Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 58 in total

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  1. Dawood OT, Rashan MA, Hassali MA, Saleem F
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Apr-Jun;8(2):146-51.
    PMID: 27134468 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171738
    BACKGROUND:
    Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers.

    OBJECTIVES:
    The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions.

    METHODS:
    A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants.

    RESULTS:
    This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%), impotence in male smokers (52.6%), premature ageing (64%), and stroke (66.3%). In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention.

    CONCLUSION:
    Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking.

    KEYWORDS:
    Health risks; knowledge; perception; quit intentions; smoking
  2. Baharuddin NS, Abdullah H, Abdul Wahab WN
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):15-20.
    PMID: 25709331 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.148742
    Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species.
  3. Dua K, Pabreja K, Ramana MV, Lather V
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2011 Jul;3(3):417-25.
    PMID: 21966164 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.84457
    The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on the in vitro dissolution of aceclofenac (AF) from molecular inclusion complexes. Aceclofenac molecular inclusion complexes in 1:1 and 1:2 M ratio were prepared using a kneading method. The in vitro dissolution of pure drug, physical mixtures, and cyclodextrin inclusion complexes was carried out. Molecular inclusion complexes of AF with β-CD showed a considerable increase in the dissolution rate in comparison with the physical mixture and pure drug in 0.1 N HCl, pH 1.2, and phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Inclusion complexes with a 1:2 M ratio showed the maximum dissolution rate in comparison to other ratios. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies indicated no interaction between AF and β-CD in complexes in solid state. Molecular modeling results indicated the relative energetic stability of the β-CD dimer-AF complex as compared to β-CD monomer-AF. Dissolution enhancement was attributed to the formation of water soluble inclusion complexes with β-CD. The in vitro release from all the formulations was best described by first-order kinetics (R(2) = 0.9826 and 0.9938 in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer, respectively) followed by the Higuchi release model (R(2) = 0.9542 and 0.9686 in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer, respectively). In conclusion, the dissolution of AF can be enhanced by the use of a hydrophilic carrier like β-CD.
  4. Nazir SU, Hassali MA, Saleem F, Bashir S, Hashmi F, Aljadhey H
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jan-Mar;8(1):64-8.
    PMID: 26957872 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171734
    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population attending outpatient clinics in Sargodha City, Pakistan.
    METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive survey. T2DM patients attending a tertiary care institute in Sargodha, Pakistan were targeted for the study. The EuroQol EQ-5D was used for the assessment of HRQoL and was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. Descriptive statistics were used for the elaboration of sociodemographic characteristics. The Chi-square test was used to depict the possible association between study variables and HRQoL. Where significant associations were noted, Phi/Cramer's V was used for data interpretation accordingly. SPSS version 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for data analysis and P < 0.05 was taken as significant.
    RESULTS: Three hundred and ninety-two patients were approached for the study. The cohort was dominated by males (n = 222, 56.60%) with 5.58 ± 4.09 years of history of T2DM. The study highlighted poor HRQoL among the study participants (0.471 ± 0.336). Gender, marital status, education, monthly income, occupation, location and duration of the disease were reported to be significantly associated with HRQoL (P < 0.001).
    CONCLUSION: T2DM imposes a negative effect on HRQoL of the patients. Attention is needed to highlight determinants of HRQoL and to implement policies for better management of T2DM, particularly in early treatment phases where improving HRQoL is still possible.
    KEYWORDS: EQ-5D; Pakistan; health-related quality of life; type 2 diabetes mellitus
  5. Jamshed SQ, Khan MU, Ahmad A, Elkalmi RM
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 3 10;8(1):34-8.
    PMID: 26957866 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171686
    BACKGROUND: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is consistently on the rise worldwide. Consumers often consider pharmacists as a major source of information about CAM products and their safety. Due to the limitation of data, it is worth exploring the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students toward CAM.
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding the use of CAM in Malaysia.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months among Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a public sector University of Malaysia. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire, comprised four sections, was used to collect the data from 440 participants. Descriptive analysis was used, and Chi-square test was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables.
    RESULTS: Of 440 questionnaire distributed, 287 were returned giving a response rate of (65.2%). The results showed that 38.6% participants gave correct answers when asked about the use of herbal products with digoxin. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about supplementary therapy (25.3%) while the lack of knowledge was mostly evident in traditional Chinese medicines (73.7%). Majority of the students were either neutral (49.5%) or disagreed that (42.8%) CAM use is unsafe. Females were more in disagreement to the statements than males (P = 0.007). Majority of students also agreed to use CAM therapies for their health and well-being (51.2%).
    CONCLUSION: The study revealed that pharmacy students did not have adequate knowledge of CAM though their attitudes and perceptions were relatively positive.
  6. Khan TM, Aziz A, Suleiman AK
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 3 10;8(1):74-6.
    PMID: 26957874 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171736
    Uremic pruritus (UP) is one of the complications faced by majority of the patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to complex pathophysiology of UP, most of the anti-inflammatory and tropical lubricants often not provide a long lasting control over pruritus. Recently the uses of certain anti-epileptics are found to demonstrate promising relief to UP. To test the effect of 75 mg pregabalin in patients with treatment resistance pruritus. Data was prospectively collected from a patient with ESRD and suffering from treatment resistance pruritus. Intensity of pruritus was recorded using 5D-itching scale (5D-IS) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Pre and post assessment was done for this patient, on initial assess the parathyroid hormone level of the patient was 70.5 pg/ml with a serum phosphate level of 2.61 mmol/L. Upon initial assess the VAS score was 8 and 5D-IS score was twenty. After the duration of four weeks of pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis, 5D-IS score reduced to 8 and VAS score move down to 3. Pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis was found to reduce the intensity of UP. Pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis can be another option to treat UP.
  7. Trivedi K, Bhaskar V, Ganesh M, Venkataraghavan K, Choudhary P, Shah S, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2015 Aug;7(Suppl 2):S474-80.
    PMID: 26538901 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.163508
    AIM: This study evaluates erosive potential of commonly used beverages, medicated syrup, and their effects on dental enamel with and without restoration in vitro.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Test medias used in this study included carbonated beverage, noncarbonated beverage, high-energy sports drink medicated cough syrup, distilled water as the control. A total of 110 previously extracted human premolar teeth were selected for the study. Teeth were randomly divided into two groups. Test specimens were randomly distributed to five beverages groups and comprised 12 specimens per group. Surface roughness (profilometer) readings were performed at baseline and again, following immersion for 14 days (24 h/day). Microleakage was evaluated. The results obtained were analyzed for statistical significance using SPSS-PC package using the multiple factor ANOVA at a significance level of P < 0.05. Paired t-test, Friedman test ranks, and Wilcoxon signed ranks test.

    RESULTS: For surface roughness high-energy sports drink and noncarbonated beverage showed the highly significant difference with P values of 0.000 and 0.000, respectively compared to other test media. For microleakage high-energy sports drink had significant difference in comparison to noncarbonated beverage (P = 0.002), medicated syrup (P = 0.000), and distilled water (P = 0.000).

    CONCLUSION: High-energy sports drink showed highest surface roughness value and microleakage score among all test media and thus greater erosive potential to enamel while medicated syrup showed least surface roughness value and microleakage among all test media.

  8. Sarangarajan R, Vaishnavi Vedam VK, Sivadas G, Sarangarajan A, Meera S
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2015 Aug;7(Suppl 2):S420-3.
    PMID: 26538890 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.163474
    Oral ulcers are a common symptom in clinical practice. Among various causative factors, different types of ulcers in oral cavity exist. Among this, traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia (TUGSE) appears to be quite neglected by the clinicians due to the limited knowledge and awareness. On reviewing with a detailed approach to titles and abstracts of articles eliminating duplicates, 40 relevant articles were considered. Randomized studies, review articles, case reports and abstracts were included while conference papers and posters were excluded. Of importance, TUGSE cases been reported only to a minimal extent in the literature. Lack of its awareness tends to lead clinicians to a misconception of cancer. Thus, this particular lesion needs to be differentiated from other malignant lesions to provide a proper mode of treatment. The present article reviews various aspects of the TUGSE with emphasis on the clinical manifestation, pathogenesis, histological, and immunohistochemical study. This study provides the clinician contemporaries, a humble expansion to their knowledge of the disease, based on the searched literature, enabling a more comprehensive management of this rare occurrence.
  9. Mamat CF, Jamshed SQ, El Syed T, Khan TM, Othman N, Al-Shami AK, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2015 Jul-Sep;7(3):181-7.
    PMID: 26229351 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.160011
    This detailed review analyzed the previously published studies related to the prevalence of psychotropic substances use, associated factors, and the misuse of the psychotropics among students. A comprehensive literature search covering six databases was performed. References from published articles and reports were extracted. This helped in identifying the available information on the use of psychotropic drugs. A total of 16 articles were included in this review. There is an upsurge of using psychotropics with the preceding years. More students are exposed to the risk of using psychotropic substances due to the multiple factors like stress, increased academic workload, etc. The misuse is found to be common with prescribed psychotropic substances. Students need to be aware of the bad outcomes of using psychotropic substances. Participation of every stakeholder to curb this menace needs to be emphasized. More extensive studies are required to know about the increasing prevalence, factors, and misuse of psychotropics.
  10. Elkalmi R, Hassali MA, Al-Lela OQ, Jawad Awadh AI, Al-Shami AK, Jamshed SQ
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2013 Jul;5(3):224-8.
    PMID: 24082699 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.116824
    The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of the general population towards ADR and their reporting system.
  11. Rahim N, Iffat W, Shakeel S, Naeem MI, Qazi F, Rizvi M, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):144-151.
    PMID: 28717338 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_328_16
    AIMS: In flu pandemics, pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices are critical to save patients life. The objective of study was to determine the knowledge of and attitude toward the pandemic influenza among the pharmacy students of Karachi, Pakistan.
    SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2014 by adopting a prevalidated questionnaire distributed to senior pharmacy students (final year) in seven private and public sector universities of Karachi.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 443 pharmacy students responded the survey. Data regarding sociodemographic characteristics of the students, perceptions, level of knowledge and attitudes toward influenza, and prophylactic measures were collected.
    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: To compute the correlation between different variables, data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square statistic method. P < 0.05 was considered statistical significance for all analysis.
    RESULTS: Influenza was identified as a viral disease (n = 423; 95.48%) and 282 (71.2%) students correctly identified it as disease affecting humans and pigs. Textbooks reported as most common source of knowledge (n = 282; 64%). Most common symptoms identified were fever (81.94%), sore throat (64.1%), and nonproductive cough (43.34%). The most common preventive measures were covering nose and mouth (268; 60.5%) and wearing protective coverings (254; 57.3%). Only half of the students correctly reported about the route of administration (180; 40.6%) and strains in vaccine (186; 41.98%). The best time for administration of such vaccine was known by only 156 pharmacy students (35.34%). The majority of the students (82.6%) had no idea about the manifestation of influenza pandemic. Knowledge regarding influenza differed according to gender and institutions differing in their affiliation with tertiary care hospitals.
    CONCLUSION: It was observed that knowledge about disease progression, transmission, vaccination, and treatment in pharmacy students, especially those who are not getting clinical training in tertiary care hospitals was limited. There is an urgent need to develop awareness programs to increase knowledge of influenza among clinical pharmacists as they are more susceptible to infections and community as a whole.
  12. Rana B, Bukhsh A, Khan TM, Sarwar A, Omer MO, Jamshed SQ
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):121-125.
    PMID: 28717335 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_29_17
    AIM: The present study was aimed to highlight the current prescribing pattern of oral hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of these therapeutic categories in achieving target glycemic control.

    METHODS: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study of 6 months' duration conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Lahore, Pakistan.

    RESULTS: The current research recruited 145 patients presented in diabetes management center of a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. Mean age of the participants was 50.2 (± 8.5) years. Out of the 145 patients, 63% were females and 37% were males. Most patients were diagnosed to have diabetes within the past 5 years. Diabetes-induced neuropathy was the most common complication (71.7%) among the patients. A large proportion of these patients (70.3%) were also suffering from other comorbidities among which the most common one is hypertension. The average number of prescribed medications was 1.31. Metformin was prescribed to a majority of patients (64%) as monotherapy while 28.96% received combination therapy. Mean glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c) before and after 3 months of treatment was 8.5 (± 2.3) and 8.04 (± 2.1), respectively. Inferential statistics show a strong association between HBA1c and life style modifications and adherence to medication therapy (P = 0.05). However, the correlation between HBA1c and Morisky score and duration of disease was inverse and weak (P = 0.6, 0.4). The t-test values show a small difference between HBA1c values before and after 3 months (t = 0.440 and 0.466, respectively).

    CONCLUSION: Optimization of medication regimen and continuous patient education regarding life style modification and adherence to medication therapy are necessitated to bring HBA1c values near to target.
  13. Elnaem MH, Jamshed SQ, Elkalmi RM, Baharuddin MF, Johari MA, Aziz NABA, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):115-120.
    PMID: 28717334 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_336_16
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Students in relevant health-care academic programs are the future professionals who should play an active role in increasing community awareness regarding chronic diseases such as osteoporosis. This research aimed to evaluate the knowledge of osteoporosis, one of the growing health-care burdens in Malaysia, among students belong to three different health occupations programs in a Malaysian University.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was conducted to assess the level of knowledge on osteoporosis and to explore the potential association between the study program and osteoporosis-related knowledge among medicine, pharmacy, and allied health sciences students in a Malaysian University. A total of 348 students were approached. The data were collected using validated revised Osteoporosis Knowledge Test questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The results showed variability in knowledge score between students belonging to different study programs. allied health sciences students have the highest overall total score (median = 20) and nutrition score (median = 16), but for exercise score, both students in allied health sciences and medicine programs shared a similar median score (median = 11.5). More than half of the respondents showed adequate knowledge on osteoporosis. The students from allied health sciences exhibited more knowledge on osteoporosis compared to students in other study programs. Among the Kulliyyah of Pharmacy respondents, the majority did not manage to answer correctly on the whole scale. This was evident by total percentage of 69.91% of the respondents scored below than median score.

    CONCLUSION: There is a considerable gap of knowledge regarding osteoporosis among students in various health occupations academic programs. Pharmacy students particularly need focused learning related to exercise and nutrition in preventing osteoporosis during their academic program.
  14. Das SK, Sengupta P, Mustapha MS, Sarker MMR
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):88-93.
    PMID: 28717330 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.183227
    BACKGROUND: Stress is a normal part of everyday life but chronic stress can lead to a variety of stress-related illnesses including hypertension, anxiety, and depression. In the present investigation, standardized leaf extract of Epipremnumaureum was evaluated for its anti-stress potential.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the evaluation of anti-stress activity, groups of mice (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress and anoxic stress tolerance test in mice 1h after daily treatment of E.aureumextract. Diazepam (5 mg/kg) was taken as a reference standard. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as noninvasive biomarkers to assess the anti-stress activity and plasma cortisol, blood ascorbic acid, and weight of adrenal were measured. The 24 h urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The hematological parameters (neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) were also determined.

    RESULTS: Administration of E.aureumat doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg wasfound to be effective in inhibiting the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with E. aureum extract prevents the rise in blood ascorbic acid and plasma cortisol. Moreover, the extract prevented the increase in weight of adrenal gland also significantly increased the anoxia stress tolerance time. Dose-dependent significant reduction in white blood cell count was observed in anoxic stress tolerance test as compared to stressed group.

    CONCLUSION: Hence, the present study provides scientific support for the positiveadaptogenic effect of E. aureum extract.
  15. Elnaem MH, Mohamed MHN, Huri HZ, Azarisman SM, Elkalmi RM
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):80-87.
    PMID: 28717329 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_30_17
    Use of statin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been recommended by most clinical guidelines. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among T2DM patients. It has been proved that statins are effective for primary or secondary CVD prophylaxis. Reports have highlighted the underutilization of statins in clinical practice and the suboptimal adherence to guideline recommendations. This review article points to summarize the current evidence confirming the role of statins in T2DM patients and to provide an overview of factors that may affect statins' prescribing patterns and compliance in clinical practice. Initiatives to enhance statin therapy prescribing should recognize the comprehensive nature of the prescribing process. Attempts to assure proper statin prescribing and utilization can help in achieving better clinical outcomes of statin therapy.
  16. Nahas ARF, Sulaiman SAS
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Jul-Sep;9(3):178-184.
    PMID: 28979072 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_64_17
    BACKGROUND: Depression imposes numerous changes on depressive men, promoting for low bone mineral density (BMD) and erectile dysfunction (ED), yet no published data on exploring the possible association between these two disorders among depressive men. We therefore investigated whether low BMD is associated with ED among depressive men and highlighted the possible mutual underlying factors that might give rise to these two disorders in this specific group of patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 119 depressive men were recruited and their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were obtained. Erectile function was evaluated using the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function. All patients received a calcaneal BMD scanning. Chi-square test was conducted to determine if a significant association exists between ED and low BMD.

    RESULTS: Of the study participants, ninety patients reported ED, while 29 patients reported no ED. Within the ED group, there was a significantly higher proportion of patients with low BMD compared to the non-ED group (85.6% vs. 62.1%, P = 0.006). In addition, among younger participants (i.e., aged < 50 years old), the difference in T-score between ED patients (Md = -2.2, n = 41) and non-ED patients (Md = -1.3, n = 20) was significant (P = 0.001); but held no significance among older participants.

    CONCLUSIONS: While our findings are considered prefatory, we reported that low BMD was significantly associated with ED in depressive men and that only among young depressive patients, BMD was significantly lower in ED patients compared to non-ED patients. More research investigating these findings and the possible underlying mechanisms for such association are warranted.
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