Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 365 in total

  1. Tan, Toong Seng, Yap, Wei Boon, Sharifah Syed Hassan
    The occasional influenza pandemics and the seasonal influenza epidemics have destroyed millions of lives since
    the last century. It is therefore necessary to understand the virus replication patterns as this provides essential
    information on the virus infectivity, pathogenicity and spread patterns. This study aimed to investigate the replication
    of avian influenza A virus H5N1 (A/Chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004) in MDCK cells. In this study, the TCID50 (50% tissue
    culture infectious dose) of AIV H5N1 was first determined. The MDCK cells were then infected with AIV H5N1 at TCID50
    for 0-48 h. The CPE (cytopathic effect) was observed and cell death was determined hourly. The virus-infected cells
    and media were subsequently collected for gene analysis. The results showed that the TCID50 of AIV H5N1 was 10-9
    dilution. The CPE percentage showed a strong and positive correlation with the infection period (r = 1.0, n = 9, p <
    0.01). The amount of a highly conserved influenza viral gene, M2 gene amplified from infected media (r = 0.471, n =
    9, p= > 0.05) and infected cell (r = 0.73, n = 9, p < 0.05) were also positively correlated with the infection period. In
    conclusion, although CPE started to be observed in the early time points of infection, however, the M2 gene was only
    amplified from the infected media and cells after 48 h and 24 h, respectively. This signifies that AIV H5N1 used in this
    study is pathogenic and it is able to cause severe cytopathology to host cells even at low virus load.
  2. Nur Fadhilah Mohamad Haris, Mohd Kamal Nik Hasan, Mizaton Hazizul Hasan, Ibtisam Abdul Wahab
    This article discusses on the natural compounds from the ant plant (Myrmecodia species, family: Rubiaceae). The ethyl
    acetate (EtOAc) extract from the tuber of M. platytyrea was fractionated by using medium pressure liquid chromatography,
    giving eight fractions (F1-F8). Those fractions were evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)
    assay. Fraction F5 was recorded as potent (EC50 = 21.57 ± 1.40 µg/mL). Then, it was purified by using column
    chromatography (CC) (mobile phase = chloroform: EtOAc). From the CC, ten fractions (F5F1-F5F10) were obtained
    and compound (1) was isolated from F5F3 via preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC). After spraying with
    anisaldehyde-sulphuric reagent, compound (1) gave a green TLC spot (Rf
    = 0.65, 100% CHCl3
    , multiple development).
    The 1
    H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (500 MHz, CDCl3
    ) was performed to determine the chemical
    framework of (1). This compound was identified as morindolide, having an iridoid structure. Meanwhile, the mass
    spectra for compounds (2) and (3) were analysed. The data presented the molecular ion at m/z 375 [M-H]- and 255,
    suggesting the formulation of 2-(2-methylbutyryl)phloroglucinol glucoside and a flavanone, respectively. From the
    literature, compound (1) was firstly isolated from a Chinese natural medicine, the dried root of Morinda officinalis
    (family: Rubiaceae). The flavonoids are also included as the biologically active compounds from Myrmecodia. In
    short, this is the first occurrence of morindolide from the ant plant.
  3. Priscilla Tang Shu Fern, Masne Kadar, Noorashikin Samin, Nor Afifi Razaob
    Kefungsian mobiliti dalam kalangan populasi warga emas merupakan elemen yang penting bagi kualiti hidup yang
    lebih bermakna. Penilaian adalah penting untuk memastikan langkah-langkah sewajarnya boleh diambil demi
    mengesan perubahan dalam kefungsian mobiliti. Terdapat pelbagai jenis penilaian mobiliti namun kebanyakan
    kajian kebolehpercayaan ulang semula alat penilaian ini adalah berdasarkan kajian luar negara. Oleh itu, kajian
    ini adalah untuk menentukan kebolehpercayaan tiga alat penilaian status kefungsian mobiliti terutama aktiviti fizikal
    dalam kalangan warga emas. Seramai 60 orang warga emas dengan min umur 76.32 tahun dan sisihan piawai 8.66
    terlibat dalam kajian kebolehpercayaan uji-ulang semula bagi tiga jenis alat penilaian; Ujian Berjalan Enam Minit
    [Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT)], Ujian Bangun dan Berjalan [Timed Up and Go Test (TUG)], Ujian Duduk-Berdiri [Sitto-Stand
    Test (STS)]. Bacaan di ambil sebanyak dua kali dengan selang masa seminggu antara penilaian pertama dan
    kedua. Korelasi Intra-Kelas [Intraclass Correlation (ICC)], Had Keserasian [Limits of Agreement (LOA)] dan Ralat
    Pengukuran Piawai [Standard Error of Measurement (SEM)] dan diikuti kombinasi ketiga-tiga kaedah telah digunakan
    dalam analisa data. Hasil kajian menunjukkan ketiga-tiga alat penilaian menggunakan metodologi analisis statistik
    ICC, LOA, SEM dan kombinasi ketiga-tiga metodologi tersebut menunjukkan nilai kebolehpercayaan yang tinggi. Nilai
    ICC bagi kesemua alat penilaian aktiviti melebihi 0.90 (ICC=0.94-0.99). Graf LOA menunjukkan wujudnya suatu tahap
    kebolehpercayaan bagi kesemua alat penilaian aktiviti manakala peratus SEM pula merekodkan nilai kurang dari
    10% (SEM%=0.95%-9.95%). Kesimpulannya, ketiga-tiga alat penilaian mempunyai ketekalan yang tinggi dan sesuai
    digunakan sebagai salah satu alat penilaian kefungsian mobiliti bagi warga emas di Malaysia.
  4. Yap, Hui Cin, Asmah Hamid, Farah Wahida Ibrahim, Nor Fadilah Rajab, Yanti Rosli
    The emergence of research about the biological effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) have growing concern among
    researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on the brain of rats periodically exposed to 0.1 mT EMF.
    Total 24 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subdivided randomly to 4 groups: 2 control groups (C1 6 hours: 6 h/
    day for 5 days; C2 20 hours: 20 h/day for 5 days) and 2 treatment groups which exposed to 0.1 mT EMF (T1 6 hours:
    6 h/day for 5 days; T2 20 hours: 20 h/day for 5 days). A significant decrease in the pyramidal cell number was higher
    as the exposure duration to EMF was extended (T1, p
  5. Mohd Fairul Syafiq Harun, Vijay Marimuthu
    Cervical Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (cVEMP) is a routine vestibular test which checks the integrity of
    vestibulocollic reflex (VCR) pathway. Clinically, 500-Hz tone burst is widely used stimulus to evoke a cVEMP. Although
    several studies have suggested different plateau times (PT) for eliciting cVEMPs, but not many have reported the optimal
    PT for evoking cVEMP using 500 Hz tone burst stimuli. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of
    PT on cVEMPs elicited by 500 Hz tone burst at 95 dBnHL using four different PT (0, 2, 4 and 10 ms). Thirty healthy
    adults with normal hearing and vestibular systems participated in this study. Results revealed that the P1 latency was
    significantly longer for PT 10 ms compared to other PTs. N1 latency was significantly prolonged for long PT of 10 ms
    compared to PT 2 ms. P2 latency showed no significant differences among PTs. The P1-N1 inter-amplitude values
    however revealed no significant difference across all PTs. It was found that the P1-N1 inter-amplitude was severely
    affected after 4 ms of PT. This study concluded that the PT of either 0 or 2 ms yielded the most robust cVEMP.
  6. Yusoff, A.N., Te, L.H., Mukari, S.Z.M., Abd Hamid, A.I.
    Heschl’s gyrus (HG) is known to interact with other auditory related areas of the same hemisphere during the performance
    of an auditory cognitive task. However, the information about how it interacts with the opposite HG is still lacking.
    The aim of this study was to investigate the psychophysiologic interaction (PPI) between the bilateral HG during a
    simple arithmetic addition task and to verify the role of noise as an experimental factor that would modulate the PPI.
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were performed on eighteen healthy participants, in which a
    single-digit addition task were solved during in-quiet (AIQ) and in-noise (AIN) conditions. The fMRI data were analysed
    using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8). The interaction between the bilateral HG was investigated using PPI
    analysis. The response in right HG was found to be linearly influenced by the activity in left HG, vice-versa, for both
    in-quiet and in-noise conditions. The connectivity from right to left HG in noisy condition seemed to be modulated
    by noise, while the modulation is relatively small oppositely, indicating a non-reciprocal behavior. A two-way PPI
    model between right and left HG is suggested. The connectivity from right to left HG during a simple addition task in
    noise is driven by a higher ability of right HG to perceive the stimuli in a noisy condition. Both the bilateral HGs took
    part in the cognitive processes of arithmetic addition from which the interactions between the two were found to be
    different in noise.
  7. Poh, B.K., Sia, P.H., Norimah A. Karim, Mohd Ismail Noor
    Obesity prevalence and body image consciousness are on the rise, and women often try to lose weight using a variety of methods. This paper reports the knowledge on body weight management amongst working women aged 30 – 45 years in Kuala Lumpur. Respondents comprised 131 school teachers and 122 civil servants. Anthropometric measurements included body weight and height; while knowledge on weight management was assessed using a questionnaire. The respondents were Malay (64%), Chinese (26%) and Indian women (10%) with mean age of 38.3 ± 4.6 years old. The respondents were grouped into two weight categories based on body mass index (BMI): normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2). Mean body weight and BMI were significantly different (p < 0.001) between the two weight categories. Overweight and normal weight groups had mean body weight of 69.0 ± 9.5 kg and 53.5 ± 5.3 kg; while mean BMI were 29.2 ± 3.6 kg/ m2 dan 21.9 ± 1.7 kg/m2; respectively. Mean scores for knowledge on weight management were similar for both weight categories, 62.4 ± 13.7 and 61.8 ± 13.4 for overweight and normal weight, respectively. A majority of overweight (71%) and normal weight (73%) women had moderate level (scores 50–74%) of weight management knowledge. However, it was interesting to note that there were more overweight women (20%) who had high knowledge level (scores ≥ 75%) as compared to normal weight women (15%). Only 9% of overweight and 12% of normal weight women demonstrated low knowledge level (scores <50%). School teachers were significantly (p < 0.001) more knowledgeable than civil servants in weight management matters with mean knowledge scores of 65.5 ± 12.3 and 58.4 ± 13.9, respectively. On the whole, the results indicated that women were fairly knowledgeable in healthy body weight management. Knowledge on body weight management is essential for preventing comorbidity risks related to overweight problem. The study also revealed that there was a need for nutrition education related to body image and effective weight management. Key words: Body weight management, working women, overweight, obesity
  8. Sharanjeet-Kaur, Arifah Nur Yahya, Che Muhaya Mohamad, McCarty, C.A.
    The purpose of this study was to identify the most common forms of age-related cataracts and to estimate possible risk factors for age-related cataracts in a sample of cataract patients at the National University of Malaysia Hospital. Thirty five patients (17 males and 18 female) with cataracts were recruited from the ophthalmology ward and clinic at the hospital. The age range of the patients was between 39 to 93 years (mean 64.9 11.5 years). The Lens Opacities Classification System (Locs) III was used to grade nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular lens opacities. Grading of the cataract was carried out and the following information was collected: initial visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity, demographic details, health history, dietary intake of antioxidants and lifetime ocular ultraviolet B exposure. Analyses were conducted using a standard case-control design. T-tests were used to assess the significance of continuous variables and chi-squared tests were used for categorical variables. The overall prevalence of cortical cataract was 34.4% (12 patients), nuclear cataract was 60.0% (21 patients), and posterior subcapsular cataract was 57.1% (20 patients). No significant potential risk factor was found for nuclear cataracts. In the case of posterior subcapsular cataract, hypertension was the only potential significant risk factor (x2 = 4.38, p = 0.036), and in the case of cortical cataract, cigarette smoking was the only significant risk factor. Although lifetime effective ocular UV-B exposure was found to be not a significant potential risk factor, but it was seen that for cortical cataracts, the mean difference of lifetime effective ocular UV-B exposure between those with cortical and those without cortical cataracts was larger compared to others with nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataracts. Hypertension was found to be a potential significant risk factor for posterior subcapsular cataract whereas cigarette smoking was a potentially significant risk factor for cortical cataract. Although not statistically significant, lifetime effective ocular UV-B exposure maybe a potential risk factor for cortical cataract.
  9. Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Mohd Syukri Anwar, Ahmad Asmadi Yusof
    This study was carried out to compare the rate of burn wound healing with the applications of the latex of Carica papaya Linn. (papaya) or of silver sulfadiazine cream (SSD). Partial and full thickness burn wound (2 cm x 2 cm) was induced on the dorsal part of anaesthetized rats by using heated metal plates. The rats were divided into three groups, i.e. untreated group and groups treated daily with SSD and papaya latex, respectively. A digital camera was used to take photographs of the burn wounds daily to monitor their healing. It was found that there was no significant difference in the healing time of papaya latex treated group compared to the SSD treated group. Papaya latex contained digestive enzymes which might clean burn wounds but might also cause wound bleeding in a few rats of the papaya latex group.
  10. Bariah Mohd Ali, Goh, E.H.
    The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of UV blocking monomers in contact lenses in providing eye protection from UV radiation. The spectral transmission of 8 contact lenses (7 soft contact lenses: Precision UV, Acuvue 2, Surevue, Omega, Encore UV, Durasoft 3 and Lunelle UV and 1 rigid gas permeable contact lens: Boston 7) was evaluated by using a dual beam spectrophotometer. Durasoft 3, a non UV absorbent contact lens was used as the control. The results showed that Precision UV contact lens absorbed UV light up to wavelength of 380 nm, whereas Acuvue 2 and Surevue absorbed up to 360 nm only. Omega, Encore UV and Lunelle UV lenses absorbed UV light up to 335 nm with spectral transmission of Lunelle UV being the highest among all soft contact lenses tested, which was 17%. Boston 7 could absorb UV light up to 385 nm, but the amount of UV light transmitted was higher than soft lenses, which was 30%. Durasoft 3 only blocked UV light at 200-245 nm. Precision UV lens had better UV blocker characteristics than the other contact lenses tested. UV blocking soft contact lenses could be an alternative for spectacles in protecting internal ocular structures from UV radiation.
  11. Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin, Widianingsih
    Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menilai sifat-sifat fizikokimia Radix Glycyrrhizae sebagai bahan eksipien untuk pembuatan tablet dengan kaedah pemampatan terus dan membandingkannya dengan eksipien komersil iaitu laktosa, selulosa mikrohablur (MCC) dan kalsium laktat pentahidrat (Puracal). Saiz partikel untuk semua sampel yang digunakan dalam kajian ini dihadkan pada 200-250µm. Hasil imbasan elektron mikroskop menunjukkan partikel Radix Glycyrrhizae mempunyai kepelbagaian saiz dan bentuk yang tidak seragam seperti laktosa berbanding MCC yang lebih bersifat jejarum dan Puracal yang bersifat sfera dan poros. Keupayaan sampel untuk dimampatkan, ketumpatan partikel sampel, kesan kelembapan ke atas tegasan pengenduran dan keliangan tablet diuji serta dibandingkan dengan eksipien komersil yang lain. Sifat ikatan dari sampel Radix Glycyrrhizae ini pula dikaji dengan menghitung kekuatan tegangan melalui kaedah pemampatan diametral dan turut dilakukan perbandingan. Radix Rlycyrrhizae memiliki ketumpatan sebenar serbuk iaitu 1.5746 g/cc manakala laktosa, selulosa mikrohablur dan kalsium laktat pentahidrat masing-masing 1.5476, 1.6654 dan 1.3506 g/cc. Radix Rlycyrrhizae juga di dapati mempunyai daya ketermampatan yang sederhana sebagaimana laktosa berbanding Puracal dan MCC yang jauh lebih baik sifatnya. Kajian kesan kelembapan menunjukkan kekuatan tablet Radix Glycyrrhizae, Puracal, laktosa dan MCC dipengaruhi perubahan suhu. Hasil kajian analisis Heckel pula menunjukkan bahawa Radix Glycyrrhizae bersifat aliran plastik sebagaimana MCC manakala laktosa dan Puracal lebih bersifat rapuh. Keputusan ujian ke atas sifat pemampatan dan pemadatan mendapati bahawa Radix Kesimpulannya, Radix Glycyrrhizae boleh digunakan sebagai eksipien dalam pembuatan tablet melalui kaedah pemampatan terus dan ciriciri fisikokimianya sebagai eksipien adalah setanding dengan eksipien komersial.
  12. Norhani Mohidin, Saadah Mohd Akhir, Bariah Mohd Ali, Zainora Mohammed, Sharanjeet, K., Chung, K.M.
    A vision screening study was carried out among Indian schoolchildren around Kuala Lumpur to determine whether the prevalence of myopia was higher in boys or girls. Altogether 749 students (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls) aged 7-18 years were screened and their refractive error examined using retinoscopy without cycloplegia. For the right eye 15.1% of the girls' eyes were found to be myopic as compared to 16.9% of the boys, of which chi-square showed no significant difference (p = 0.44). For the left eye 18.8% of the girls' eyes were myopic as compared to 16.4% of the boys. Chi square also showed no significant difference (p = 0.26). When high myopia (> -6.00D) was considered, there was no difference found between boys and girls. The number of students with high myopia greater than -6.00D was also very small (0.3%-0.5%). In conclusion, it was found that there was no significant difference in myopia between girls and boys among Indian schoolchildren.
  13. Ponnusamy, S., Shazli Ezzat Ghazali
    This paper reports a clinical case study on the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment (CBT) in treating panic attack with agoraphobia in a local health psychology clinic. M.N., a 24 year old male, complained of nightmares, heart palpitations, sweating, tremors and fearful feelings for the past one and a half years. He felt anxious about going to crowded places such as bus stations, night markets, supermarkets, and mosques and being left alone in any place which he was not familiar with. This case study adopted an ABC design whereby the subject was assessed at three different phases: pre-treatment, mid-treatment and post-treatment. Four standard assessment measures were administered: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Anxiety Scale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The subject responded well to 12 sessions of intervention employed in the study based on CBT model and this could be noticed by minimal score on the entire psychological test administered. The application of behavioral and cognitive strategies became more effective due to patient’s ability to understand and also due to his cooperative behavior. He responded well to imagery exposure and in-vivo gradual exposure and successfully went to shopping malls, used lifts at Kuala Lumpur Tower, went to night markets and used public transport.
  14. Siti Balkis Budin, Abdul Gapor Mohd Top, Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud, Mokhtar Abu Bakar, Khairul Osman, Yau, Monica Swee Eng, et al.
    In this study, the effects of palm vitamin E (PV) supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profile in diabetic-induce Sprague-Dawley rats have been evaluated. Diabetes in the rats was induced by a single intravenous streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). The diabetic rats were divided into two groups; supplemented with 200 mg/kg body weight/day of PV and non-supplemented with PV (No PV group). Non-diabetic rats (NDM) formed the control group and only received saline injection. After eight weeks of daily supplementation, PV significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (p
  15. Moharm, Bushra Abdulkarim, Ibrahim Jantan, Santhanam, Jacinta, Jamia Azdina Jamal
    The leaf and bark oils of Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. were examined for their antifungal activity against 6 dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and M. audouini), one filamentous fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus) and 5 strains of yeasts (Candida albicans, Ca. glabrata, Ca. tropicalis, Ca. parapsilosis and Crytococcus neoformans) by using the broth microdilution method. The antifungal activities of 4 standard compounds (cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, linalool and a-terpineol) which were major constituents in the oils were also investigated in an effort to correlate the effectiveness of the oils with those of the components of the oils. The combined antifungal effect of the oils against M. canis, M. gypseum and Cr. neoformans was investigated by the checkerboard assay. Isobolograms were constructed and Fractional Inhibitory Concentrations Index (FICI) were calculated to determine the combination effects between the oils. The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oils showed strong activity against all the tested fungi with Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.04 to 0.31 mg/ml. Cinnamaldehyde which was the most abundant component of the bark oil of C. verum showed the strongest activity against all the fungi studied. Based on the results of the assay on standard samples, it may be that the high levels of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol in the oils and in combination with the minor components could be responsible for the high antifungal activity of the oils. The antifungal effect of the leaf and bark oils of C. verum in combination against the tested fungi was not synergistic. However, the effect was additive against M. gypseum and antagonistic against Cr. neoformans and M. canis.
  16. Haliza Abdul Mutalib, Saleha Abdul Majid, Mohamed Kamel bin Abdul Ghani, Anisah Nordin, Yusof Suboh, Norhayati Moktar
    Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengenal pasti punca insidens tinggi infeksi Acanthamoeba di kalangan pemakai kanta sentuh di Kuala Lumpur. Satu ratus tujuh puluh empat sampel diambil dari 66 subjek pemakai kanta sentuh lembut jenis pakaibuang dan mereka juga disoal dengan menggunakan borang kaji selidik. Kesemua pemakai kanta sentuh menggunakan pelbagai jenis larutan disinfeksi atau larutan pelbagai guna untuk membersih dan mendisinfeksi kanta sentuh. Swab diambil dari kanta sentuh yang masih dipakai, bekas kanta sentuh dan juga larutan disinfeksi yang sedang digunakan. Daripada swab ini proses pengkulturan yang lengkap dilakukan untuk pemencilan Acanthamoeba spp. Pemencilan Acanthamoeba spp. daripada 14 sampel daripada 7 subjek telah berjaya dilakukan. Hasil pemencilan yang tinggi adalah daripada bekas kanta sentuh (13.5%) dan kanta sentuh subjek (10.6%). Walau bagaimanapun tiada sebarang pemencilan didapati daripada larutan disinfeksi. Punca infeksi Acanthamoeba adalah dari bekas simpanan kanta sentuh dan kanta sentuh yang dipakai. Kaji selidik menunjukkan peratusan tidak komplain yang tinggi di kalangan pemakai kanta sentuh kerana ramai menggunakan air paip untuk mencuci kanta sentuh dan bekasnya.
  17. Ahmad Nazlim Yusoff, Mohd Harith Hashim, Mohd Mahadir Ayob, Iskandar Kassim
    Kajian garis pangkal pengimejan resonans magnet kefungsian (fMRI) telah dijalankan di Jabatan Radiologi, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia ke atas seorang subjek lelaki sihat berumur 25 tahun menggunakan sistem pengimejan resonans magnet (MRI) 1.5 T. Kajian ini menggunakan gerakan jari tangan kanan dan kiri untuk merangsang aktiviti neuron di dalam korteks serebrum. Subjek diarahkan supaya menekan jari-jari pada ibu jari secara bergilir-gilir semasa imbasan kefungsian dilakukan. Paradigma 5 kitar aktifrehat digunakan dengan setiap kitar masing-masing mengandungi 20 siri pengukuran. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa rantau otak yang aktif akibat gerakan jari adalah girus presentral merangkumi kawasan motor primer. Pengaktifan otak adalah secara kontralateral terhadap gerakan jari tangan kanan dan kiri. Keamatan isyarat keadaan aktif didapati lebih tinggi daripada keamatan isyarat keadaan rehat. Analisis yang dilakukan ke atas beberapa rantau pengaktifan yang diminati (ROI) pada beberapa hirisan menunjukkan perbezaan yang bererti (p < 0.05) antara keamatan keadaan aktif dan rehat untuk nilai ambang statistik (Z) = 1.0 dan 1.5. Perbezaan purata antara kedua-dua purata keamatan isyarat keadaan aktif dan rehat pada manamana hirisan untuk kedua-dua nilai Z menunjukkan magnitud pengaktifan yang lebih tinggi pada hemisfera kanan otak iaitu apabila subjek menggerakkan tangan kirinya. Bilangan voksel yang aktif juga didapati lebih tinggi pada hemisfera kanan berbanding pada hemisfera kiri otak. Keputusan ini menyokong fakta bahawa bagi subjek yang tidak kidal, kawasan pengaktifan motor pada hemisfera kanan otak semasa gerakan jari tangan kiri mengalami rangsangan hemodinamik yang lebih tinggi berbanding dengan hemisfera kiri otak semasa gerakan jari tangan kanan. Fenomena rangsangan hemodinamik yang diperhatikan dalam kajian ini dibincangkan berdasarkan kepada kebergantungan kontras isyarat kepada aras oksigen darah (BOLD).
  18. Shazli Ezzat Ghazali, Ponnusamy, S., Normah Che Din, Nik Farideh Yousef Mohd Khan
    Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengenal pasti perkaitan antara tahap kemurungan, kesihatan mental, kesan sokongan sosial dan kesejahteraan psikologi di kalangan mangsa rogol dengan aspek demografik. Subjek kajian seramai 30 wanita telah dipilih dari Pusat Perlindungan dan Pemulihan Wanita, di Batu Caves, Selangor. Kaedah ujian yang digunakan terdiri daripada Beck Depression Inventory, General Health Questionnaire-28, Provision Social Relation dan soalan demografik. Soalan diedarkan di kalangan mangsa diikuti dengan penerangan ringkas ke atas kaedah ujian. Analisis data menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan di antara faktor umur dan kesejahteraan psikologi mangsa (p = 0.004). Selain itu, kemurungan didapati mempengaruhi secara signifikan ke atas kesihatan mental (R' = 0.60, [F (1, 27) = 40.312, p < 0.0011). Kajian inijuga mendapati hubungan yang positif antara kesihatan mental dan kemurungan (r = 0.77). Ini bermaksud semakin tinggi kemurungan yang dialami mangsa, semakin tinggi kesan ke atas kesihatan mentalnya.
  19. Zaleha Shafiei, Che Nyonya Abdul Razak, Abu Bakar Salleh, Mahiran Basri, Misri Kusnan
    Pseudomonas sp. strain SS22 telah dipencilkan daripada kolam oksidasi kilang minyak kelapa sawit di Malaysia. Dalam kajian ini, keupayaaan bakteria ini mentransformasikan asid oleik kepada produk baru telah dikaji. Produk biotransformasi dianalisis dengan kromatografi lapisan nipis (KLN), kromatografi gas (KG), spektroskopi inframerah gandingan fourier (SIGF) dan kromatografi gas-spektrometri jisim (KG-s.1). Analisis KLN menunjukkan bahawa hanya satu produk baru terbentuk selepas 7 hari eraman pada suhu 37°C, goncangan pada 150 ppm. Semakin lama eraman menyebabkan pengurangan titik produk pada 14 harL Analisis KG menunjukkan bahawa 5 puncak produk baru pada masa penahanan 13.1(*A), 15.0 (*C), 15.3 (*D), 16.8 (*E) dan 18.4 (*F) minit telah terbentuk selepas 7 hari eraman. Spektrum inframerah (Im) bagi produk yang terbentuk daripada asid oleik selepas 7 hari, menunjukkan kewujudan regangan OH/NH pada 3417 cm-'. Serapan pada 2673 cm-', kemungkinan regangan CH bersama-sama dengan kumpulan karbonil. Serapan pada 1712 cm-' adalah konstan dengan regangan c=o daripada keton atau asid karboksilik. Regangan CH pada 2932, 2854, 1462 dan 1379 cm-1 merupakan kumpulan alkil, menandakan produk hidrokarbon juga wujud dalam produk campuran. Kehadiran CH/C-C pada serapan 969 dan 725 cm-', menandakan kewujudan alkena trans (C=C). Analisis KG-SJ mengesahkan bahawa produk tersebut merupakan campuran asid 9(E)- heksadekenoik, asid kaprilik, asid miristik dan hidrokarbon. Walaupun produk yang terbentuk bercampur, asid 9(E)-heksadekenoik boleh digunakan sebagai komponen membran lipidnya. Penghasilan produk tersebut boleh dipertingkatkan dengan mengoptimumkan keadaan pertumbuhan.
  20. Shazli Ezzat Ghazali, Noor Aini Mohd Yusoff, Ponnusamy, S., Syahiza Abas
    Perkembangan kognitif dan pertumbuhan fizikal di kalangan kanak-kanak bergantung kepada status pemakanan mereka, termasuklah tabiat pengambilan sarapan pagi. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk melihat pengaruh pengambilan sarapan pagi sebelum ke sekolah ke atas pencapaian kognitif kanak-kanak sekolah rendah. Satu kajian hirisan lintang dijalankan di kalangan kanak-kanak sekolah rendah di bandar dan luar bandar. Subjek kajian mengandungi 165 pelajar Melayu yang berusia 10 tahun. Tiga jenis subskala daripada ujian Wechsler Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children-III digunakan untuk mengukur tahap kognitif kanak-kanak tersebut iaitu arithmatik, pengkodan dan digit span. Hasil kajian didapati kanak-kanak yang mengambil sarapan pagi mencatatkan pencapaian yang tinggi secara signifikan dalam arithmetik (p
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