Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 56 in total

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  1. Dawood OT, Rashan MA, Hassali MA, Saleem F
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Apr-Jun;8(2):146-51.
    PMID: 27134468 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171738
    BACKGROUND:
    Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers.

    OBJECTIVES:
    The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions.

    METHODS:
    A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants.

    RESULTS:
    This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%), impotence in male smokers (52.6%), premature ageing (64%), and stroke (66.3%). In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention.

    CONCLUSION:
    Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking.

    KEYWORDS:
    Health risks; knowledge; perception; quit intentions; smoking
  2. Trivedi K, Bhaskar V, Ganesh M, Venkataraghavan K, Choudhary P, Shah S, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2015 Aug;7(Suppl 2):S474-80.
    PMID: 26538901 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.163508
    AIM: This study evaluates erosive potential of commonly used beverages, medicated syrup, and their effects on dental enamel with and without restoration in vitro.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Test medias used in this study included carbonated beverage, noncarbonated beverage, high-energy sports drink medicated cough syrup, distilled water as the control. A total of 110 previously extracted human premolar teeth were selected for the study. Teeth were randomly divided into two groups. Test specimens were randomly distributed to five beverages groups and comprised 12 specimens per group. Surface roughness (profilometer) readings were performed at baseline and again, following immersion for 14 days (24 h/day). Microleakage was evaluated. The results obtained were analyzed for statistical significance using SPSS-PC package using the multiple factor ANOVA at a significance level of P < 0.05. Paired t-test, Friedman test ranks, and Wilcoxon signed ranks test.

    RESULTS: For surface roughness high-energy sports drink and noncarbonated beverage showed the highly significant difference with P values of 0.000 and 0.000, respectively compared to other test media. For microleakage high-energy sports drink had significant difference in comparison to noncarbonated beverage (P = 0.002), medicated syrup (P = 0.000), and distilled water (P = 0.000).

    CONCLUSION: High-energy sports drink showed highest surface roughness value and microleakage score among all test media and thus greater erosive potential to enamel while medicated syrup showed least surface roughness value and microleakage among all test media.

  3. Sarangarajan R, Vaishnavi Vedam VK, Sivadas G, Sarangarajan A, Meera S
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2015 Aug;7(Suppl 2):S420-3.
    PMID: 26538890 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.163474
    Oral ulcers are a common symptom in clinical practice. Among various causative factors, different types of ulcers in oral cavity exist. Among this, traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia (TUGSE) appears to be quite neglected by the clinicians due to the limited knowledge and awareness. On reviewing with a detailed approach to titles and abstracts of articles eliminating duplicates, 40 relevant articles were considered. Randomized studies, review articles, case reports and abstracts were included while conference papers and posters were excluded. Of importance, TUGSE cases been reported only to a minimal extent in the literature. Lack of its awareness tends to lead clinicians to a misconception of cancer. Thus, this particular lesion needs to be differentiated from other malignant lesions to provide a proper mode of treatment. The present article reviews various aspects of the TUGSE with emphasis on the clinical manifestation, pathogenesis, histological, and immunohistochemical study. This study provides the clinician contemporaries, a humble expansion to their knowledge of the disease, based on the searched literature, enabling a more comprehensive management of this rare occurrence.
  4. Mamat CF, Jamshed SQ, El Syed T, Khan TM, Othman N, Al-Shami AK, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2015 Jul-Sep;7(3):181-7.
    PMID: 26229351 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.160011
    This detailed review analyzed the previously published studies related to the prevalence of psychotropic substances use, associated factors, and the misuse of the psychotropics among students. A comprehensive literature search covering six databases was performed. References from published articles and reports were extracted. This helped in identifying the available information on the use of psychotropic drugs. A total of 16 articles were included in this review. There is an upsurge of using psychotropics with the preceding years. More students are exposed to the risk of using psychotropic substances due to the multiple factors like stress, increased academic workload, etc. The misuse is found to be common with prescribed psychotropic substances. Students need to be aware of the bad outcomes of using psychotropic substances. Participation of every stakeholder to curb this menace needs to be emphasized. More extensive studies are required to know about the increasing prevalence, factors, and misuse of psychotropics.
  5. Dua K, Pabreja K, Ramana MV, Lather V
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2011 Jul;3(3):417-25.
    PMID: 21966164 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.84457
    The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on the in vitro dissolution of aceclofenac (AF) from molecular inclusion complexes. Aceclofenac molecular inclusion complexes in 1:1 and 1:2 M ratio were prepared using a kneading method. The in vitro dissolution of pure drug, physical mixtures, and cyclodextrin inclusion complexes was carried out. Molecular inclusion complexes of AF with β-CD showed a considerable increase in the dissolution rate in comparison with the physical mixture and pure drug in 0.1 N HCl, pH 1.2, and phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Inclusion complexes with a 1:2 M ratio showed the maximum dissolution rate in comparison to other ratios. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies indicated no interaction between AF and β-CD in complexes in solid state. Molecular modeling results indicated the relative energetic stability of the β-CD dimer-AF complex as compared to β-CD monomer-AF. Dissolution enhancement was attributed to the formation of water soluble inclusion complexes with β-CD. The in vitro release from all the formulations was best described by first-order kinetics (R(2) = 0.9826 and 0.9938 in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer, respectively) followed by the Higuchi release model (R(2) = 0.9542 and 0.9686 in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer, respectively). In conclusion, the dissolution of AF can be enhanced by the use of a hydrophilic carrier like β-CD.
  6. Al-Aboudi IS, Hassali MA, Shafie AA
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):195-202.
    PMID: 27413347 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171683
    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and attitude with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Center at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The EuroQoL-five-dimensional (EQ-5D) scale was used to assess HRQoL. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. The brief diabetic knowledge test in questionnaire format developed by the University of Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center and the attitude toward self-care questionnaire based on the diabetic care profile were used.
    RESULTS: Fifty-eight (77.35%) respondents were male with a mean 12.6 ± 8.4 years of a history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3%) were in the age group of 45-55 years with a mean age of 54 ± 9.2 years. A moderate level of HRQoL (0.71 ± 0.22) was recorded in the study cohort. The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 ± 0.23 vs. 0.74 ± 0.20). The mean score of Michigan Diabetic Knowledge Test was 8.96 ± 2.1 and the median score was 9.00. Of 75 diabetic patients, 14.7% had poor knowledge; 72% had moderate knowledge, and only 13.3% had good knowledge. The average attitude score of all respondents was 6.38 ± 2.11. There was a significant positive association between attitude and EQ-5D score.
    CONCLUSION: HRQoL and knowledge scores were moderate in type 2 diabetic patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patient attitude toward the disease was positive, and this was positively associated with HRQoL; most respondents believed they are responsible for their care. It is likely that a high quality of diabetes self-management education program will provide benefits and affect significantly on type 2 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia.
    KEYWORDS: Attitude; Saudi Arabia; diabetes; knowledge; quality of life
  7. Noor ZM, Smith AJ, Smith SS, Nissen LM
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):173-80.
    PMID: 27413344 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171739
    INTRODUCTION: Community pharmacists are in a suitable position to give advice and provide appropriate services related to sleep disorders to individuals who are unable to easily access sleep clinics. An intervention with proper objective measure can be used by the pharmacist to assist in consultation.
    OBJECTIVES: The study objectives are to evaluate: (1) The effectiveness of a community pharmacy-based intervention in managing sleep disorders and (2) the role of actigraph as an objective measure to monitor and follow-up individuals with sleeping disorders.
    METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS: The intervention care group (ICG) completed questionnaires to assess sleep scale scores (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] and Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), wore a wrist actigraph, and completed a sleep diary. Sleep parameters (sleep efficiency in percentage [SE%], total sleep time, sleep onset latency, and number of nocturnal awakenings) from actigraphy sleep report were used for consultation and to validate sleep diary. The usual care group (UCG) completed similar questionnaires but received standard care.
    RESULTS: Pre- and post-mean scores for sleep scales and sleep parameters were compared between and within groups. A significant difference was observed when comparing pre- and post-mean scores for ISI in the ICG, but not for ESS. For SE%, an increase was found in the number of subjects rated as "good sleepers" at post-assessment in the ICG.
    CONCLUSIONS: ISI scores offer insights into the development of a community pharmacy-based intervention for sleeping disorders, particularly in those with symptoms of insomnia. It also demonstrates that actigraph could provide objective sleep/wake data to assist community pharmacists during the consultation.
    KEYWORDS:
    Actigraph; community pharmacy; intervention; pharmacist; sleeping disorders
  8. Jamshed SQ, Wong PS, Yi HC, Yun GS, Khan MU, Ahmad A
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):217-22.
    PMID: 27413350 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.172662
    World Health Organization has defined self-medication as the selection and use of medications (including herbal and traditional product) by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The prevalence of self-medication is reported to be higher among female students.
  9. Ayob A, Awadh AI, Hadi H, Jaffri J, Jamshed S, Ahmad HM
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):203-9.
    PMID: 27413348 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171681
    Increased usage of cosmetic products has caused a growing concern about the safety of these products, and yet little is known about cosmetics from the consumers' perspective. Hence, this study's aim is to develop a valid and reliable tool for assessing consumers' awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward cosmetic products.
  10. Ayob A, Awadh AI, Jafri J, Jamshed S, Ahmad HM, Hadi H
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):229-34.
    PMID: 27413352 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.174232
    Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers.
  11. Jamshed SQ, Khan MU, Ahmad A, Elkalmi RM
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 3 10;8(1):34-8.
    PMID: 26957866 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171686
    BACKGROUND: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is consistently on the rise worldwide. Consumers often consider pharmacists as a major source of information about CAM products and their safety. Due to the limitation of data, it is worth exploring the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students toward CAM.
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding the use of CAM in Malaysia.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months among Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a public sector University of Malaysia. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire, comprised four sections, was used to collect the data from 440 participants. Descriptive analysis was used, and Chi-square test was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables.
    RESULTS: Of 440 questionnaire distributed, 287 were returned giving a response rate of (65.2%). The results showed that 38.6% participants gave correct answers when asked about the use of herbal products with digoxin. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about supplementary therapy (25.3%) while the lack of knowledge was mostly evident in traditional Chinese medicines (73.7%). Majority of the students were either neutral (49.5%) or disagreed that (42.8%) CAM use is unsafe. Females were more in disagreement to the statements than males (P = 0.007). Majority of students also agreed to use CAM therapies for their health and well-being (51.2%).
    CONCLUSION: The study revealed that pharmacy students did not have adequate knowledge of CAM though their attitudes and perceptions were relatively positive.
  12. Nazir SU, Hassali MA, Saleem F, Bashir S, Hashmi F, Aljadhey H
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jan-Mar;8(1):64-8.
    PMID: 26957872 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171734
    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population attending outpatient clinics in Sargodha City, Pakistan.
    METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive survey. T2DM patients attending a tertiary care institute in Sargodha, Pakistan were targeted for the study. The EuroQol EQ-5D was used for the assessment of HRQoL and was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. Descriptive statistics were used for the elaboration of sociodemographic characteristics. The Chi-square test was used to depict the possible association between study variables and HRQoL. Where significant associations were noted, Phi/Cramer's V was used for data interpretation accordingly. SPSS version 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for data analysis and P < 0.05 was taken as significant.
    RESULTS: Three hundred and ninety-two patients were approached for the study. The cohort was dominated by males (n = 222, 56.60%) with 5.58 ± 4.09 years of history of T2DM. The study highlighted poor HRQoL among the study participants (0.471 ± 0.336). Gender, marital status, education, monthly income, occupation, location and duration of the disease were reported to be significantly associated with HRQoL (P < 0.001).
    CONCLUSION: T2DM imposes a negative effect on HRQoL of the patients. Attention is needed to highlight determinants of HRQoL and to implement policies for better management of T2DM, particularly in early treatment phases where improving HRQoL is still possible.
    KEYWORDS: EQ-5D; Pakistan; health-related quality of life; type 2 diabetes mellitus
  13. Khan TM, Aziz A, Suleiman AK
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 3 10;8(1):74-6.
    PMID: 26957874 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171736
    Uremic pruritus (UP) is one of the complications faced by majority of the patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to complex pathophysiology of UP, most of the anti-inflammatory and tropical lubricants often not provide a long lasting control over pruritus. Recently the uses of certain anti-epileptics are found to demonstrate promising relief to UP. To test the effect of 75 mg pregabalin in patients with treatment resistance pruritus. Data was prospectively collected from a patient with ESRD and suffering from treatment resistance pruritus. Intensity of pruritus was recorded using 5D-itching scale (5D-IS) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Pre and post assessment was done for this patient, on initial assess the parathyroid hormone level of the patient was 70.5 pg/ml with a serum phosphate level of 2.61 mmol/L. Upon initial assess the VAS score was 8 and 5D-IS score was twenty. After the duration of four weeks of pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis, 5D-IS score reduced to 8 and VAS score move down to 3. Pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis was found to reduce the intensity of UP. Pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis can be another option to treat UP.
  14. Baharuddin NS, Abdullah H, Abdul Wahab WN
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):15-20.
    PMID: 25709331 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.148742
    Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species.
  15. Elkalmi R, Hassali MA, Al-Lela OQ, Jawad Awadh AI, Al-Shami AK, Jamshed SQ
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2013 Jul;5(3):224-8.
    PMID: 24082699 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.116824
    The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of the general population towards ADR and their reporting system.
  16. Ibrahim IR, Hassali MA, Saleem F, Al Tukmagi HF
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):284-288.
    PMID: 28216951 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.199349
    BACKGROUND: The self-treatment with complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) in chronic diseases is portraying an expanding trend worldwide. Yet, little is known concerning patients' motives to use CAM in the control of blood pressure.
    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the self-use of CAM in the management of hypertension and explore patients' attitudes, perceived benefits, and disclosure to the physician.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative technique was adopted and face-to-face interviews, using a validated interview guide, were carried out among twenty hypertensive patients. A purposive sampling method was used to recruit patients at Al-Karama Teaching Hospital in Baghdad; the capital of Iraq; from January to April 2015. All the interviews were audio-recorded, then transcribed verbatim and examined for thematic relationships.
    RESULTS: Three major themes were identified through thematic content analysis of the interviews. These encompassed patients' understanding of CAM; experience and perceived benefits; and communication with the doctors. The use of CAM was prevalent among the majority of the respondents. The most commonly used therapies were biological-based practices (herbal remedies, special diet, vitamins, and dietary supplements); traditional therapies (Al-Hijama or cupping); and to a less extent of manipulative body-based therapies (reflexology). Factors influencing the use of CAM were traditions, social relationships, religious beliefs, low-cost therapy, and safety of natural products.
    CONCLUSION: The use of CAM was common as a practice of self-treatment among hypertensive patients in Iraq. This was underpinned by the cultural effects, social relationships, religious beliefs, and the perception that natural products are effective and safe. Understanding patients' usage of CAM is of great importance as long as patient's safety and interaction with the standard prescribed treatment are major concerns.
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