prescriptions (P < 0.05). Antibiotics prescription was higher in cold/cough and diarrhea (93.5%) in comparison to cough/cold (85%) or diarrhea (75%) alone.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study observed high rates of antibiotic utilization in Chidambaram during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients. The findings highlight the need for combined interventions using education and expert counseling, targeted to the clinical conditions and classes of antibiotic for which inappropriate usage is most common.
  9. Farsalinos KE, Le Houezec J
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016;8(4):347-348.
    PMID: 28216962 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.199341
    Comment on: Elkalmi RM, Bhagavathul AS, Ya’u A, Al-Dubai SA, Elsayed TM, Ahmad A, et al. Familiarity, perception, and reasons for electronic-cigarette experimentation among the general public in Malaysia: Preliminary insight. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2016;8:240–7
  10. Elkalmi RM, Bhagavathul AS, Ya'u A, Al-Dubai SA, Elsayed TM, Ahmad A, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):240-7.
    PMID: 27413354 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.180768
    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the general public views and familiarity toward electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) in Kuantan, Malaysia.
    METHODOLOGY: A total of 277 Kuantan people were involved in this study. The questionnaire was distributed at random in shops, businesses, and public places in Kuantan. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 17.0).
    RESULTS: From 400 participants, a total number of 277 (160, 57.7% men and 117, 42.4% women) respondents completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 26.89 ± 9.8 years old. The majority of the study participants were male (57.7%), Malay (83.8%), Muslims (83.8%), singles (69%), and employed (75.8%), with about 83 (29.9%) of the respondents were smokers. The prevalence of e-cigarettes smokers was found to be only 1.4% (n = 4). About one-third of the respondents (n = 72, 26%) have tried e-cigarette before. Job status was significantly associated with smoking e-cigarette among the population (P = 0.02). Main factors for a person to start e-cigarette smoking were curiosity (37.5%) and cheaper price (40.8%). Majority of respondents agreed that e-cigarette would not affect health as normal cigarette, and that variety of flavors contribute to better enjoyment (51.6% and 66.7%, respectively).
    CONCLUSION: The results of the current study demonstrate that the prevalence of e-cigarettes smoking and its popularity, familiarity, and knowledge are still insufficient among Kuantan population. Further studies should be done to tackle this problem before it getting worse.
    KEYWORDS: Electronic-cigarette; Malaysia; experimentation; perception; prevalence
    Comment in: Farsalinos KE, Le Houezec J. Electronic cigarette experimentation in the Malaysian city of Kuantan: Was there an association with the smoking status? J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):347-348
  11. Al-Aboudi IS, Hassali MA, Shafie AA
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):195-202.
    PMID: 27413347 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171683
    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and attitude with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Center at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The EuroQoL-five-dimensional (EQ-5D) scale was used to assess HRQoL. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. The brief diabetic knowledge test in questionnaire format developed by the University of Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center and the attitude toward self-care questionnaire based on the diabetic care profile were used.
    RESULTS: Fifty-eight (77.35%) respondents were male with a mean 12.6 ± 8.4 years of a history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3%) were in the age group of 45-55 years with a mean age of 54 ± 9.2 years. A moderate level of HRQoL (0.71 ± 0.22) was recorded in the study cohort. The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 ± 0.23 vs. 0.74 ± 0.20). The mean score of Michigan Diabetic Knowledge Test was 8.96 ± 2.1 and the median score was 9.00. Of 75 diabetic patients, 14.7% had poor knowledge; 72% had moderate knowledge, and only 13.3% had good knowledge. The average attitude score of all respondents was 6.38 ± 2.11. There was a significant positive association between attitude and EQ-5D score.
    CONCLUSION: HRQoL and knowledge scores were moderate in type 2 diabetic patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patient attitude toward the disease was positive, and this was positively associated with HRQoL; most respondents believed they are responsible for their care. It is likely that a high quality of diabetes self-management education program will provide benefits and affect significantly on type 2 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia.
    KEYWORDS: Attitude; Saudi Arabia; diabetes; knowledge; quality of life
  12. Noor ZM, Smith AJ, Smith SS, Nissen LM
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):173-80.
    PMID: 27413344 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171739
    INTRODUCTION: Community pharmacists are in a suitable position to give advice and provide appropriate services related to sleep disorders to individuals who are unable to easily access sleep clinics. An intervention with proper objective measure can be used by the pharmacist to assist in consultation.
    OBJECTIVES: The study objectives are to evaluate: (1) The effectiveness of a community pharmacy-based intervention in managing sleep disorders and (2) the role of actigraph as an objective measure to monitor and follow-up individuals with sleeping disorders.
    METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS: The intervention care group (ICG) completed questionnaires to assess sleep scale scores (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] and Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), wore a wrist actigraph, and completed a sleep diary. Sleep parameters (sleep efficiency in percentage [SE%], total sleep time, sleep onset latency, and number of nocturnal awakenings) from actigraphy sleep report were used for consultation and to validate sleep diary. The usual care group (UCG) completed similar questionnaires but received standard care.
    RESULTS: Pre- and post-mean scores for sleep scales and sleep parameters were compared between and within groups. A significant difference was observed when comparing pre- and post-mean scores for ISI in the ICG, but not for ESS. For SE%, an increase was found in the number of subjects rated as "good sleepers" at post-assessment in the ICG.
    CONCLUSIONS: ISI scores offer insights into the development of a community pharmacy-based intervention for sleeping disorders, particularly in those with symptoms of insomnia. It also demonstrates that actigraph could provide objective sleep/wake data to assist community pharmacists during the consultation.
    Actigraph; community pharmacy; intervention; pharmacist; sleeping disorders
  13. Jamshed SQ, Wong PS, Yi HC, Yun GS, Khan MU, Ahmad A
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):217-22.
    PMID: 27413350 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.172662
    World Health Organization has defined self-medication as the selection and use of medications (including herbal and traditional product) by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The prevalence of self-medication is reported to be higher among female students.
  14. Ayob A, Awadh AI, Hadi H, Jaffri J, Jamshed S, Ahmad HM
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):203-9.
    PMID: 27413348 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171681
    Increased usage of cosmetic products has caused a growing concern about the safety of these products, and yet little is known about cosmetics from the consumers' perspective. Hence, this study's aim is to develop a valid and reliable tool for assessing consumers' awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward cosmetic products.
  15. Ayob A, Awadh AI, Jafri J, Jamshed S, Ahmad HM, Hadi H
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):229-34.
    PMID: 27413352 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.174232
    Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers.
  16. Nahas ARF, Sulaiman SAS
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Jul-Sep;9(3):178-184.
    PMID: 28979072 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_64_17
    BACKGROUND: Depression imposes numerous changes on depressive men, promoting for low bone mineral density (BMD) and erectile dysfunction (ED), yet no published data on exploring the possible association between these two disorders among depressive men. We therefore investigated whether low BMD is associated with ED among depressive men and highlighted the possible mutual underlying factors that might give rise to these two disorders in this specific group of patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 119 depressive men were recruited and their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were obtained. Erectile function was evaluated using the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function. All patients received a calcaneal BMD scanning. Chi-square test was conducted to determine if a significant association exists between ED and low BMD.

    RESULTS: Of the study participants, ninety patients reported ED, while 29 patients reported no ED. Within the ED group, there was a significantly higher proportion of patients with low BMD compared to the non-ED group (85.6% vs. 62.1%, P = 0.006). In addition, among younger participants (i.e., aged < 50 years old), the difference in T-score between ED patients (Md = -2.2, n = 41) and non-ED patients (Md = -1.3, n = 20) was significant (P = 0.001); but held no significance among older participants.

    CONCLUSIONS: While our findings are considered prefatory, we reported that low BMD was significantly associated with ED in depressive men and that only among young depressive patients, BMD was significantly lower in ED patients compared to non-ED patients. More research investigating these findings and the possible underlying mechanisms for such association are warranted.
  17. Mohd Bukhari DA, Siddiqui MJ, Shamsudin SH, Rahman MM, So'ad SZM
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Jul-Sep;9(3):164-170.
    PMID: 28979070 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_35_17
    Diabetes is a common metabolic disease indicated by unusually high plasma glucose level that can lead to major complications such as diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular diseases. One of the effective therapeutic managements of the disease is to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia through inhibition of α-glucosidase, a carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme to retard overall glucose absorption. In recent years, a plenty of research works have been conducted looking for novel and effective α-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) from natural sources as alternatives for the synthetic AGI due to their unpleasant side effects. Plants and herbs are rich with secondary metabolites that have massive pharmaceutical potential. Besides, studies showed that phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, anthocyanins, glycosides, and phenolic compounds possess significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase enzyme. Malaysia is a tropical country that is rich with medicinal herbs. In this review, we focus on eight Malaysian plants with the potential as AGI to develop a potential functional food or lead compounds against diabetes.
  18. Ramesh M, Malathi N, Ramesh K, Aruna RM, Kuruvilla S
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Nov;9(Suppl 1):S88-S91.
    PMID: 29284943 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_77_17
    Background: High levels of fluoride in the drinking water, especially ground water, results in skeletal fluorosis which involves the bone and major joints. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis to compare with dental fluorosis in an endemically fluorosed population in the District of Salem, Tamil Nadu.

    Materials and Methods: Institutional ethical clearance was obtained. A total of 206 patients who reported to the Department of Hematology for blood investigations were the participants in this study. Age, sex, place, weight, height, dental fluorosis, and skeletal complaints were noted down. Body mass index was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed.

    Results: Dental fluorosis was present in 63.1% and absent in 36.9% of the samples reported. Skeletal fluorosis was present in 24.8% and was absent in 75.2%. A large number of the patients had knee pain and difficulty in bending. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Skeletal fluorosis and age were compared and P value was 0.00 and was significant. Dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis were compared and P value was found to be 0.000 and significant.

    Discussion and Conclusion: There is a need to take measures to prevent dental and skeletal fluorosis among the residents of Salem district. Calcium balance should be maintained, and fluoride intake should be minimized to reduce the symptoms. The government should provide water with low fluoride level for drinking and cooking. Once the symptoms develop, treatment largely remains symptomatic, using analgesics and physiotherapy.

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