There is an increasing demand of functional foods in developed countries. Yogurt plays an important role in the management of blood pressure. Several bioactive peptides isolated from Allium sativum or fish collagen have shown antihypertensive activity. Thus, in the present study the effects of A. sativum and/or Fish Collagen (FC) on proteolysis and ACE inhibitory activity in yogurt (0, 7 and 14 day) and cheese (0, 14 and 28 day) were investigated. Proteolytic activities were the highest on day 7 of refrigerated storage in A. sativum-FC-yogurt (337.0 +/- 5.3 microg g(-1)) followed by FC-yogurt (275.3 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1)), A. sativum-yogurt (245.8 +/- 4.2 microg g(-1)) and plain-yogurt (40.4 +/- 1.2 microg g(-1)). On the other hand, proteolytic activities in cheese ripening were the highest (p < 0.05) on day 14 of storage for plain and A. sativum-cheeses (411.4 +/- 4.3 and 528.7 +/- 1.6 microg g(-1), respectively). However, the presence of FC increased the proteolysis to the highest level on day 28 of storage for FC- and A. sativum-FC cheeses (641.2 +/- 0.1 and 1128.4 +/- 4.5 microg g(-1), respectively). In addition, plain- and A. sativum-yogurts with or without FC showed maximal inhibition of ACE on day 7 of storage. Fresh plain- and A. sativum-cheeses showed ACE inhibition (72.3 +/- 7.8 and 50.4 +/- 1.6 % respectively), the presence of FC in both type of cheeses reduced the ACE inhibition to 62.9 +/- 0.8 and 44.5 +/- 5.0%, respectively. However, refrigerated storage increased ACE inhibition in cheeses (p < 0.05 on day 28) in the presence of FC more than in the absence. In conclusion, the presence of FC in A. sativum-yogurt or cheese enhanced the proteolytic activity. Thus, it has potential in the development of an effective dietary strategy for hypertension associated cardiovascular diseases.
There are numerous commercial applications of microalgae nowadays owing to their vast biotechnological and economical potential. Indisputably, astaxanthin is one of the high value product synthesized by microalgae and is achieving commercial success. Astaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid pigment found in many aquatic animals including microalgae. Astaxanthin cannot be synthesized by animals and provided in the diet is compulsory. In this study, the production of astaxanthin by the freshwater microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana and marine microalgae Tetraselmis sp. were studied. The relationship between growth and astaxanthin production by marine and freshwater microalgae cultivated under various carbon sources and concentrations, environmental conditions and nitrate concentrations was investigated in this study. Inorganic carbon source and low nitrate concentration favored the growth and production of astaxanthin by the marine microalgae Tetraselmis sp. and the freshwater microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana. Outdoor cultivation enhanced the growth of microalgae, while indoor cultivation promoted the formation of astaxanthin. The results indicated that supplementation of light, inorganic carbon and nitrate could be effectively manipulated to enhance the production of astaxanthin by both microalgae studied.
Local and regional decline of Asian horseshoe crabs has spurred a study on its spawning population at Balok Beach, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. This location was identified as spawning site due to the occurrence of horseshoe crab spawning pairs and nests. Size-frequency, length-weight relationships, sex ratio and epibiont infestation of Tachypleus gigas were studied. Instar stage was estimated based on prosomal width. Condition of the horseshoe crab carapace was reported. Visual search technique of horseshoe crab was conducted during high tide of new and full moons. Prosomal, opisthosomal and telson length and weight of each horseshoe crab were measured. Largest female was recorded with mean prosomal length and width of 154.4 and 246.9 mm, respectively. About 69.8% of the males belonged to size group of 151-200 mm and 53.3% of females were grouped into 201-250 mm. All individuals were of fourteenth to sixteenth instar stages. Sex ratio varied from 0.313 to 2.5 and attributed to commercial harvest and monsoon season. Sand sediment of study site showed 93% of fine sands with grain size ranged from 120 to 250 microm. Acorn and pedunculate barnacle, conical and flat slipper shells were found on the carapace of the specimens. Most males had damaged eyes and carapaces while females with broken telsons. Body damages of about 19.9% on the specimens were likely due to nearby fishing activities. Lack of satellite male indicated low spawning population. The finding of this study showed that the species is extremely threatened by human activities and coastal development.
The Condition Index (CI) is a method to measure overall health of fish and that has been applied to estimate the effect that different environmental factors have on clam meat quality. The CI of local mangrove clam Polymesoda expansa in Kelulit, Miri Sarawak was determined from October 2010 to November 2011. Condition index that is generally used to characterize the physiological activity of organisms, varied from 1.8% in December 2010 to 3.4% in October 2011, with low values observed during the spawning period. The clam attained their best condition in quality of flesh weight during July-October. In present study, the CI showed a clear relationship with the reproductive cycle of P. expansa. However, no significant correlation (p > 0.05) was found between CI and the different physicochemical parameter of seawater. The data presented is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and broodstock selection for the species which is crucial in aquaculture development.
Azolla pinnata R.Br. growth performance experiments in different water sources were conducted from May until July 2011 at Aquaculture Research Station, Puchong, Malaysia. Four types of water sources (waste water, drain water, paddy field water and distilled water) each with different nutrient contents were used to grow and evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Four water sources with different nutrient contents; waste, drain, paddy and distilled water as control were used to evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Generally, irrespective of the types of water sources there were increased in plant biomass from the initial biomass (e.g., after the first week; lowest 25.2% in distilled water to highest 133.3% in drain water) and the corresponding daily growth rate (3.61% in distilled water to 19.04% in drain water). The increased in biomass although fluctuated with time was consistently higher in drain water compared to increased in biomass for other water sources. Of the four water sources, drain water with relatively higher nitrate concentration (0.035 +/- 0.003 mg L(-l)) and nitrite (0.044 +/- 0.005 mg L(-1)) and with the available phosphate (0.032 +/- 0.006 mg L(-1)) initially provided the most favourable conditions for Azolla growth and propagation. Based on BVSTEP analysis (PRIMER v5), the results indicated that a combination of more than one nutrient or multiple nutrient contents explained the observed increased in biomass of A. pinnata grown in the different water sources.
The freshwater fish, Probarbus jullieni (Sauvage), locally referred to as "Temoleh", is a high-valued freshwater fish in Malaysia and has both cultural and conservational significance. It is widely distributed in the North-east Asian countries such as Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Malaysia. During the recent past, the natural stocks of P. jullieni have been decreased severely due to habitat degradation and man-induced hazards in aquatic ecosystem. Despite the vast research that has been conducted on various carp species, little attention has been given to P. jullieni. This study reviewed the published information on the status, distribution, reproduction and biodiversity of this commercially important fish species. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the species conservation and aquaculture development of the highly endangered P. jullieni.
A study on diversity and distribution of fish communities and water qualities were carried out from January 2009 to December 2010 to cover monsoon and non-monsoon at Kuantan estuary, Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 19 species of primary marine fish belong to 12 families were recorded. Out of 311 individuals the fish fauna was dominated by Ariidae followed by Lutjanidae and Lactaridae. As such Ariidae contributes 50% of the fish caught in the study area and its diversity index (H') was 0.97. A The Ariidae family consist of four (4) species; Arius maculatus, Arius sumatranus, Arius tenuispinis and Arius thalassinus. The Ariidae family can be found in all stations as they are euryhaline (highly tolerant to salinity) and this fish family are known to be a hardy estuarine catfish. Among all species in family Ariidae, Arius thalassinus was the most dominant (23%) among all species. As such collected species showed highest species diversity (0.34) followed by Arius tenuispinis (0.25) compared to other species. Arius tenuispinis alone contributed 11.90% among the samples caught from all stations. The fishes were caught and recorded highest in September-December. Pseudorhombus quinque ocellatus, Nibea soldado, Sardinella fimbriata, Toxotes jaculatrix, Dasyatis ushiei, Setipinna taty were the least dominant in the Kuantan estuary with 9.33% of total abundance. Physico-temperatures, such as temperature (22.03-30 degrees C), Conductivity (10.342.43 mS cm(-1)), TDS (0.06-26.34 mg L(-1)), salinity (0.05-29.09 ppt), DO (6.37-8.38 mg L(-1)), pH (4.97-8.03), Chl a (0.01-1.33 microg L(-1)), nitrite (0.01-0.08 mg L(-1)), nitrate (0.60-0.88 mg L(-1)), phosphate (0.24-0.40 mg L(-1)). Nevertheless, the study envisages that the water quality and fish diversity are still conducive in the Kuantan estuary. The fish diversity of Pahang estuary was high monsoon compared to non-monsoons. The station 4 (LKIM fishing boat jetty and adjacent Hospital Kuantan) is the most polluted area due to the presence of several outskirts could be alarming for the sustainable development of fish and other aquatic organisms in Kuantan estuary in the long run.
This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and four micronutrients (Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn) of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Eel (Monopterus albus) and Cockle (Anadara granosa). All fish and shellfish were purchased from local fish market in Kuantan city. All samples of each species were mixed and divided into two groups based on random selection. Each group were again divided into 3 sub-groups which were considered as replications. The first group were kept uncooked. The second group were fried in a beaker of 400 mL palm cooking oil capacity at a temperature approximately of 180 degrees C for a 15 min period. Both raw and fried samples were analysed following standard methods to determine protein, lipid, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents. Results showed that protein content was higher in Indian mackerel and eel than cockle while overall Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were higher in cockle than Indian mackerel and eel. Therefore, fish is better than shellfish in the nutritional point of view. Fried fish and shellfish had very high fat content. Therefore, frying cannot be recommended to prepare a healthy diet. More research is needed including all cooking methods of fish to know the nutritional changes by each cooking method. Fish contains many important fatty acids and amino acids which might be lost during frying. Therefore, future study should include the effects of different cooking methods on amino acids and fatty acids compositions of fish and shellfish.
The study compares the bacteriological quality on Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) between ice and salt storage methods. The main objectives of the study were to identify different bacteria constituents and quantitative bacterial load in Asian seabass when preserved with ice and sea salt. For the purpose of this study, Asian seabass was stored in two different conditions of ice-chilled and salted for 2 days. All fish samples were analyzed by performing bacteriological analysis and the isolated bacteria were identified by using API identification system. In case of the quantity of bacteria in the flesh, Chilling and salting had no significant difference to the quantity of bacteria on fish flesh. As for the skin, salt-preserved fish showed higher quantity of bacteria than ice-preserved fish. Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas fluorescens had been identified from skin sample of ice-chilled fish. Besides P. fluorescens and A. baumannii other isolates identified include Vibrio and Myxobacteria. All bacteria were cocci-shaped except a few bacilli. In term of bacteria number and morphological characteristics, ice-chilled preserved fish was better than salt preserved fish. Overall, less number of bacteria was observed in both ice-chilled and sea salt preserved fish. The result of this study indicated that the quick preservation is a very important factor to control bacterial load in the preserved fish.
A total of 182 isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides were identified from 40 healthy red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus cultured at two important rivers in Terengganu, Malaysia namely Como River and Terengganu River from east coast Malaysia. P. shigelloides count in Digestive Tract Content (DTC) and Muscle (MUS) of red hybrid tilapia cultured at Terengganu River was 1000-fold higher than Como River. Antibiotic susceptibility test was also performed on Plesiomonas shigelloides isolates. The incidence of antibiotic resistance was higher in Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from red hybrid tilapia cultured at Terengganu River compared to Como river. Thus, the findings of the study indicate that P. shigelloides from tilapia muscle and an intestine could be an alarming for serious public health risk to consumers.
A study of water quality parameters (temperature, conductivity, total dissolved solid, dissolved oxygen, pH and water hardness) in Titiwangsa Lake was conducted in January, April, July and October 2010. The water quality parameters were tested and recorded at different sampling stations chosen randomly using hydrolab data sonde 4 and surveyor 4 a water quality multi probe (USA). Six metals i.e., cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, zinc and copper were determined in five different compartments of the lake namely water, total suspended solids, plankton, sediment and fish. The metals concentration were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS), perkin elmer elan, model 9000. The water quality parameters were compared with National Water Quality Standard (NWQS Malaysia) while metal concentrations were compared with Malaysian and international standards. The study shows that water quality parameters are of class 2. This condition is suitable for recreational activities where body contact is allowed and suitable for sensitive fishing activities. Furthermore, metal concentrations were found to be lower than the international standards, therefore toxic effects for these metals would be rarely observed and the adverse effects to aquatic organisms would not frequently occur.
Fenitrothion (FNT) is extensively used as pesticide and may induce oxidative stress in various organs. Tocotrienol, a form of vitamin E found in palm oil, reduces oxidative impairments in pathological conditions. This study aims to investigate the effects of palm oil tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on fenitrothion-induced oxidative damage in rat pancreas. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control group, FNT group, TRF group and FNT+TRF group. Regimens FNT (20 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) and TRF (200 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) were force-fed for 28 consecutive days with control group only receiving corn oil. Chronic administration of fenitrothion significantly (p < 0.05) induced oxidative damage in pancreas of rats with elevated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl level. Depletion of glutathione and significant (p < 0.05) reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities in pancreas homogenate additionally suggested induction of oxidative stress. Despite these changes in pancreas of intoxicated rats, no significant (p < 0.05) changes in blood glucose and pancreas histology were observed. Co-administration of FNT with TRF alleviated these oxidative changes and significantly (p < 0.05) restored antioxidant status. Enzymatic activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) were normalized. In conclusion, tocotrienol rich fraction of palm oil prevents fenitrothion-induced pancreatic oxidative damage in rats.
A study of water quality parameters (temperature, conductivity, total dissolved solid, dissolved oxygen, pH and water hardness) in Ampang Hilir Lake was conducted in January, April, July and October 2010. The water quality parameters were tested and recorded at different sampling stations chosen randomly using Hydrolab Data Sonde 4 and Surveyor 4 a water quality multi probe (USA). Six metals which were cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, zinc and copper were determined in five different compartments of the lake namely water, total suspended solids, plankton, sediment and fish. The metals concentration were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS), Perkin Elmer Elan, model 9000.The water quality parameters were compared with National Water Quality Standard (NWQS Malaysia) while metal concentrations were compared with Malaysian and international standards. The study shows that water quality parameters are of class 2. This condition is suitable for recreational activities where body contact is allowed and suitable for sensitive fishing activities. Furthermore, metal concentrations were found to be lower than the international standards, therefore toxic effects for these metals would be rarely observed and the adverse effects to aquatic organisms would not frequently occur.
Blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus is widely study and research throughout the Indo-West Pacific, but little is known of its reproductive biology in Malaysia. The present study describes the fecundity, embryonic development and ovarian development stages of the P. pelagicus from Johor coastal water, Malaysia. Carapace width range of berried crabs sampled was from 9.64 to 13.32 cm, while the body weight range was from 75 to 235 g. The mean number of egg produced by females in different sizes ranged from 105443.333 +/- 35448.075 per eggs batch. Mean egg size during embryonic development at stage 1 was 0.307 +/- 0.037, while 0.386 +/- 0.039 and 0.396 +/- 0.033 for stage 2 and stage 3, respectively. Study showed that there was significant (p < 0.05) relationship between the number of eggs and carapace width/body weight. Mean diameter oocyte during ovarian development at stage 1 was 97.732 +/- 12.391 while for stage 2 was 149.516 +/- 23.287. Stage 3 showed increasingly of size with mean diameter was 158.506 +/- 27.616 and 181.013 +/- 24.339 for stage 4.
Termites are the major decomposers in tropical region but yet their occurrences in oil palm plantation especially in peat soil are generally treated as pest. Study of termite species in peat land was conducted in selected oil palm plantations in North Sarawak with 5-7 years old palms and South Sarawak with 13-15 years old palms with two sites in each area. Results of quadrate (25 x 25 x 30 cm) sampling showed termite was significantly higher in relative density with increasing depth of soil (0-10 = 21.23, 10-20 = 42.52 and 20-30 cm = 81.12%) which could be advantaged from being predated by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) which were higher in density from soil surface to 10 cm soil depth with relative density of 31.84%. Modified transect sampling (50x6 m) had successfully sampled 18 species of termites from 2 families (Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae), 5 subfamilies (Rhinotermitinae, Coptotermitinae, Termitinae, Macrotermitinae and Nasutitermitinae) and 11 genera (Coptotermes, Schedorhinotermes, Termes, Macrotermes, Nasutitermes, Globitermes, Amitermes, Parrhinotermes, Pericapritermes, Havilanditermes and Prohamitermes). Both plantation sites have termite dominantly feeding on rotten wood as a result of abundant dead woods. However, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren was identified to feed on the living tissues of oil palm causing damage or death of the tree. Study showed higher encounter of soil-feeding termite in longer established plantation. It indicates the gradually shifting of soil condition towards a stabilized environment which favors the successful settlement of soil feeder termite species. Termite control should be more targets specific to avoid harming beneficial termites.
Investigation on copepod communities in Perai river estuary was conducted from November 2005 to May 2006. Five stations were established for monthly sampling and were located from the river mouth to the upper reaches of the river. Copepod samples were collected from vertical tows using a standard zooplankton net. The Perai river estuary was slightly stratified and salinity decreases significantly from the mouth of the river towards the upper reaches of the river. A total of 28 species of copepods were recorded and comprised of 14 families, Paracalanidae, Oithonidae, Corycaeidae, Acartiidae, Calanidae, Centropagidae, Eucalanidae, Pontellidae, Pseudodiaptomidae, Tortanidae, Ectinosomatidae, Euterpinidae, Clausidiidae and Cyclopidae. A total of 10 species showed high positive affiliation towards salinity (R > 0.60), Acartia spinicauda, Euterpina acutifrons, Microsetella norvegica, Oithona nana, Oithona simplex, Paracalanus crassirostris, Paracalanus elegans, Paracalanus parvus, Pseudodiaptomus sp. and Hemicyclops sp. The copepod species Pseudodiaptomus dauglishi were negatively affiliated towards salinity (R = -0.71). The copepod assemblages classified into two distinct groups according to salinity regimes, euryhaline-polyhaline group (25 marine affiliated species) and oligohaline-mesohaline group (3 freshwater affiliated species).
Macrobenthos in coastal environment that play a significant role in the food web. It could also use as a good indicator of aquatic ecosystem health. The abundance and composition of macrobenthos in Bakkhali channel system, Cox's Bazar were conducted in relation to the soil parameters. Samples were collected using Ekman Berge bottom grab from five different stations of Bakkhali channel. Macrobenthos were comprised of five major groups namely Polychaeta (9.96-30.31%), Oligochaeta (3.68-59.707%), Crustacea (0.02-58.40%), Bivalvia (1.40-82.09%) and Gastropoda (0.08-4.25%). Total number of macrobenthos was higher at station I (9000 individuals m(-2)) and station II (8517 individuals m(-2)) compared to other stations. Shannon diversity index among the stations ranged from 0.65-1.04. Soil pH and soil moisture ranged from 6.1-6.4 and 23.44-31.29%, respectively. The highest organic carbon concentration was observed at station I (2.11%) and lowest at station III (1.40%). Maximum fraction of sand by weight was found at stations II (81.88%) and III (87.88) while the highest fraction of clay (21.52%) and silt (8.0%) were recorded in station I. It was observed that benthic bivalves were positively correlated (r = 0.891, p > 0.05) with silt fraction of the sediments.
Outdoor mass culture of microalgae in the tropical area is important to minimize its production cost. This study evaluates the growth of Chaetoceros calcitrans in 120 L annular photobioreactors at indoor temperature (Treatment I, 25 +/- 2 degrees C) and outdoor tropical ambient temperature, (Treatment II, 30 +/- 6 degrees C). Each treatment was done in duplicates. For both treatments, C. calcitrans was first grown in starter columns of 10 L capacity for a period of 7 days at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. After 7 days, the 9 L culture was transferred to the annular photobioreactors and subsequently brought to a final volume of 100 L by adding 20 L fresh medium every 5 days. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the dry weight of microalgae grown in natural light and those grown indoor. The results suggest that C. calcitrans can be grown in outdoor conditions, hence, saving time and microalgae production cost for the larviculture industry.
Trapa bispinosa is a freshwater macrophyte occurring in stagnant or slow moving water streams. Information on assessment of seeds storage and germination of Trapa bispinosa is less available in literature. Dependence on fresh seeds abundance only from natural environment for plant propagation or cultivation may lead to insufficient supply of seeds due to various biotic and abiotic factors. This study evaluated the viability and germination of Trapa bispinosa seeds stored in zip-lock plastic bag at low temperature of 7 degrees C for six months and fresh seeds. In addition germinating seeds progressive development to juvenile plants was recorded and described. Experiments were conducted where stored and fresh seeds were soaked in 62 x 45 x 54 cm glass tanks filled with aged tap water to the level of 15 cm depth. Stored seeds showed low percentage germination of 2.82% compared to fresh seeds which was 71.19%. Eight distinct developmental stages were identified from germinating seeds to juvenile plants. Both stored and fresh seeds produced plants of similar morphology but stored seeds progressive development from germination, seedling to juvenile plants needed longer duration to achieve. The storage of seed at low temperature at 7 degrees C for six months showed reduced viability and also vigorousity. Improved methods should be developed for Trapa seeds storage taking into account of the seeds' endurance to dryness and moisture levels in order to maintained seeds viability for future uses either for production, research purposes or even conservation and restoration programs.
Selenium in the form of sodium selenite (SSE) is an essential micronutrient which known to possess antioxidant and anticancer properties. This study emphasizes the role of selenium on oxidative stress in experimental rats with N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiated and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) promoted multistage hepatocellular carcinogenesis (HCC). Rats were divided randomly into six groups: negative control, positive control (DEN+2-AAF), preventive group (pre-SEE 4 weeks+DEN), preventive control (respective control for preventive group), therapeutic group (DEN+post-SSE 12 weeks) and therapeutic control (respective control for therapeutic group). SSE (4 mg L(-1)) was given to animals before initiation and during promotion phase of HCC. The levels of total protein (TP), conjugated diens (CD), malondialdehyde (MDA), fluorescent pigment (FP), antioxidant activity (AOA) and DNA damage were measured. Supplementation of SSE before the initiation phase of carcinogenicity significantly increased TP and AOA level (p < 0.05) while it decreased the levels of CD, MDA, DNA damage and FP (p < 0.05). Supplementation of SSE during the promotion phase of carcinogenicity significantly decreased the DNA damage and FP level (p < 0.05) and there were negative correlation between the level of AOA and with the level of FP and CD. Thus, supplementation of SSE reduced the adverse changes which occur in liver cancer. However, the chemoprevention effect of SSE was more pronounced when it was supplemented before initiation phase of cancer when compared to promotion phase.