Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 118 in total

  1. Zawawi MH, Idris MH, Kamal AH, King WS
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2014 Aug;17(8):1007-14.
    PMID: 26031019
    Species composition of seaweed and distribution were investigated in the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak. The seaweed samples were collected during low tide between May 2011 and May 2012 from the six different stations. In total 54 species of seaweeds were identified from study areas of Bintulu coastal waters. Among them, 23 species were from Rhodophyta with 11 families, 15 species were from Phaeophyta with 2 families and 16 species were from Chlorophyta with 10 families: Seventeen species of seaweeds were recorded from the Tanjung Batu, while 23 species from Pantai Telekom, 14 species from Golden Beach, 26 species from Kuala Similajau, 12 species from Kuala Nyalau and 21 species from Batu Mandi. Seaweeds abundance was high in rocky substrate and Rhodophyta (11 families and 23 species) was the common and highest group of seaweeds in this coastal areas. Present study recorded high diversified seaweed species at the rocky shore area compare to reef area.
  2. Nor Fatihah S, Muhd-Farouk H, Amin-Safwan A, Hafiz Mahsol H, Ikhwanuddin M
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2017;20(7):365-371.
    PMID: 29023069 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2017.365.371
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mud spiny lobsters, Panulirus polyphagus (P. polyphagus) are one of the most important fisheries resources now-a-days due to quality that it's possessed. However, there is still lack of in-depth study about this species mainly on males testicular characteristics and sexual maturity size. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the histological characteristics on the testes and sexual maturity sizes of mud spiny lobster, Panulirus polyphagus.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The testes were dissected out and fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution for 11 h, dehydrated in 70% alcohol and lastly placed in tissue processor for 18±1 h at 60°C. The tissues blocks were cut at the thickness of 4 μm on a rotary microtome. Stained tissues were taken under Advance Microscope (Nikon Eclipse 80i Nomarski DIC). Collected data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2013. Data were presented as mean±standard deviation. Statistical analyses were done using one-way ANOVA using SPSS (Version 22).

    RESULTS: These lobules of mature P. polyphagus were formed via different germinative lineage cells such as spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. The histological characteristics of testes showed that the process of spermatogenesis went through the stages of four testes maturation which were spermatogonia I and II, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids and spermatozoa stages within different body weight of P. polyphagus. It was found that there were significant difference between body weight and carapace length to the testicular maturation stages (one-way ANOVA and p = 0.000).

    CONCLUSION: The results of this experiment indicated that males P. polyphagus have four stages of testes maturation and can be considered to have fully mature testes that ready for fertilization at 452 g body weight (BW) and 107 mm carapace length (CL) or more.

  3. Kasan NA, Ghazali NA, Ikhwanuddin M, Ibrahim Z
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2017;20(6):306-313.
    PMID: 29023055 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2017.306.313
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A new green technology to reduce environmental damages while optimizing production of Pacific Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei was developed known as "Biofloc technology". Microbial communities in biofloc aggregates are responsible in eliminating water exchange and producing microbial proteins that can be used as supplemented feed for L. vannamei. This study aimed to isolate and identify potential bioflocculant-producing bacteria to be used as inoculum for rapid formation of biofloc.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the purpose of this study, bacterial communities during 0, 30 and 70 days of culture (DOC) of L. vannamei grow-out ponds were isolated and identified through phenotypic and 16S rDNA sequences analysis. Phylogenetic relationships between isolated bacteria were then evaluated through phylogenetic tree analysis. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the differences of microbial communities at each DOC.

    RESULTS: Out of 125 bacterial isolates, nine species of bacteria from biofloc were identified successfully. Those bacteria species were identified as Halomonas venusta, H. aquamarina, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus infantis, B. cereus, B. safensis, Providencia vermicola, Nitratireductor aquimarinus and Pseudoalteromonas sp., respectively. Through phylogenetic analysis, these isolates belong to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes families under the genera of Halomonas sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus sp., Providencia sp., Nitratireductor sp. and Pseudoalteromonas sp.

    CONCLUSION: In this study, bioflocculant-producing bacteria were successfully identified which are perfect candidates in forming biofloc to reduce water pollution towards a sustainable aquaculture industry. Presence of Halomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. in all stages of biofloc formation reinforces the need for new development regarding the ability of these species to be used as inoculum in forming biofloc rapidly.

  4. Mahazar NH, Zakuan Z, Norhayati H, MeorHussin AS, Rukayadi Y
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2017;20(3):154-159.
    PMID: 29023007 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2017.154.159
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inoculation of starter culture in cocoa bean fermentation produces consistent, predictable and high quality of fermented cocoa beans. It is important to produce healthy inoculum in cocoa bean fermentation for better fermented products. Inoculum could minimize the length of the lag phase in fermentation. The purpose of this study was to optimize the component of culture medium for the maximum cultivation of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molasses and yeast extract were chosen as medium composition and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was then employed to optimize the molasses and yeast extract.

    RESULTS: Maximum growth of Candida sp. (7.63 log CFU mL-1) and Blastobotrys sp. (8.30 log CFU mL-1) were obtained from the fermentation. Optimum culture media for the growth of Candida sp., consist of 10% (w/v) molasses and 2% (w/v) yeast extract, while for Blastobotrys sp., were 1.94% (w/v) molasses and 2% (w/v) yeast extract.

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that culture medium consists of molasses and yeast extract were able to produce maximum growth of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp., as a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.

  5. Hasyima Ismail N, Amin Safwan A, Fairuz Fozi N, Megat FH, Muhd Farouk H, Kamaruddin SA, et al.
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2017;20(3):140-146.
    PMID: 29023005 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2017.140.146
    BACKGROUND: Orange mud crab Scylla olivacea is one of the most important fisheries resources. A new development in ageing technique of crustaceans has been introduced. The detection of growth band deposited in hard structure of gastric mill in the cardiac stomach are found retained after moulting process can be used as age indicator and growth estimation.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to determine the comparison between carapace width and growth band count of S. olivacea in Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples were collected from Setiu Wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia from February until August, 2016. Samples were categorized based on their morphological measurements. The mesocardiac and zygocardiac ossicles in the gastric mill of S. olivacea was dissected out and preserved in solutions and underwent a cross sectioning process. A total of 76 of wild S. olivacea ranging from 6.56 to 12.84 cm in carapace width were analysed. The growth band counts were examined for each individual and ranging from 1 to 3 band counts.

    RESULTS: A positive linear relation was observed between CW and GBC with r2 = 0.5178, p<0.01. Overall, there was a strong, positive correlation between CW and GBC. Increase in CW were correlated with increases in GBC respectively for this species.

    CONCLUSION: Therefore, the carapace width, growth band counts and body weight can be used to improve data on growth, recruitment, maturation and mortality. Thus, this study would able to improve new ageing technique and contribute greatly to improve the conservation and management of S. olivacea in Setiu Wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia.

  6. Syahidah A, Saad CR, Hassan MD, Rukayadi Y, Norazian MH, Kamarudin MS
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2017;20(2):70-81.
    PMID: 29022997 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2017.70.81
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The problems of bacterial diseases in aquaculture are primarily controlled by antibiotics. Medicinal plants and herbs which are seemed to be candidates of replacements for conventional antibiotics have therefore gained increasing interest. Current study was performed to investigate the presence of phytochemical constituents, antibacterial activities and composition of antibacterial active compounds in methanolic extract of local herb, Piper betle .

    METHODOLOGY: Qualitative phytochemical analysis was firstly carried out to determine the possible active compounds in P. betle leaves methanolic extract. The antibacterial activities of major compounds from this extract against nine fish pathogenic bacteria were then assessed using TLC-bioautography agar overlay assay and their quantity were determined simultaneously by HPLC method.

    RESULTS: The use of methanol has proved to be successful in extracting numerous bioactive compounds including antibacterial compounds. The TLC-bioautography assay revealed the inhibitory action of two compounds which were identified as hydroxychavicol and eugenol. The $-caryophyllene however was totally inactive against all the tested bacterial species. In this study, the concentration of hydroxychavicol in extract was found to be 374.72±2.79 mg g-1, while eugenol was 49.67±0.16 mg g-1.

    CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, it could be concluded that hydroxychavicol and eugenol were the responsible compounds for the promising antibacterial activity of P. betle leaves methanolic extract. This inhibitory action has significantly correlated with the amount of the compounds in extract. Due to its potential, the extract of P. betle leaves or it compounds can be alternative source of potent natural antibacterial agents for aquaculture disease management.

  7. Amin-Safwan A, Muhd-Farouk H, Nadirah M, Ikhwanuddin M
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2016;19(5):219-226.
    PMID: 29023026 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2016.219.226
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mud crab from the genus Scylla are considered as one of the most demanded seafood items nowadays as their flesh has high quality, tasty and higher growth rate thus support and boosted expansion in aquaculture sector especially in Malaysia. Present study was designed to focus on the effect of water salinity on the ovarian maturation of orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea based on morphological characteristics.

    METHODOLOGY: Samples were collected from Setiu wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia from July-September, 2015. Ovarian maturation of S. olivacea was classified into four stages based on previous study which were: Immature (Stage 1), early mature (Stage 2), late mature (Stage 3) and fully mature (Stage 4).

    RESULTS: Morphologically as the ovary develop the colouration start to change from translucent or whitish in colour and sometimes creamy to pale yellow, follow by light orange and lastly reddish orange. Stage 1 ovary was translucent and whitish in colour, stage 2 ovary was pale yellow in colour, stage 3 was light orange and stage 4 ovary was reddish orange in colour. Gonad Somatic Index (GSI) of S. olivacea remained low at stage 1 and 2 and began to increase started at stage 3. This present study involved three different salinities treatments, which treatment 1 (10 ppt), treatment 2 (20 ppt) and treatment 3 (30 ppt). Treatment 2 produce the highest number of stage 4 ovarian maturation based on colouration and the highest GSI recorded, follow by treatment 1 and lastly treatment 3.

    CONCLUSION: This present study proved that salinity does affected the ovarian maturation of S. olivacea in captivity and provides important information regarding the effect of water salinity on ovarian maturation for further studies on reproductive biology of this species.
  8. Al-Hatamleh MAI, Baig AA, Simbak NB, Nadeem MI, Khan SU, Ariff TM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2017;20(10):478-488.
    PMID: 30187724 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2017.478.488
    Medical students in Malaysia and globally were considered among the most exposure groups in the community to stress due to several sources. The most significant and severe sources of stress in medical students is an academic sources, includes a lot of exams/tests, lack of time and facilities for entertainment, stay in a hostel, high parental expectations and vastness of syllabus, in addition to emotional problems and others personal sources. Stress is a very important issue that leads to a worsening of health problems. Stress develops in the body and leads to oxidative stress which in turn leads to a disorder in the whole body. Oxidative stress may lead to abnormal haematological indices elevated white blood cells (WBCs) count. Oxidative stress can lead to massive destruction of red blood cells (RBCs). The brain and the gastrointestinal system (GI) are intimately connected as one system. The brain has a direct impact on the GI tract. A stressful brain can send signals to the gut, just as a troubled intestine can send signals to the brain. Therefore, stress can be the cause of block the breakdown and assimilation of food for energy and nutriment. This malabsorption can then lead to a reciprocal negative effect to the stress and can be another cause of anaemia through malabsorption minerals and vitamins that are to erythropoiesis. So, stress can be one of the leading causes of anaemia among medical students. Stress is a chronic epidemic in the most medical students and can directly affect how well body works. This review article discovers the effect of stress in medical students that can be effect on their studies and further create researcher's interest to generate database that help to reduce stress response and bring about the empowerment of balanced life among Malaysian medical students besides the increasing level of health and academic performance.
  9. Juwita T, Melyani Puspitasari I, Levita J
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2018 Jan;21(4):151-165.
    PMID: 30311471 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2018.151.165
    In order to propose a prospective candidate for novel complementary phytopharmaceuticals, one of Zingiberaceae family plant, Etlingeraelatior or torch ginger, was being evaluated. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive literature research focused on the botanical aspects, nutritional quality, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of E. elatior. Researches on this particular plant were conducted in Malaysia (55.5%), Indonesia (33.3%), Thailand (8.3%) and Singapore (2.7%). This review article has revealed that the most prominent pharmacological activities were anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activities in consistent with the dominated levels of flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols. However, extended and integrated research should be converged towards intensive investigations concerning to isolated phytoconstituents and its bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, molecular mechanism of its specific pharmacological activities, safety and efficacy studies for further development.
  10. Fathilah AR, Rahim ZH, Othman Y, Yusoff M
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2009 Mar 15;12(6):518-21.
    PMID: 19580002
    In this study, the bacteriostatic effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on selected early dental plaque bacteria was investigated based on changes in the doubling time (g) and specific growth rates (micro). Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis and Actinomyces sp. were cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) in the presence and absence of the extracts. The growth of bacteria was monitored periodically every 15 min over a period of 9 h to allow for a complete growth cycle. Growth profiles of the bacteria in the presence of the extracts were compared to those in the absence and deviation in the g and micro were determined and analyzed. It was found that the g and mu were affected by both extracts. At 4 mg mL(-1) of P. betle the g-values for S. sanguinis and S. mitis were increased by 12.0- and 10.4-fold, respectively (p < 0.05). At similar concentration P. guajava increased the g-value by 1.8- and 2.6 -fold, respectively (p < 0.05). The effect on Actinomyces sp. was observed at a much lower magnitude. It appears that P. betle and P. guajava extracts have bacteriostatic effect on the plaque bacteria by creating a stressed environment that had suppressed the growth and propagation of the cells. Within the context of the dental plaque, this would ensure the attainment of thin and healthy plaque. Thus, decoctions of these plants would be suitable if used in the control of dental plaque.
  11. Sarimin AS, Ghaffar MA, Mohamed CA
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2009 Feb 01;12(3):231-8.
    PMID: 19579951
    A study on elemental composition in the otolith of giant mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri, was done from June to October 2003. Specimens were obtained from the mangrove areas of Kuala Selangor, Sepang and Melaka in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 70 sagitta otoliths were analyzed to detect variation of Sr, Ba and Mg, replacing the natural chemical composition of the otolith, which is the calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The average ratio of Sr:Ca was 0.11 x 10(-4), Ba:Ca was 5.7 x 10(-3) and Mg:Ca was 0.2 x 10(-3). Strong correlation (R > 0.8) between fish body size and otolith weight ofmudskipper (p < 0.01) also found during this study.
  12. Soleimani AF, Kasim A, Alimon AR, Zulkifli I
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Sep 01;11(17):2163-6.
    PMID: 19266934
    A trial was conducted to determine the influence of short-term exposure to high ambient temperature at 28 and 35 days of age on deep body temperatures (Tb) and subsequent growth of birds until 42 days of age. A total of 90 day old chicks were reared in stainless steel battery cages and were assigned at random into 18 pens of 5 birds each, with 9 pens containing males and another 9 pens containing females. Three treatment groups, each represented by 3 male and 3 female pens, were represented by T1 without any heat exposure, T2 with heat exposure starting at day 28 and T3 with heat exposure starting at day 35. Heat stress was defined as 180 min exposure to 35 +/- 1 degrees C. Tb and body weights were measured at 35, 37 and 39 days of age immediately following heat exposure. Heat stress resulted in higher Tb and Onset of heat stress at 28 days resulted in significantly lower Tb than onset of heat stress at 35 days. Lower Tb in T2 than T3 permitted recovery in body weight at 42 days. Sexes responded similarly to heat stress.
  13. Mukred AM, Hamid AA, Hamzah A, Yusoff WM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Sep 01;11(17):2122-7.
    PMID: 19266926
    Addition of nitrogen sources as supplementary nutrient into MSM medium to enhance biodegradation by stimulating the growth four isolates, Acinetobacter faecalis, Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas putida and Neisseria elongata isolated from petroleum contaminated groundwater, wastewater aeration pond and biopond at the oil refinery Terengganu Malaysia was investigated. The organic nitrogen sources tested not only supported growth but also enhances biodegradation of 1% Tapis crude oil. All four isolates showed good growth especially when peptone was employed as the organic nitrogen compared to growth in the basal medium. Gas chromatography showed that more then 91, 93, 94 and 95% degradation of total hydrocarbon was observed after 5 days of incubation by isolates Pseudomonas putida, Neisseria elongate, Acinetobacter faecalis and Staphylococcus sp., respectively.
  14. Alshiyab H, Kalil MS, Hamid AA, Yusoff WM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Sep 01;11(17):2073-82.
    PMID: 19266920
    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of some environmental factors on bacterial metabolism. Fermentative hydrogen production by C. acetobutylicum, using glucose as the substrate. The effect of initial pH (4-8), inoculum size (1-20% (v/v)) and glucose concentration (1-30 g L(-1)) on hydrogen production were studied. The optimum cultivation temperature for hydrogen production was at 30 degrees C. The results show that substrate concentration and inoculum size resulted in hydrogen yield (Y(P/S)) of 391 mL g(-1) glucose utilized with maximum hydrogen productivity of 77.5 mL/L/h. Higher substrate concentration or inoculum size adversely affects hydrogen production, which decreases hydrogen yield by 15% to 334 mL g(-1) glucose utilized when 30% (v/v) inoculum size was used. The use of 30 g L(-1) substrate concentration resulted in a 75% decrease to 97 mL g(-1) glucose supplied. Concluded that proper Xo/So enhanced the hydrogen production.
  15. Abdullah F, Sina I, Fauzee F
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Nov 01;11(21):2478-83.
    PMID: 19205267
    An assemblage of beetle specimens from family Carabidae (ground beetles) was carried out at Kenyir water catchment as an indicator to measure disturbance. The samplings were conducted from 30th July to 1st August 2007 at limestone forest of Teluk Bewah and the dipterocarp forest of Sungai Cicir. 28 individuals from 13 species were collected from Teluk Bewah whereas 54 individuals from ten species was sampled from Sungai Cicir. The carabids were more specious (Simpson Diversity index: 0.97) and more abundant (Margalef index: 5.35) at Teluk Bewah compared to Sungai Cicir (Simpson Diversity index, 0.72: Margalefindex, 2.22). Light trapping was most efficient assembling 97.56% of ground beetles compared to Malaise trap, pitfall and net sweeping. This is the first record of beetle assemblage at Kenyir water catchment, Malaysia. New records for Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia are Abacetus sp. 1, Abacetus sp. 2, Acupalpus rectifrotis, Aephnidius adelioides, Dischissus notulatus, Dolichoctis sp., Dolichoctis sp. 2, Dolichoctis straitus, Ophinoea bimaculata, Perigona sp., Pheropsophus piciccollis, Pheropsophus occipitalis, Stenolophus quinquepustulatus, Stenolophus smaragdulus, Stenolophus sp., Tachys coracinus, Casnoidea sp., Orthogonius sp. Seven species coded as Cara C, Cara J, Cara M, Cara N, Cara O, Cara R and Cara S were unidentified and are probably new species to be described in another report. There is moderately high diversity (Simpson Diversity index: 0.846) of Carabidae indicating that ecotourism does not affect diversity of ground beetle at Kenyir Lake.
  16. Alshiyab H, Kalil MS, Hamid AA, Yusoff WM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Oct 01;11(19):2336-40.
    PMID: 19137867
    The effect of removal of resultant gas resulted in enhancement of the H2 yield. The technique of CO2 scavenging resulted in H2 yield being improved from 408 mL g(-1) to reach the maximum of 422 mL g'. The highest hydrogen productivity of 87.9 ml L(-1) h(-1) was obtained by CO2 scavenging. Biomass concentration was enhanced to 1.47 g L(-1), Y(P,X) of 287 ml g(-1) L(-1), Y(X/S) of 0.294 and Y(H2/s) of 0.0377 by the use of CO2 scavenging. The results suggested that the presence of the gaseous products in fermentation medium and headspace adversely effect biomass growth and hydrogen production.
  17. Kim BB, Abdul Kadir H, Tayyab S
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Oct 15;11(20):2418-22.
    PMID: 19137852
    Interaction of bromophenol blue (BPB) with serum albumins from different mammalian species, namely, human (HSA), bovine (BSA), goat (GSA), sheep (SSA), rabbit (RbSA), porcine (PSA) and dog (DSA) was studied using absorption and absorption difference spectroscopy. BPB-albumin complexes showed significant differences in the spectral characteristics, i.e., extent of bathochromic shift and hypochromism relative to the spectral features of free BPB. Absorption difference spectra of these complexes also showed variations in the position of maxima and absorption difference (deltaAbs.) values. Absorption difference spectra of different bilirubin (BR)-albumin complexes showed a significant blue shift accompanied by decrease in deltaAbs. values in presence of BPB which were indicative of the displacement of bound BR from its binding site in BR-albumin complexes. These changes in the difference spectral characteristics of BR-albumin complexes were more marked at higher BPB concentration. However, the extent of these changes was different for different BR-albumin complexes. Taken together, all these results suggest that BPB partially shares BR binding site on albumin and different mammalian albumins show differences in the microenvironment of the BR/BPB binding site.
  18. Harivaindaran KV, Rebecca OP, Chandran S
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Sep 15;11(18):2259-63.
    PMID: 19137837
    The peel of Hylocereus polyrhizus is often regarded as a waste hence this study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of using the peel as a natural colorant using simple water extraction method. Samples were subjected to a series of temperatures: Room temperature (RT), 50, 80 and 100 degrees C; varied length of heating time from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 min and a varied range of pH using 1 M of citric acid solution. The best condition to obtain highest betacyanin content was heating samples at 100 degrees C for 5 min in a pH 5 citric acid solution. The next part of this study involved the stability test of the pigments obtained through the best method determined earlier. The pigments were dried and resuspended in distilled water. The samples were then exposed to light to monitor pigment changes. Initial resuspension of the dried pigments yielded a comparable high content of betacyanins to its juice counterpart. The results showed that resuspended pigments had high pigment retention and were stable up to 7 days. These initial findings must be further studied in more controlled conditions to understand the stability of betacyanin. Nevertheless, the results show that betacyanin obtained from the peel of dragon fruit has a high potential to be used as a natural dye.
  19. Kamaruzzaman BY, Ong MC, Zaleha K, Shahbudin S
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Sep 15;11(18):2249-53.
    PMID: 19137835
    Muscle and feather in tissue of 40 juveniles and 40 adult green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (L.) collected from Muar Estuary, Johor were analyzed for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentration using a fast and sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). In this study, the average concentration of Cu was 8.96 microg g(-1) dry weights, Cd with 0.58 microg g(-1) dry weight, Pb averaging 2.28 microg g(-1) dry weights and Zn averaged to 86.73 microg g(-1) dry weight. The highest accumulation of metal studied was found in feather sample compared to the muscle. The positive relationship of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn with P. virdis length suggesting that the accumulation of these metals were formed in the mussel. In all cases, metal levels found were lower than the guideline of international standards of reference and the examined bivalve were not associated with enhanced metal content in their tissues and were safe within the limits for human consumption.
  20. Alshiyab H, Kalil MS, Hamid AA, Wan Yusoff WM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Sep 15;11(18):2193-200.
    PMID: 19137827
    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of salts addition to fermentation medium on hydrogen production, under anaerobic batch culture system. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of both NaCl and sodium acetate on hydrogen production. The optimum pH and temperature for hydrogen production were at initial pH of 7.0 and 30 degrees C. Enhanced production of hydrogen, using glucose as substrate was achieved. In the absence of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Acetate enhanced hydrogen yield (Y(P/S)) from 350 mL g(-1) glucose utilized to 391 mL g(-1) glucose utilized with maximum hydrogen productivity of 77.5 ml/L/h. Results also show that sodium chloride and sodium acetate in the medium adversely affect growth. Hydrogen yield per biomass (Y(P/X)) of 254 ml/L/g, biomass per substrate utilized (Y(X/S)) of 0.268 and (Y(H2/S) of 0.0349. The results suggested that Sodium at any concentration resulted to inhibit the bacterial productivity of hydrogen.
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