Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 323 in total

  1. Nur Fadhilah Mohamad Haris, Mohd Kamal Nik Hasan, Mizaton Hazizul Hasan, Ibtisam Abdul Wahab
    This article discusses on the natural compounds from the ant plant (Myrmecodia species, family: Rubiaceae). The ethyl
    acetate (EtOAc) extract from the tuber of M. platytyrea was fractionated by using medium pressure liquid chromatography,
    giving eight fractions (F1-F8). Those fractions were evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)
    assay. Fraction F5 was recorded as potent (EC50 = 21.57 ± 1.40 µg/mL). Then, it was purified by using column
    chromatography (CC) (mobile phase = chloroform: EtOAc). From the CC, ten fractions (F5F1-F5F10) were obtained
    and compound (1) was isolated from F5F3 via preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC). After spraying with
    anisaldehyde-sulphuric reagent, compound (1) gave a green TLC spot (Rf
    = 0.65, 100% CHCl3
    , multiple development).
    The 1
    H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (500 MHz, CDCl3
    ) was performed to determine the chemical
    framework of (1). This compound was identified as morindolide, having an iridoid structure. Meanwhile, the mass
    spectra for compounds (2) and (3) were analysed. The data presented the molecular ion at m/z 375 [M-H]- and 255,
    suggesting the formulation of 2-(2-methylbutyryl)phloroglucinol glucoside and a flavanone, respectively. From the
    literature, compound (1) was firstly isolated from a Chinese natural medicine, the dried root of Morinda officinalis
    (family: Rubiaceae). The flavonoids are also included as the biologically active compounds from Myrmecodia. In
    short, this is the first occurrence of morindolide from the ant plant.
  2. Priscilla Tang Shu Fern, Masne Kadar, Noorashikin Samin, Nor Afifi Razaob
    Kefungsian mobiliti dalam kalangan populasi warga emas merupakan elemen yang penting bagi kualiti hidup yang
    lebih bermakna. Penilaian adalah penting untuk memastikan langkah-langkah sewajarnya boleh diambil demi
    mengesan perubahan dalam kefungsian mobiliti. Terdapat pelbagai jenis penilaian mobiliti namun kebanyakan
    kajian kebolehpercayaan ulang semula alat penilaian ini adalah berdasarkan kajian luar negara. Oleh itu, kajian
    ini adalah untuk menentukan kebolehpercayaan tiga alat penilaian status kefungsian mobiliti terutama aktiviti fizikal
    dalam kalangan warga emas. Seramai 60 orang warga emas dengan min umur 76.32 tahun dan sisihan piawai 8.66
    terlibat dalam kajian kebolehpercayaan uji-ulang semula bagi tiga jenis alat penilaian; Ujian Berjalan Enam Minit
    [Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT)], Ujian Bangun dan Berjalan [Timed Up and Go Test (TUG)], Ujian Duduk-Berdiri [Sitto-Stand
    Test (STS)]. Bacaan di ambil sebanyak dua kali dengan selang masa seminggu antara penilaian pertama dan
    kedua. Korelasi Intra-Kelas [Intraclass Correlation (ICC)], Had Keserasian [Limits of Agreement (LOA)] dan Ralat
    Pengukuran Piawai [Standard Error of Measurement (SEM)] dan diikuti kombinasi ketiga-tiga kaedah telah digunakan
    dalam analisa data. Hasil kajian menunjukkan ketiga-tiga alat penilaian menggunakan metodologi analisis statistik
    ICC, LOA, SEM dan kombinasi ketiga-tiga metodologi tersebut menunjukkan nilai kebolehpercayaan yang tinggi. Nilai
    ICC bagi kesemua alat penilaian aktiviti melebihi 0.90 (ICC=0.94-0.99). Graf LOA menunjukkan wujudnya suatu tahap
    kebolehpercayaan bagi kesemua alat penilaian aktiviti manakala peratus SEM pula merekodkan nilai kurang dari
    10% (SEM%=0.95%-9.95%). Kesimpulannya, ketiga-tiga alat penilaian mempunyai ketekalan yang tinggi dan sesuai
    digunakan sebagai salah satu alat penilaian kefungsian mobiliti bagi warga emas di Malaysia.
  3. Tan, Toong Seng, Yap, Wei Boon, Sharifah Syed Hassan
    The occasional influenza pandemics and the seasonal influenza epidemics have destroyed millions of lives since
    the last century. It is therefore necessary to understand the virus replication patterns as this provides essential
    information on the virus infectivity, pathogenicity and spread patterns. This study aimed to investigate the replication
    of avian influenza A virus H5N1 (A/Chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004) in MDCK cells. In this study, the TCID50 (50% tissue
    culture infectious dose) of AIV H5N1 was first determined. The MDCK cells were then infected with AIV H5N1 at TCID50
    for 0-48 h. The CPE (cytopathic effect) was observed and cell death was determined hourly. The virus-infected cells
    and media were subsequently collected for gene analysis. The results showed that the TCID50 of AIV H5N1 was 10-9
    dilution. The CPE percentage showed a strong and positive correlation with the infection period (r = 1.0, n = 9, p <
    0.01). The amount of a highly conserved influenza viral gene, M2 gene amplified from infected media (r = 0.471, n =
    9, p= > 0.05) and infected cell (r = 0.73, n = 9, p < 0.05) were also positively correlated with the infection period. In
    conclusion, although CPE started to be observed in the early time points of infection, however, the M2 gene was only
    amplified from the infected media and cells after 48 h and 24 h, respectively. This signifies that AIV H5N1 used in this
    study is pathogenic and it is able to cause severe cytopathology to host cells even at low virus load.
  4. Yusoff, A.N., Te, L.H., Mukari, S.Z.M., Abd Hamid, A.I.
    Heschl’s gyrus (HG) is known to interact with other auditory related areas of the same hemisphere during the performance
    of an auditory cognitive task. However, the information about how it interacts with the opposite HG is still lacking.
    The aim of this study was to investigate the psychophysiologic interaction (PPI) between the bilateral HG during a
    simple arithmetic addition task and to verify the role of noise as an experimental factor that would modulate the PPI.
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were performed on eighteen healthy participants, in which a
    single-digit addition task were solved during in-quiet (AIQ) and in-noise (AIN) conditions. The fMRI data were analysed
    using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8). The interaction between the bilateral HG was investigated using PPI
    analysis. The response in right HG was found to be linearly influenced by the activity in left HG, vice-versa, for both
    in-quiet and in-noise conditions. The connectivity from right to left HG in noisy condition seemed to be modulated
    by noise, while the modulation is relatively small oppositely, indicating a non-reciprocal behavior. A two-way PPI
    model between right and left HG is suggested. The connectivity from right to left HG during a simple addition task in
    noise is driven by a higher ability of right HG to perceive the stimuli in a noisy condition. Both the bilateral HGs took
    part in the cognitive processes of arithmetic addition from which the interactions between the two were found to be
    different in noise.
  5. Yap, Hui Cin, Asmah Hamid, Farah Wahida Ibrahim, Nor Fadilah Rajab, Yanti Rosli
    The emergence of research about the biological effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) have growing concern among
    researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on the brain of rats periodically exposed to 0.1 mT EMF.
    Total 24 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subdivided randomly to 4 groups: 2 control groups (C1 6 hours: 6 h/
    day for 5 days; C2 20 hours: 20 h/day for 5 days) and 2 treatment groups which exposed to 0.1 mT EMF (T1 6 hours:
    6 h/day for 5 days; T2 20 hours: 20 h/day for 5 days). A significant decrease in the pyramidal cell number was higher
    as the exposure duration to EMF was extended (T1, p
  6. Mohd Fairul Syafiq Harun, Vijay Marimuthu
    Cervical Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (cVEMP) is a routine vestibular test which checks the integrity of
    vestibulocollic reflex (VCR) pathway. Clinically, 500-Hz tone burst is widely used stimulus to evoke a cVEMP. Although
    several studies have suggested different plateau times (PT) for eliciting cVEMPs, but not many have reported the optimal
    PT for evoking cVEMP using 500 Hz tone burst stimuli. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of
    PT on cVEMPs elicited by 500 Hz tone burst at 95 dBnHL using four different PT (0, 2, 4 and 10 ms). Thirty healthy
    adults with normal hearing and vestibular systems participated in this study. Results revealed that the P1 latency was
    significantly longer for PT 10 ms compared to other PTs. N1 latency was significantly prolonged for long PT of 10 ms
    compared to PT 2 ms. P2 latency showed no significant differences among PTs. The P1-N1 inter-amplitude values
    however revealed no significant difference across all PTs. It was found that the P1-N1 inter-amplitude was severely
    affected after 4 ms of PT. This study concluded that the PT of either 0 or 2 ms yielded the most robust cVEMP.
  7. Sherin, Sokmum, Singh , Susheel Joginder, Vandort, Sandra
    This study aims to investigate the viability and effectiveness of the Hanen More Than Words (HMTW) programme amongst
    parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This quassi-experimental study involved 31 children (27 boys,
    4 girls; M = 34.58 months, SD = 3.67) who met criteria for ASD and their parents. The measurement was conducted in
    three phases; Time 1 (prior to intervention), Time 2 and Time 3 (at three and five months after the intervention begins).
    The outcome measures were assessed based on: (1) changes in parental facilitative strategies; (2) the children’s growth
    in vocabulary and (3) the progress of communication and social skills. The paired t-test were used to analyze the pre
    and post findings within the intervention and control group with p-value
  8. Nur Fadhlina Junus, Bariah Mohd-Ali
    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of time of measurement on central corneal thickness in young myopes.
    Seventy healthy myopic subjects (non contact lens wearers) were involved in this study with mean age of 22.43 ± 1.76
    years. Subjective refraction was determined using cross-cylinder technique, corneal curvature was measured using
    keratometer (Shin-Nippon) and central corneal thickness (CCT) was determined using specular microscope (Topcon
    SP-3000P). The CCT was measured in the morning (between 8 to 11 am) and in the afternoon (between 2 to 5 pm). The
    results showed that the mean of refraction for all subjects was -2.59 ± 1.85 DS and mean of cornea curvature was 7.74
    ± 0.25 mm. Mean CCT in the morning was 517 ± 37 μm and 516 ± 36 μm in the afternon. Statistical analysis showed no
    significant difference between both measurements (T = 1.713 and P = 0.091). Correlation analysis showed insignificant
    correlation between CCT and refractive error (r = -0.078, p > 0.05) and CCT with corneal curvature in the horizontal
    meridian (r = 0.014, p > 0.05) and at vertical meridian (r = 0.029, p > 0.05). This study concluded that there is no
    significant effect of time of measurement on CCT in young myopes
  9. Nurul Ain Abdullah, Nor Haniza Abdul Wahat, Nor Haniza Abdul Wahat, Asma Abdullah, Curthoys, Ian S., Hamidah Alias
    Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2017;15(22):179-190.
    Early identification of any vestibular dysfunction and balance problem in children is crucial for their general well-being.
    However the identification process, could be challenging and difficult as compared to adults. We conducted a preliminary
    study to review our initial experience with ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs and
    cVEMPs), video head impulse test (vHIT) and Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency II (BOT-2) on healthy children
    and also to determine the feasibility of these tests in this population. Twenty one normal healthy children (12 boys and
    9 girls), aged between 6 and 15 years old (mean age, 11.15 ± 2.54 years) participated in the study. They underwent
    oVEMPs and cVEMPs elicited with bone conduction stimulus via minishaker and air conduction stimulus respectively. All
    six semicircular canals were assessed using the vHIT. Bilateral coordination, balance, running, speed and agility which
    are the three subsets of BOT-2 gross motor assessment were conducted for balance assessment. All subjects completed the
    vestibular and balance assessment except for 1 subject who did not complete the vHIT vertical component. The response
    rate was 100% for oVEMPs, cVEMPs, and BOT-2, and 95.24% for vHIT. The mean latency and mean amplitude for n10
    oVEMPs were 8.88 ± 0.92 and 2.71 ± 1.29, respectively. The mean latency for cVEMPs p13, and n23 were 13.4 ± 1.35
    and 21.76 ± 3.71, respectively with interamplitude mean of 97.57 ± 42.69. The vHIT mean for vestibular ocular reflex
    (VOR) gain were >0.85 for lateral canals and > 0.65 for vertical canals. The mean scale score for bilateral coordination,
    balance, running, speed, and agility for BOT-2 were 17.52 ± 3.40, 15.14 ± 3.65 and 13.9 ± 5.46, respectively. This study
    suggest that VEMPs, vHIT, and BOT-2 are feasible test for vestibular and balance assessment in children. Apart from the
    tests findings, it is hoped that the described experienced and adjustment made in assessing this young population could
    also be applied by other relevant professional
  10. Siti Asilah Yusof, Roslee Rajikan, Zahara Abdul Manaf, Poh, Bee Koon
    Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2017;15(22):163-172.
    Inclination towards nutrition beliefs by parents and caregivers plays an important role in the dietary intake of children
    with leukemia. However, local studies examining on the nutrition practices and dietary beliefs among caregivers of
    leukemia patients are very limited. This study aims to assess nutrition beliefs among caregivers of children with leukemia
    and healthcare professionals at the Pediatric Institute of Kuala Lumpur Hospital (IPHKL), Malaysia. This qualitative
    study was conducted to assess the beliefs and practices towards certain foods among caregivers of pediatric leukemia
    patients. Thirty subjects comprising a group of 10 health care professionals and 20 caregivers were interviewed using
    semi-structured interview method. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. version 7.5.6 qualitative
    analysis software and subsequently several themes.were obtained. Five themes emerged from this analysis that are
    (1) beliefs about foods that can cure cancer, (2) beliefs related to consumption of meat and dairy products, (3) beliefs
    towards foods containing pesticides, (4) beliefs that certain food causes itchiness, and (5) source of nutrition information
    and nutrition knowledge of caregivers. This study proves that beliefs in various myths related to nutrition and dietary
    practices exist among caregivers and health professionals group. Information from these findings can provide perspective
    on the beliefs towards dietary practices among caregivers of children with leukemia and healthcare professionals. This
    is important for the healthcare professions, especially when planning the strategies for caregivers’ nutrition education
    in order to improve the nutritional status of childhood leukemia patients.
  11. Muhsonat Mohamad Zain, Norliza Mohamad Fadzil, Zainora Mohamme
    Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2017;15(22):191-197.
    Rehabilitasi penglihatan bagi murid penglihatan terhad adalah penting untuk membantu mereka menggunakan penglihatan
    secara optimum ketika melakukan aktiviti hidup seharian (ADL) dan seterusnya menjadikan mereka lebih berdikari di
    masa hadapan. UKM-CHILD adalah indeks ADL untuk mengukur keupayaan murid penglihatan terhad dalam melakukan
    ADL. UKM-CHILD mengandungi 25-item soal selidik kendiri dan 7-item pengukur prestasi. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk
    mengukur keberkesanan rehabilitasi penglihatan murid penglihatan terhad menggunakan UKM-CHILD. Seramai 40 murid
    penglihatan terhad berumur 15.33 ± 1.56 tahun diberikan rehabilitasi penglihatan yang melibatkan preskripsi kaca mata,
    alat bantu penglihatan terhad dan latihan penggunaan alat bantu penglihatan terhad. Sesi latihan dilakukan selama 5
    minggu dan ianya merangkumi kaedah penggunaan alat bantu penglihatan terhad dan latihan membaca. Pengukuran
    parameter kajian iaitu akuiti visual, kelajuan membaca dan keupayaan melakukan ADL (UKM-CHILD) dilakukan pada
    peringkat pra dan pasca rehabilitasi. Keputusan kajian ini mendapati purata akuiti visual jauh meningkat sebanyak
    empat baris (VAjauh(pra): 0.85 ± 0.05 logMAR; VAjauh(pasca): 0.40 ± 0.06 logMAR; z = -2.27, p = 0.026) dan purata akuiti
    visual dekat meningkat sebanyak dua baris (VAdekat(pra): 0.64 ± 0.22 logMAR; VAdekat(pasca): 0.40 ± 0.12 logMAR; z = -5.21, p
    < 0.05) selepas rehabilitasi. Purata kelajuan membaca meningkat sebanyak 48% (kelajuan membacapra: 49.58 ± 25.51
    ppm; kelajuan membacapasca: 73.22 ± 26.19 ppm; t(39) = 16.67, p < 0.05). Dapatan kajian juga menunjukkan terdapat
    peningkatan signifikan dalam skor soal selidik kendiri (soal selidik kendiripra: 1.72 ± 0.83 logit; soal selidik kendiripasca:
    2.12 ± 1.25 logit; z = -5.129, p < 0.05) dan skor pengukur prestasi (pengukur prestasipra: 0.82 ± 0.30 logit; pengukur
    prestasipasca: 2.87 ± 1.52 logit; z = -5.55, p < 0.05) selepas 5 minggu rehabilitasi. Kajian ini mendapati UKM-CHILD boleh
    digunakan untuk mengukur keberkesanan rehabilitasi penglihatan.
  12. Siti Zawiyah Mansor, Saadah Mohamed Akhir, Zainora Mohammed, Bariah Mohd Ali, Norhani Mohidin
    Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2017;15(22):199-205.
    This study was conducted to determine the score of self-reported visual function index (VF-14) and its correlation with
    best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the elderly population. Participants were elderly aged 60 years and above recruited
    from the on-going population-based longitudinal study on neuroprotective model for healthy longevity (TUA). Visual
    acuity was measured using logMAR chart. A self-reported visual function assessment was measured using modified
    Bahasa Malaysia Visual Functioning Index (VF-14). A total of 482 (93.05%) from 518 subjects participated in this study.
    Mean age was 69.18 ± 5.67 years old and mean best corrected VA was 0.21 ± 0.17 logMAR. Mean VF-14 score was 89.65
    ± 13.19. Female had lower mean score of self-reported visual function scores compared to male (meanfemale89.21 ± 12.76,
    meanmale90.11 ± 13.65) but it was not statistically significant (z = -1.09,p = 0.277). There was a moderate but significant
    correlation between VF-14 score and best corrected VA (r = -0.412, p < 0.01). In conclusion, the best corrected visual
    acuity alone was not able to become as an indicator to describe changes in VF14 score. This study showed that it only
    contributes 17.2% to changes in VF14 score. The combination of many other factors such as socio-demographic factors
    (race, educational status, and health problems), contrast sensitivity and stereopsis should be taken into account when
    assessing visual function as measured by VF14.
  13. Abdul Aziz Ismail, Mazlyfarina Mohamad, Rozilawati Ahmad, Ahmad Bazlie Abdul Kadir
    Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2015;15(22):173-178.
    The aims of this study were to compare the entrance surface dose (ESD) between anteroposterior (AP) supine with
    posteroanterior (PA) prone projection of computed radiography (CR) abdominal examination and to determine the
    relationship between body mass index (BMI) and ESD of a patient. AP supine and PA prone projections on the same
    patients for CR abdominal examination of intravenous urography (IVU) were acquired on 50 patients at Hospital Raja
    Permaisuri Bainun, Ipoh. All the radiographic examinations were carried out on a Siemens Multixtop general x-ray unit
    and the images were processed with CR Carestream Direct view Max. Entrance surface dose (ESD) in miligray (mGy)
    was measured using optical stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD) calibrated by the Malaysian Nuclear Agency.
    Data were analyzed using dependent t-test comparing the AP and PA projections on the same subject and Pearson
    correlation was used to determine the relationship between BMI and percentage of reduction of ESD. Results showed a
    significant different (p < 0.01) between AP supine (mean ESD = 6.42 ± 7.13 mGy) and PA prone (mean ESD = 3.92 ± 3.56
    mGy) projection at all BMI. The BMI has a positive correlation with percentage of reduction of ESD (r = 0. 61) and was
    statistically significant (p < 0.01). In conclusion, PA abdomen prone projection significantly reduces the radiation dose
    and there is a positive correlation between BMI and percentage of reduction of ESD. The use of PA prone projection for
    CR abdominal examination should be considered as the routine projection at all BMIs level. Awareness that as the BMI
    increases the ESD also increases at a moderate positive linear relationship.
  14. Harithasan D, Ajit Singh DK, Omar B
    Plantar pressure, force and contact area information may provideinsights regarding stresses imparted to the foot when performing functional tasks. There is limited information regarding plantar pressure, force and contact area when carrying incremental loads (no load, 5 kg, 7.5 kg and 10 kg) using one hand between adults with and without low back pain (LBP). The aim of our study was to investigate the changes in the plantar pressure, force and contact area when carrying incremental loads (no load, 5 kg, 7.5 kg and 10 kg) using one hand between adults with and without low back pain (LBP). A total of 20 adults with non-specific LBP and 20 matched individuals without LBP were recruited according to the predefined recruitment criteria. Plantar pressure (PP), maximum force (MF) and contact area (CA were measured in standing position and during walking while carrying incremental loads (no load, 5 kg, 7.5 kg and 10 kg) using their right hand on a Matscan pressure assessment system. A two-way mixed analysis of variance (group× load) was conducted to analyse the data. No significant main effectof group was demonstrated on both the right and left foot during standing (PP: p = 0.74, p = 0.32; MF: p = 0.17, p = 0.67; CA: p = 0.25, p = 0.24) and walking (PP: p = 0.61, p = 0.48; MF: p = 0.19, p = 0.06; CA: p = 0.16, p = 0.26. Similarly, there was no interaction effect between the loads and groups on the PP (p = 0.89, p = 0.47), MF (p = 0.76, p = 0.83) and CA (p = 0.88, p = 0.20) on theright and left foot, respectively during standing. However, a significant interaction effect (p < 0.05), between the loads and groups was demonstrated on the PP, MF and CA on the left foot during walking. The results of our study suggest that stresses imparted to the foot alters during dynamic postures and this may be a compensatory mechanism. Plantar pressure, force and contact area were similar in adults both with and without LBP when standing and walking. Further biomechanical information that includes both kinematic and kinetic data in lumbopelvic and lower limbs in relation to the foot may be required to justify for prevention and management strategies among adults with LBP.
  15. Huijin, Lau, Nor Fadilah Rajab, Arimi Fitri Mat Ludin, Suzana Shahar
    Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2015;15(22):97-102.
    The expansion of ageing population has gained much public attention on the importance of healthy and successful ageing,
    which is absence of major chronic diseases, preserved physiological and cognitive functioning and active engagement
    with life. Previous studies have found there was a significant correlation between physical fitness with cognition. However,
    the relationship between physical fitness with successful and unsuccessful cognitive ageing groups are very limited. This
    study was aimed to identify the significant physical fitness components that contribute in reducing risk of cognitive decline
    represented as different cognitive ageing groups. A total of 300 community-based elderly aged 60 and above from the
    states of Selangor, Perak and Kelantan were recruited using multistage random sampling method in this cross-sectional
    study. Cognitive function of subjects was categorized into three groups, namely Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) (n
    = 100), Usual Ageing (UA) (n = 100) and Successful Ageing (SA) (n = 100) based on defined criteria. Senior Fitness
    Tests included 2-minute step, handgrip strength, chair stand, chair sit-and-reach, 8 foot up-and-go and back scratch
    were measured to determine the cardiorespiratory fitness; muscle strength; agility and flexibility of subjects. SA group
    had significantly better performance than non-SA groups in all fitness components, except for chair sit-and-reach. After
    controlling for age, gender, education years and smoking status, handgrip strength and chair stand tests were associated
    with a reduced risk of MCI by 7% [OR: 0.93, 95% C.I: 0.88-0.99, p < 0.05] and 15% [OR: 0.85, 95% C.I: 0.75-0.95, p <
    0.01], respectively. These findings suggest that older adults with higher upper and lower body muscular strength could
    serve as protective factors for cognitive impairment. Further research is warranted to evaluate the mechanism of physical
    and cognitive decline such as Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome (MCR) in more detailed for the purpose for promoting
    healthy and successful ageing.
  16. Norhayati Mohd Zain, Kanaga, Kumari Chelliah, Vengkatha, Priya Seriramulu, Shantini Arasaratnam, Poh, Bee Koon
    Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2017;15(22):137-144.
    Daily food intake of women may affect their bone health by altering their bone mineral density (BMD) as the lack of certain
    nutrients may affect bone integrity whilst, BMD also can be a predictor of breast cancer. To date, many studies have been
    conducted to discuss on association of BMD and mammographic breast density (MBD) and how both are related to breast
    cancer risks but no consideration has been made on dietary intake. Therefore, this study was designed to determine
    the association of dietary intake with BMD and other breast cancer risk factors. A cross-sectional study on 76 pre- and
    postmenopausal women above 40 years underwent mammogram screening and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)
    was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) for the duration of 1 year. Purposive sampling method was used to choose
    the respondents. Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent cancer treatment were excluded from this
    study. DEXA unit (Hologic Discovery W, Hologic, Inc) were used to measure BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine in
    grams per centimetre squared (g/cm2
    ) and they were classified into normal and abnormal group based on the T-scores.
    The subjects were asked about their daily dietary pattern for a duration of three days using Diet History Questionnaire
    (DHQ). The mean of selected characteristics were compared between groups. Additionally, binary logistic regression was
    used to determine the association between diet intake with BMD and other risk factors of breast cancer. The total number
    of pre- and postmenopausal women who consented to participate in this study are equal. The mean age was 47.1 years
    and 54.9 years for premenopausal and postmenopausal women respectively. The results indicate only menopausal age of
    the women was statistically significant (p < 0.05). A number of 17% premenopausal and 9% of postmenopausal women
    showed to have family history of breast cancer, however, it was not statistically significant (p = 0.12). There was no
    significant difference in daily energy intake of food in both groups (p = 0.22). None of the nutrients in daily food intake
    showed to be statistically significant. Menstrual status showed an association with BMD with p < 0.05 and the remaining
    risk factors did not show any association. Logistic regression revealed that only menstrual status had correlation with
    BMD in both groups. This study provided the dietary pattern and the effects on bone health. The association of other risk
    factors of breast cancer with BMD were also analysed and most of it showed a negative association.
  17. Yuzaida Md.Yusoff, Yuzaida Md.Yusoff, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah Mukari, Cila Umat
    Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2015;15(22):153-156.
    The Ministry of Health (MoH) commenced the National Cochlear Implant (CI) Program in 2008. As of November 2014,
    the program has implanted 205 individuals with hearing losses, many of whom are pediatric recipients (71%) with
    prelingual deafness. This study aimed to profile the prelingually deafened pediatric cochlear implant recipients under the
    MoH CI program. The data reported here were from a total of 121 recipients (82.8%) from all the nine satellite hospitals
    in the program. There were 58 males and the majority of the cases were Malay (66.9%). From the cases reviewed 39
    (32.2%) were high risk for permanent hearing loss and the majority (46%) had multiple risk factors. In this cohort,
    only 12 children (9.9%) were identified through the newborn hearing screening (NHS) program. The age of diagnosis of
    hearing loss ranged from 1 to 46 months with a mean age of 24.3 ± 10.2 months. Hearing aids were fitted at the age of
    4 to 46 months with a mean of 27.5 ± 9.9 months. The average age of implantation was 41.5 ± 10.3 months. The mean
    overall waiting period from the first visit to the audiologist to the time when the cochlear implant was activated was 18.5
    ± 9.1 months. Descriptive findings indicate that the children received their implants at a relatively late age for speech
    and language development. The existing national NHS program needs to be tighten and strengthen so that it can be the
    main feeder for the pediatric CI program under the MoH. Subsequently, it is hoped that early identification of hearing
    loss will lead to earlier age of implantation among the pediatric patients in the future.
  18. Norfadilah Mat Nor, Rozilawati Ahmad, Norfadilah Mat Nor, Heng, Siew Ping
    Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2017;15(22):127-135.
    Excellent treatment setup accuracy with highly conformal radiation technique will improve oral mucosal sparing by
    limiting uninvolved mucosal structures from receiving high dose radiation. Therefore, a study was conducted to identify
    the ideal immobilization device for interfraction treatment setup accuracy improvement. A total of twelve oral cancer
    patients underwent volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) was categorized into three different group depending on
    immobilization device they used for treatment. HFW: headFIX® mouthpiece molded with wax, SYR: 10 cc/ml syringe and
    TDW: wooden tongue depressor molded by wax. Each patient underwent image-guided radiotherapy with a total of 292
    cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data sets for position treatment setup errors measurement. The variations in
    translational (lateral, longitudinal, vertical) and rotational (pitch, yaw, roll) in each CBCT image were calculated. Patient
    positioning errors were analyzed for time trends over the course of radiotherapy. CTV-PTV margins were calculated from
    the systematic (Σ) and random (σ) errors. Mean ± SD for absolute treatment setup error was statistically significant
    (p < 0.001) lower for all translational errors and yaw direction in HFW. The interfraction 3D vector errors were 1.93 ±
    0.66, 3.84 ± 1.34 and 2.79 ± 1.17 mm for the HFW, SYR and TDW respectively. There are positive increments between 3D
    vector errors over the treatment fraction for all devices. The calculated CTV-PTV margins were 3.08, 2.22 and 0.81 mm,
    3.76, 6.24 and 5.06 mm and 3.06, 3.45 and 4.84 mm in R-L, S-I and A-P directions, respectively. HFW shows smaller errors
    in almost all comparison indicating higher accuracy and reproducibility of the immobilization device in maintaining
    patient’s position. All margins calculated did not exceed hospital protocol (5 mm) except S-I and A-P directions using
    SYR. However, in some special situations, such as re-irradiation or the close proximity of organs at risk and high-dose
    regions or lower (i.e., 3 mm) margins could benefit from daily image guidance.
  19. Rohida Saleh Hudin, Suzana Shahar, Norhayati Ibrahim, Hanis Mastura Yahaya
    Food insecurity is associated with an inadequate nutrient intake among older adults. Therefore, this study aimed
    to determine the food intake among older adults with food insecurity in an agricultural settlement, i.e. Felda Land
    Development Authority (FELDA) settlers at Lubuk Merbau, Kedah. A total of 70 older adults were selected as a subsample
    to record data on food supply for a week, from an original study (n = 289: mean age= 69.2 ± 7.4 years). This study was
    conducted through a house to house visit of which respondent was interview to get information on sociodemographic
    and food insecurity. Food intake was recorded for a week using food supply questionnaire. Food insecurity was assessed
    using Food Security Tool For the Elderly. Results indicated that 19.7% respondents had food insecurity. Energy intake
    was found to be higher among women with food insecurity (2329.0 ± 814 kcal/day) compared to respondents with food
    secured (1836 ± 447 kcal/day) (p < 0.05). However, after removing over reporters, the energy intake among both groups
    did not differ significantly (1890 ± 208 kcal/day and 1643 ± 233 kcal/day). Total intake from food groups of fat, oil, sugar
    and salt was higher among respondents with food insecurity (106.6 ± 60.0 g/day) as compared to those who were food
    secured (80.3 ± 30.1 g/day)(p < 0.05). In conclusion, food insecurity affected approximately a fifth of the respondents and
    associated with unhealthy diet with high in fat, oil, sugar and salt. There is a need to formulate intervention programme
    to improve the quality of diet of older adults at high risk of food insecurity.
  20. Chong, Elizabeth Sinirisan, Nur Faizah Abu Bakar, Noraziah Mohamad Zin, SitiShaharaZulfakar
    Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2017;15(22):115-119.
    Salmonella spp. is a pathogenic microbial contaminant in beef of worldwide importance. It has the ability to colonize
    the gastrointestinal tract of animals without producing any clinical sign. It may lead to infections in human when the
    contaminated meat was consumed. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of Salmonella spp.
    on beef carcasses and meat contact surfaces at selected abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 152 swabs from beef
    carcasses (n = 104) and meat contact surfaces (n = 48) were collected from the selected abattoirs in October 2015 to
    June 2016. The collected samples were examined for total viable count and prevalence of Salmonella spp. Salmonellapositive
    samples were confirmed by routine biochemical tests and Gram staining. The results showed that all samples
    contained an average viable count of 4.56 ± 1.23 Log CFU/cm2
    . The overall prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 21.05%
    which beef carcasses and meat contact surfaces contributed 11.18% and 9.87%, respectively to the overall prevalence.
    The prevalence of Salmonella spp. on meat contact surfaces was higher than that on beef carcasses could be attributed
    to poor hygienic practices at the abattoirs. However, despite a lower prevalence of Salmonella spp. on the beef carcasses,
    beef could still be a potential vehicle for foodborne infections. This study suggests implementation of preventive measures
    and good hygienic practices at abattoirs in order to avoid cross-contamination on beef prepared for retail markets.
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