The occasional influenza pandemics and the seasonal influenza epidemics have destroyed millions of lives since
the last century. It is therefore necessary to understand the virus replication patterns as this provides essential
information on the virus infectivity, pathogenicity and spread patterns. This study aimed to investigate the replication
of avian influenza A virus H5N1 (A/Chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004) in MDCK cells. In this study, the TCID50 (50% tissue
culture infectious dose) of AIV H5N1 was first determined. The MDCK cells were then infected with AIV H5N1 at TCID50
for 0-48 h. The CPE (cytopathic effect) was observed and cell death was determined hourly. The virus-infected cells
and media were subsequently collected for gene analysis. The results showed that the TCID50 of AIV H5N1 was 10-9
dilution. The CPE percentage showed a strong and positive correlation with the infection period (r = 1.0, n = 9, p <
0.01). The amount of a highly conserved influenza viral gene, M2 gene amplified from infected media (r = 0.471, n =
9, p= > 0.05) and infected cell (r = 0.73, n = 9, p < 0.05) were also positively correlated with the infection period. In
conclusion, although CPE started to be observed in the early time points of infection, however, the M2 gene was only
amplified from the infected media and cells after 48 h and 24 h, respectively. This signifies that AIV H5N1 used in this
study is pathogenic and it is able to cause severe cytopathology to host cells even at low virus load.
This article discusses on the natural compounds from the ant plant (Myrmecodia species, family: Rubiaceae). The ethyl
acetate (EtOAc) extract from the tuber of M. platytyrea was fractionated by using medium pressure liquid chromatography,
giving eight fractions (F1-F8). Those fractions were evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)
assay. Fraction F5 was recorded as potent (EC50 = 21.57 ± 1.40 µg/mL). Then, it was purified by using column
chromatography (CC) (mobile phase = chloroform: EtOAc). From the CC, ten fractions (F5F1-F5F10) were obtained
and compound (1) was isolated from F5F3 via preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC). After spraying with
anisaldehyde-sulphuric reagent, compound (1) gave a green TLC spot (Rf
= 0.65, 100% CHCl3
, multiple development).
H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (500 MHz, CDCl3
) was performed to determine the chemical
framework of (1). This compound was identified as morindolide, having an iridoid structure. Meanwhile, the mass
spectra for compounds (2) and (3) were analysed. The data presented the molecular ion at m/z 375 [M-H]- and 255,
suggesting the formulation of 2-(2-methylbutyryl)phloroglucinol glucoside and a flavanone, respectively. From the
literature, compound (1) was firstly isolated from a Chinese natural medicine, the dried root of Morinda officinalis
(family: Rubiaceae). The flavonoids are also included as the biologically active compounds from Myrmecodia. In
short, this is the first occurrence of morindolide from the ant plant.
Cervical Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (cVEMP) is a routine vestibular test which checks the integrity of
vestibulocollic reflex (VCR) pathway. Clinically, 500-Hz tone burst is widely used stimulus to evoke a cVEMP. Although
several studies have suggested different plateau times (PT) for eliciting cVEMPs, but not many have reported the optimal
PT for evoking cVEMP using 500 Hz tone burst stimuli. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of
PT on cVEMPs elicited by 500 Hz tone burst at 95 dBnHL using four different PT (0, 2, 4 and 10 ms). Thirty healthy
adults with normal hearing and vestibular systems participated in this study. Results revealed that the P1 latency was
significantly longer for PT 10 ms compared to other PTs. N1 latency was significantly prolonged for long PT of 10 ms
compared to PT 2 ms. P2 latency showed no significant differences among PTs. The P1-N1 inter-amplitude values
however revealed no significant difference across all PTs. It was found that the P1-N1 inter-amplitude was severely
affected after 4 ms of PT. This study concluded that the PT of either 0 or 2 ms yielded the most robust cVEMP.
Heschl’s gyrus (HG) is known to interact with other auditory related areas of the same hemisphere during the performance
of an auditory cognitive task. However, the information about how it interacts with the opposite HG is still lacking.
The aim of this study was to investigate the psychophysiologic interaction (PPI) between the bilateral HG during a
simple arithmetic addition task and to verify the role of noise as an experimental factor that would modulate the PPI.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were performed on eighteen healthy participants, in which a
single-digit addition task were solved during in-quiet (AIQ) and in-noise (AIN) conditions. The fMRI data were analysed
using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8). The interaction between the bilateral HG was investigated using PPI
analysis. The response in right HG was found to be linearly influenced by the activity in left HG, vice-versa, for both
in-quiet and in-noise conditions. The connectivity from right to left HG in noisy condition seemed to be modulated
by noise, while the modulation is relatively small oppositely, indicating a non-reciprocal behavior. A two-way PPI
model between right and left HG is suggested. The connectivity from right to left HG during a simple addition task in
noise is driven by a higher ability of right HG to perceive the stimuli in a noisy condition. Both the bilateral HGs took
part in the cognitive processes of arithmetic addition from which the interactions between the two were found to be
different in noise.
The aims of this study are (1) to determine the scattered radiation dose levels in routine fluoroscopy procedures and (2) to compare them with the equivalent chest x-rays and also (3) to monitor common techniques and radiation safety measures taken by the medical officers. The study covered a sample of 105 fluoroscopic procedures performed by 18
medical officers. Each officer wore a personal pocket dosimeter inside the lead gown during each procedure. A digital dosimeter was placed near the detector of the fluoroscopy unit while a survey meter was positioned at the control panel area to record the dose levels. There were 14 types of examination included in this study. The total number of images
captured was found to be the highest in barium swallow examination with 115 images, almost five times higher compared to the common practices. The longest screening time was observed in barium enema examination which is 9.15 seconds. The median of the scattered dose level was the highest in barium meal examination (165.50 µSv) which is equivalent
to 8.28 times of average dose impart by chest x-ray examinations. The number of images and the length of screening time depend on the competency levels of the medical officers. They capture as many images as possible to avoid missing any abnormalities, therefore it will always be better if the fluoroscopist is consulted during each case. They should also
consistently practice essential protection by minimizing exposure time, maximizing distance from the source tube and utilizing the radiation shielding.
Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (roselle) is a polyphenol rich fruit. This study aimed to identify the neuroprotective effect of
roselle on LPS-induced cell proliferation and nitric oxide-induced free radical in microglia and neuroblastoma cells.
MTT assay was used to identify the appropriate concentration of roselle and LPS for microglia and neuroblastoma cells
proliferation study. Griess assay were used to determine the level of nitric oxide accumulated based on the reaction of
Griess to estimate the activity of iNOS in nitric oxide production. The results showed that roselle at the concentration of
50 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL and LPS at concentration of 1 μg/mL does not give cytotoxic effect towards microglia C8-B4 and
neuroblastoma LN18 cells. The roselle treatment at 50 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL showed a protective effect on LPS-induced
microglia C8-B4 cells. However, in neuroblastoma LN18 cells, no protective effect was seen on both 50 μg/mL and 100
μg/mL of roselle treatment following induction with 1 μg/mL of LPS. On the other hand, the production of nitric oxide
(NO) was reduced when LPS-induced microglia C8-B4 cells were treated with 50 μg/mL of roselle. Treatment of roselle
at concentration 100 μg/mL on LPS-induced neuroblastoma LN18 cells also reduced the production of nitric oxide. As a
conclusion, roselle had the ability to give neuroprotective effect by the inhibition of LPS induction activity on microglia
activation for normal and cancer cells at different concentrations
In this study, morphometric and gravimetric indices were used to determine the impact of cadmium exposure on a sentinel
species. Scaling coefficient, condition factor (CF), hepatosomatic index (HSI), renosomatic index (RSI) and gonadosomatic
index (GSI) were compared between rice frogs (Fejervarya limnocharis) exposed to different environmental cadmium levels.
The result showed that frogs caught from the contaminated site had significantly higher CF (10.296), RSI (0.413) and female
GSI (7.594) than frogs from the contaminated site (7.594, 0.380 and 1.594, respectively). For Scaling Coefficient and HSI,
albeit being statistically insignificant, these indices showed a similar trend. On the other hand, the male GSI showed a
reverse trend where frogs from contaminated site showed higher values than their counterpart from the reference site.
However, the differences were not statistically significant. This research concluded that there is a relationship between
cadmium contamination with morphometric and gravimetric indices. Therefore, it is suggested that the use of these data
could give an idea on the effect of cadmium exposure on the rice frog
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a technique used to teach children with autism a variety of skills. In ABA, children with autism often do not receive reinforcers because they have difficulty performing their targeted behaviors, which consequently leads to challenging behaviors. Objectives of this study are to increase spontaneous request and decrease challenging behavior among children with autism by introducing a secondary reinforcer during therapy based on ABA model. Secondary reinforcer has lower reinforcing value than the primary reinforcer. When the children tried but were unable to produce their targeted behavior, they were given the secondary reinforcer. The children were divided into two groups, five children in the intervention group and four children in the control group, and they were taught specific target requesting behavior (TRB) to request for a preferred item. Three children in the intervention group recorded an increase in spontaneous request and a reduction in challenging behaviors. Only two children from the control group recorded an increase in spontaneous request and a decrease in challenging behaviors. However, only children from the intervention group were able to maintain their performance during the generalization sessions. The results suggest that children respond differently to specific prompts and interventions. Future studies should focus on how prompts affect children’s performance and also on reinforcer selection. Bigger scale studies are still needed to further determine the effectiveness of a secondary reinforcer in assisting the learning of requesting skill and in reducing challenging behaviors among children with autism during therapy based on ABA model.
Despite a vast number of studies that were focused on the roles of superior temporal gyrus (STG) and cerebellum as sensory
area, little is known about their involvement in cognitive function such as attention and perception. The present fMRI
study aimed to identify this cognitive role from brain activation profile of STG and cerebellum obtained from an arithmetic
addition task. Eighteen healthy right hand dominance male adults participated in this study. They were instructed to solve
single-digit addition tasks in quiet and noisy background during the fMRI scan. Both the in-quiet and in-noise addition
tasks activated the bilateral STG and cerebellum (lobule VI and lobule VII) significantly but differentially. In both quiet
and noisy conditions, STG activation is dominant in the left hemisphere while cerebellum showed a right hemisphere
dominance. Bilateral STG and cerebellum (lobule VI) activation decreasedin noise, conversely cerebellum (lobule VII)
activation increased in noise. These asymmetrical activation indicated hemispheric lateralization and differential behaviors
of both brain areas in different environment while performing simple arithmetic addition task.
Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) is a cosmopolitan scuttle fly of medical and forensic importance. This
species is generally small, humpbacked and is a prominent decomposer of corpses indoors. Taxonomically, adult sexes
can be distinguished based on the characteristics of the terminal segments of the abdomen. In this report, the terminalia
of adult male and female M. scalaris were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The terminal segment
of an adult female is less complex compared to male, consisting of an ovipositor and cerci. In male, the hypopygium
consists of epandrium, hypandrium, anal tube and penis complex. A pair of long and feathered setae was attached to the
tip of the anal tube and tapered. The application of SEM to identify this species isuseful and can be expanded to other
species in this fly group.
This study aims to identify the perception of third year physiotherapy students on the teaching and learning during clinical placements. A sample of 154 third year undergraduate and diploma students from the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, the Universiti Teknologi Mara and the Kolej Sains Kesihatan Bersekutu completed the questionnaire. High internal reliability of teaching and learning activities scale in the questionnaire was determined using Cronbach alpha (α = 0.94). Findings showed significant differences (p < 0.05) of perception among students in the clinical block between different levels of education, the ideal number of students in a group during clinical teaching session, and in the activity of ‘patient-centered activities,’ as well as 'feedback to the student.’ These findings demonstrated that the level of education does influence the students’ perceptions on their teaching and learning during clinical placements. In conclusion, the level of education is a contributory factor that influences the students’ rate of learning in clinical education.
Keywords: Clinical education, physiotherapy students, perception, undergraduate, diploma
Perbezaan penjagaan kesihatan di antara orang-orang kurang upaya intelektual dan penduduk umum adalah jelas. Olimpik Khusus Indonesia (SOIna) adalah organisasi NGO yang berkaitan dengan kegiatan olahraga olimpik sedunia yang berkesempatan bekerja dengan warga kurang upaya intelektual. Kajian ini dilakukan untuk mengukur prevalen pereputan karies dan gingivitis di kalangan atlet-atlet Indonesia yang kurang upaya intelek. Jumlah peserta yang terlibat adalah 1452 atlet daripada 11 wilayah (Jawa Timur, Bali, Selatan Sabah, Utara Sumatera, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Kalimantan tengah, DKI, Jawa Barat, Yogyakarta, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Banten) di Indonesia. Pengumpulan data bermula dari tahun 2004 hingga 2009. Setiap tahun pengambilan data minimum dilakukan di dua wilayah yang berbeza. Purata usia atlet adalah 15.04 ± 4,62 tahun. 77.6% atlet mengalami rasa nyeri di rongga mulut kerana karies yang tidak dirawat. Karies tertinggi dijumpai pada atlet yang tinggal di pulau Jawa (81.5% Yogyakarta; Jawa Barat 83.8%. DKI Jakarta 80.2%, dan Jawa Timur 83.5%) berbanding dengan atlet yang tinggal di luar pulau Jawa. Secara umumnya prevalens inflamasi gusi pada atlet kurang upaya intelektual adalah 29.47%. Atlet dari wilayah DKI Jakarta menunjukkan prevalen inflamasi gusi tertinggi iaitu 51.04% berbanding dengan atlet daripada wilayah Nusa Tenggara Barat dengan 14.84%. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, prevalen karies dan gingivitis adalah tinggi. Atlet yang tinggal di pulau Jawa mengalami kerosakan gigi yang tidak dirawat dan inflamasi gusi yang lebih tinggi berbanding dengan atlet yang tinggal di luar pulau Jawa.
The oral health awareness and status among the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia first year dental students were studied. Seventy-three subjects underwent two components of assessment: questionnaire assessing oral health awareness and behaviour, and clinical examination of oral health status. Indices used including Plaque, Calculus, Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs (CPITN) and total score of Decayed, Missing, Filled and teeth indicated for Extraction (DMFX[T]). More than 90% of the subjects were reported to brush their teeth twice or more daily and used supplemental cleaning tools. They also knew the importance of healthy oral condition, the various causes and prevention of tooth decay and gum diseases. Although 70.3% felt they need dental treatment, the majority (81.9%) visited the dentist only when they feel it is necessary to do so. Clinical examination showed low scores of 0.99 and 0.40 for mean plaque and calculus indices, respectively, while 80.8% of the subjects have mild calculus accumulation. Code 2 of the CPITN Index was the highest (70.3%) among the subjects. The total DMFX was 291, with mean score of 0.14 per subject and the decayed component was the highest (D=186 teeth). These findings suggest that the subjects have acceptable oral health awareness, and also good existing oral health status.
The aqueous and ethanol extracts of Stichopus chloronotus Brandt were investigated for their effectiveness against guinea pig dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes using the hair root invasion test. The ethanol extract at 10 mg/ml showed 82.8 % efficacy against T. mentagrophytes while the aqueous extract at similar concentration showed 84.8% efficacy against M. canis infection, as compared to econazole which showed 100% efficacy against both infections. No adverse effect on the skin was observed in the treated animals. In conclusion, aqueous and ethanol extracts of S. chloronotus showed high antimycotic activity against experimentally induced dermatophytosis in guinea pigs.
Garis panduan saringan telinga tengah oleh American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) telah menyarankan agar pendekatan kuantitatif digunakan untuk menginterpretasi keputusan timpanogram. Berbanding pendekatan kualitatif yang digunapakai untuk menginterpretasi timpanogram sebelum ini, pendekatan kuantitatif adalah lebih sesuai kerana ianya bersifat objektif serta dapat diaplikasi dengan peralatan timpanometer komersial yang terdapat di pasaran sekarang. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan nilai mutlak ciri timpanometri iaitu puncak statik admitan akustik dikompensasi (Puncak Ytm), kelebaran timpanogram (TW) dan isipadu salur telinga luar (Vea) di kalangan kanak-kanak pra-sekolah normal dan Sindrom Down. Lima belas kanak-kanak normal dan 12 kanak-kanak Sindrom Down yang memenuhi kriteria pemilihan subjek terlibat di dalam kajian ini. Nilai purata Puncak Ytm dan Vea bagi kanak-kanak normal masing-masing adalah 0.36 mmho dan 0.57 cm3 manakala kanak-kanak Sindrom Down mencatat nilai purata 0.14 mmho dan 0.38 cm3. Kanak-kanak normal dan Sindrom Down masingmasing mencatatkan nilai purata TW 99.73 dan 148.65 daPa. Analisis statistik menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan di antara kedua-dua kumpulan subjek bagi ketiga-tiga nilai parameter timpanometri yang diperolehi.
The protective effect of the ethanol extract of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on acute hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (1000 mg/kg) was studied in plasma and hepatic tissue samples obtained from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The ethanol extract was given in oral doses of 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg to the rats at 0, 4 and 8 hrs after paracetamol was given orally. The plasma and liver of the rats were subjected to biochemical analysis 24 hrs after hepatotoxicity was induced to determine the levels of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA) and aspartate transaminase (AST). The results were compared to the rats which were given the antidote N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (500 mg/kg) at 0, 4 and 8 hrs after the paracetamol dose. The results showed that at 200 mg/kg the extract reduced the plasma levels of SOD significantly (p < 0.05) while at a higher dose of 300 mg/kg it reduced plasma SOD, hepatic MDA, serum AST and increased the levels of plasma proteins significantly (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the ethanol extract of Z. officinale showed protective effect against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity at both dose levels and the protective effect was better at the higher dose.
Kimura's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder which affects the subcutaneous tissues of the head and neck, axilla and upper limb as well as the groin region. In the head and neck region, major salivary glands and regional lymph nodes are mainly involved with associated eosinophilia and an elevated IgE concentration. Three cases of Kimura's disease involving the parotid glands, lymph nodes and cheek are presented with a brief review of the literature.
The relationship between anaemia and cognitive function was evaluated among 35 Chinese elderly (24 men and 11 women) aged 60 to 85 years (mean age 70.1 ± 6.7 years) from five old folks homes in Klang Valley. They were interviewed to obtain information on social and health status, habitual dietary intake and cognitive function. Hodkinson's Abbreviated Mental Test was used to measure the cognitive function. Haematological indices which included Full Blood Count (FBC), serum iron, serum ferritin, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), serum folate and serum cobalamine (vitamin B12) were measured using an automated analyzer. Anthropometric measurements and clinical signs of anaemia were also examined. The findings indicated that the prevalence of anaemia as assessed using haemoglobin alone was 22.9%, while iron deficiency anaemia based on low serum iron, microcytic and hypochromic criterion was detected among 5.7% of the sample. Subclinical folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies were diagnosed among 34.3% and 8.6% of the subjects. However, there was no occurrence of megaloblastic anaemia. There was a positive correlation between cognitive score with mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) (r=0.547, p
A study was conducted to determine the radioprotective effects of Citrullus vulgaris on the lymphocyte sub-membrane particularly the actin layer. A total of 30 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three equal groups of positive control, negative control and treatment. The positive and negative control groups were force fed with 40 ml/kg body weight of normal saline while the treatment group received 40 g/kg body weight of fresh juice of C. vulgaris daily. After a week the positive control and treatment groups were irradiated with 90 rad gamma radiation. Viable lymphocytes were determined using propidium iodine and acridine orange stain and observed under a fluorescent microscope. The percentage of viable lymphocytes of the treatment group (71.0%; p = 0.03) was significantly higher than the positive control group. The results showed that C. vulgaris possessed radioprotective effects because the lymphocyte actin was not damaged. The radioprotection effects could be due to the presence of antioxidants in C. vulgaris.
The objective of this study was to investigate the degree to which Auditory Steady State Response (ASSR) thresholds correlate with behavioral thresholds in two groups of adult subjects, one with normal hearing and the other with sensorineural hearing impairment. When the relationship between ASSR and behavioral thresholds were analyzed separately according to different groups of subjects, significant correlations were only found for the hearing impaired group. The mean differences between the actual and the predicted thresholds derived from linear regression analysis for that group of subjects were found to be 5 dB (SD = 4), 3 dB (SD = 3), 4 dB (SD = 3) and 4 dB (SD = 4) with correlation coefficients of 0.80, 0.88, 0.91 and 0.97 for the 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz carrier frequencies, respectively. When the relationship between ASSR and behavioral thresholds were analyzed using data from both groups of subjects, correlation coefficients were found to be higher across carrier frequencies of 500 to 4000 Hz (r ³ 0.96) with mean differences between the actual and the predicted thresholds of 6 dB (SD = 3), 4 dB (SD = 3), 4 dB (SD = 3) and 6 dB (SD = 3) for the hearing impaired group and 11dB (SD = 7), 8 dB (SD = 8), 8 dB (SD = 6) and 10 dB (SD = 7) for the normal hearing group. However, it was observed that the range of differences between the actual and the predicted thresholds were quite large reaching 34 dB for the 500 and 4000 Hz carrier frequencies. This suggests that in clinical setting, ASSR cannot predict the presence or absence of a hearing loss accurately. In general, it can be concluded that ASSR allow for an accurate prediction of behavioral thresholds within ± 10 dB in subjects with hearing impairment. However, ASSR cannot accurately predict hearing thresholds in normally hearing individuals.
Key words: auditory steady-state response threshold, behavioral threshold, adult, normal hearing, hearing impairment