Perna viridis (P. viridis) has been identified as a good biological indicator in identifying environmental pollution, especially when there are various types of Heavy Metals Accumulations (HMA) inside its tissue. Based on the potential of P. viridis to accumulate heavy metals and the data on its physical properties, this study proffers to determine the relationships between both properties. The similarities of the physical properties are used to mathematical model their relationships, which included the size (length, width, height) and weight (wet and dry) of P. viridis, whilst the heavy metals are focused on concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd and Zn. The concentrations of metal elements are detected by using Flame Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry. Results show that the mean concentration of Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, Zn, length, width, height, wet weight and dry weight are: 1.12 +/- 1.00, 2.36 +/- 1.65, 2.12 +/- 2.74, 0.44 +/- 0.41 and 16.52 +/- 10.64 mg kg(-1) (dry weight), 105.08 +/- 14.35, 41.64 +/- 4.64, 28.75 +/- 3.92 mm, 14.56 +/- 3.30 and 2.37 +/- 0.86 g, respectively. It is also found out that the relationships between the Heavy Metals Concentrations (HMA) and the physical properties can be represented using Multiple Linear Regressions (MLR) models, relating that the HMA of Zinc has affected significantly the physical growth properties of P. viridis.
This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user.
One of the main limitations of productivity in photobioreactor is the inefficient conversion of the available light into biomass. Photoautotrophic cells such as microalgae only absorb a small fraction of supplied illumination due to limitation of its photosystem's (PS) absorbing rate. However, phenomenon of Flashing Light Effect (FLE) allows microalgae to utilize strong light exceptionally through intermittent exposure. Exposure of strong light at correct frequency of light and dark photoperiod would allow two pigment-protein complexes, PSI and PSII to be at the equilibrium mid-point potential to allow efficient light conversion. Narrow range of optimum frequency is crucial since overexposure to strong light would injured photosynthetic apparatus whereas longer dark period would contributed to loss of biomass due to triacylglycerol metabolism. The behaviour of microalgae towards various illumination conditions of FLE was determined at batch Photobioreactor (PBR) by varying the aeration flow rate: 16.94, 33.14 and 49.28 mL sec(-1) which yield, respectively the light exposure time of 3.99, 1.71 and 1.1 seconds per cycle. Maximum cell density in FLE-PBR was significantly higher at the exponential phase as compared to the continuously illuminated culture (p = 5.62 x 10(-5), a = 0.05) under the flow rate of 25.07 mL sec(-1). Maximum cell density yield of FLE-PBR and continuously illuminated PBR was, respectively 3.1125 x 10(7) and 2.947 x 10(7) cells mL(-1). Utilization of FLE as an innovative solution to increase the efficiency of microalgae to convert light into chemical energy would revolutionize the microalgae culture, reduce the time for cultivation and produce higher maximum biomass density.
Microbial mannanases have become biotechnologically important in industry but their application is limited due to high production cost. In presents study, the extraction of mannanase from fermented Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) in the Solid State Fermentation (SSF) was optimized. Local isolate of Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 was grown on PKC in (SSF) using column bioreactor. The optimum condition were achieved after two washes of fermented PKC by adding of 10% glycerol (v/v) soaked for 10 h at the room temperature with solvent to ratio, 1:5 (w/v).
The aim of this study was to develop an economical bioprocess to produce the fermentable sugars at laboratory scales Using Oil Palm Frond (OPF) as substrate in Solid State Fermentation (SSF). OPF waste generated by oil palm plantations is a major problem in terms of waste management. However, this lignocellulosic waste material is a cheap source of cellulose. We used OPF as substrate to produce fermentable sugars. The high content of cellulose in OPF promises the high fermentable sugars production in SSF. Saccharification of OPF waste by A. niger USMAI1 generates fermentable sugars and was evaluated through a solid state fermentation. Physical parameters, e.g., inoculum size, initial substrate moisture, initial pH, incubation temperature and the size of substrate were optimized to obtain the maximum fermentable sugars from oil palm fronds. Up to 77 mg of fermentable sugars per gram substrate was produced under the optimal physical parameter conditions. Lower productivity of fermentable sugars, 32 mg fermentable sugars per gram substrate was obtained under non optimized conditions. The results indicated that about 140.6% increase in fermentable sugar production after optimization of the physical parameters. Glucose was the major end component amongst the fermentable sugars obtained. This study indicated that under optimum physical parameter conditions, the OPF waste can be utilized to produce fermentable sugars which then convert into other products such as alcohol.
The mango (Mangifer indica L.) is an important species of the family Anacardiaceae and is one of the most important crops cultivated commercially in many parts of the world. Hence, a better understanding of the phylogeny in this species is crucial as it is the basis knowledge of improving its genetic resources which is beneficial for breeding programs. Phylogenetic relationships among 13 mango cultivars from Indonesia, Malaysia and Taiwan were carried out by comparing DNA sequence data sets derived from the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region pfnuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA). Analysis using parsimony method showed that the cultivars were classified into three major groups. The first group composed almost Malaysian cultivars although with low bootstrap value, the second group consisted of mainly Taiwan cultivars and the last group included mostly Indonesia one. The results indicated that some cultivars have a close relationships with each other even it is originated from different countries. With regards to the relationship among these cultivars, this gives better insight for generating new cultivar.
Production cost of enzyme is largely determined by the type of the strain and raw material used to propagate the strain. Hence, selection of the strain and raw materials is crucial in enzyme production. For Glucose oxidase (GOx), previous studies showed Aspergillus terreus UniMAP AA-1 offers a better alternative to the existing sources. Thus, a lower production cost could be logically anticipated by growing the strain in a cheaper complex media such as molasses. In this work, sugar cane molasses, supplemented with urea and carbonate salt and a locally isolated strain Aspergillus terreus UniMAP AA-1 were used to produce a crude GOx enzyme in a small scale. A statistical optimization approach namely Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the media components for highest GOx activity. It was found that the highest GOx activity was achieved using a combination of molasses, carbonate salt and urea at concentration 32.51, 4.58 and 0.93% (w/v), respectively. This study provides an alternative optimized media conditions for GOx production using locally available raw materials.
One species of lace bug Cochlochila bullita Stål (Heteroptera: Tingidae) was found heavily infested Orthosiphon aristatus Blume Miq., an important medicinal plant in Malaysia. A morphological re-description of C. bullita was done in order to facilitate the identification of this oligophagous insect pest. Five variables, body length and width, antenna length, tibia length and head width were measured from 15 samples from each stage. Among these variables, body length and width were used to construct the ratio for species identification; while body lengths with the other three variables were used to distinguish the nymphs from each developmental stage. The measurements of four traits except the antenna length showed significant differences between the development stages. And thus suggest the body width, tibia length and head width were suitable parameters used to distinguish the nymphal stages. However, the result on the growth factor showed only the sizes of the head followed a more constant growth rate with growth ratios (1.21-1.39) lie between the Dyar's ratio. Body length and width ratio for the adult female and male was 1.51 +/- 0.00 and 1.59 +/- 0.01, respectively. These data are pertinent for identifying developmental stages and to distinguish the species of the lace bug.
Sanchezia speciosa, is a bushy shrub from Acanthaceae family which commonly grows in tropical areas of South and Central America. In this study, we employed MTT assay to test the cytotoxicity of that methanolic fraction of S. speciosa leaves on MCF-7 human breast cancer, SK-MEL-5 human malignant melanoma and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, HUVEC cells. The extract showed highest activity on MCF-7 and moderate cytotoxicity towards SK-MEL-5. In contrast, the extract demonstrated lowest cell growth inhibition activity on HUVEC cells, indicating better selectivity compare to standard drug, doxorubicin. In addition, we also performed ORAC assay to determine the radical scavenging capacity of methanolic extract of S. speciosa leaves. The extract exhibited nearly similar anti-oxidant activity as quercetin, suggesting S. speciosa leaves as a potential source of natural anti-oxidant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activity of S. speciosa.
The effect of treatment with Radix on ethanol-induced gastric lesions was investigated. The main ingredient of Radix is Eurycoma longifolia. Twenty-four rats of the Sprague-Dawley species were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were given 0.5 mL 100% ethanol orally. Another group was used as a control and was given only distilled water orally (control). After 6 h all the rats were fed with normal diet. One group that was administered with ethanol was only given distilled water orally (no treatment). Another two groups that were administered with ethanol were treated with oral Radix 0.128 mg g(-1) b.wt. (Radix) and oral ranitidine 21.4 mg kg(-1) b.wt. (Ranitidine), respectively. After one week, all the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed. The stomach was isolated and examined for the presence and severity of gastric lesions. Measurements for malondialdehyde content and gastric acid concentration were also done. It is found that the ulcer index was lower in the Radix and ranitidine group compared to the no treatment group whereas in the control group there was no lesion. There was no difference in ulcer index between the Radix and ranitidine group. The gastric MDA content was significantly higher in all the groups that were induced with ethanol compared to the control group but no difference between all the ethanol-induced groups. There was no difference in the gastric acid concentration in all groups. Hence it is concluded that Eurycoma longifolia in Radix is as effective as ranitidine in the treatment of ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.
Date fruit juice contains high concentration of simple sugars ranging from 65 to 75% (w/w) in dry form. In this study, the potential of date fruit juice as biobutanol fermentation medium by C. acetobutylicum was investigated. The fermentation process was carried out at initial pH of 5, 6 and 7, incubation temperature of 30, 35 and 40 degrees C for 72 hours. The date fruit concentrations tested were 10, 20, 30 and 40 g L(-1). Medium containing 30 g L(-1) of date fruit at 35 degrees C incubation temperature with initial medium pH 7.0 gave the highest concentration of solvents of 3.1, 0.1 and 1.1 g L(-1) butanol, ethanol and acetone respectively. The yield and productivity of biobutanol were 0.32 g g(-1) and 0.044 g L(-1)/h respectively, while for total ABE were 0.45 g g(-1) and 0.06 g L(-1) h, respectively.
This study was aimed to investigate the production of methane gas from three different types of food waste (vegetables waste, fruit waste and grain waste) using batch type anaerobic digestion method. The digestion process was conducted by using temperature range of 27 to 36 degrees C and pH 6.5 to 7.5 to yield an optimum condition for the digestion process. The digestion was continued for a period of two weeks with the aid of cow dung as the inoculums. It was found that the grain waste yielded the highest methane 2546 mL due to the high content of carbohydrate. At the mean time, the fruit waste produced the second highest methane gas with 2000 mL as well as the vegetable waste generated the lowest methane gas with volume of 1468 mL. The vegetable waste produced the lowest methane gas because the vegetables waste contains high fibres and cellulose walls but low in glucose amount. For the fertilization test, fruit waste demonstrated the best observation for the growth of plant due to high content of potassium and followed by vegetable waste. The least effective fertilizer was grain waste due to less content of nutrients essential for plants growth.
The influence of dietary cadmium on the accumulation and effects of dietary lead, examined in chicken. This experiment was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of dietary Cd and Pb on chick's body weight and organ, content of the tissues of these two metals was also detected. One day age chicks of Gallus gallus domesticus fed diet supplemented with 25, 50, 100 ppm of Cd, second group exposure to 300, 500, 1000 ppm of Pb in feed daily during 4 weeks. The control groups were fed without supplementation of metals. The concentrations of Cd and Pb resulted in increased of Cd and Pb content in liver, gizzard and muscle. While Cd 100 ppm and Pb 1000 ppm were increased metals content in feather. Body weight of chicks was not influenced by Cd treatment. In contrary Pb treatment was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased body weight of chicks after dietary treatment. On the other hand, Liver weigh in chicks was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased after Cd and Pb treatments.
Nitrate-nitrogen leaching from agricultural areas is a major cause for groundwater pollution. Polluted groundwater with high levels of nitrate is hazardous and cause adverse health effects. Human consumption of water with elevated levels of NO3-N has been linked to the infant disorder methemoglobinemia and also to non-Hodgkin's disease lymphoma in adults. This research aims to study the temporal patterns and source apportionment of nitrate-nitrogen leaching in a paddy soil at Ladang Merdeka Ismail Mulong in Kelantan, Malaysia. The complex data matrix (128 x 16) of nitrate-nitrogen parameters was subjected to multivariate analysis mainly Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Analysis (DA). PCA extracted four principal components from this data set which explained 86.4% of the total variance. The most important contributors were soil physical properties confirmed using Alyuda Forecaster software (R2 = 0.98). Discriminant analysis was used to evaluate the temporal variation in soil nitrate-nitrogen on leaching process. Discriminant analysis gave four parameters (hydraulic head, evapotranspiration, rainfall and temperature) contributing more than 98% correct assignments in temporal analysis. DA allowed reduction in dimensionality of the large data set which defines the four operating parameters most efficient and economical to be monitored for temporal variations. This knowledge is important so as to protect the precious groundwater from contamination with nitrate.
The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of formaldehyde catcher as termites repellent. Single-layered UF-bonded particleboard was post-treated with formaldehyde catcher and heat respectively. Besides that, some boards were also produced with the formaldehyde catcher was added into the resin during the blending process, called add-in method. Particleboard post-treated with formaldehyde catcher reported the most severe attack. Heat-treated particleboard showed slightly better durability than the control blocks while the add-in catcher showed the best durability among three methods. A valid test was obtained as the termites survived the first week of the test. However, all the termites were found dead at the end of the test.
Hypertension is a widespread and frequently progressive ailment that imparts a foremost threat for cardiovascular and renal disorders. Mammoth efforts are needed for the synthesis of innovative antihypertensive agents to combat this lethal disease. Chalcones have shown antihypertensive activity through inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE). Hence, a series of chalcone analogues is synthesized and used as precursor for the synthesis of novel series of pyrimidines. Precursor chalcones were prepared by reacting aldehydes and ketones in presence of sodium hydroxide followed by synthesis of corresponding pyrimidines by reaction with urea in presence of potassium hydroxide. Both groups were then evaluated for their effects on ACE. The results depicted that pyrimidines were more active than chalcones with methoxy (C5 and P5) substitution showing best results to inhibit ACE. Given that chalcone analogues and pyrimidines show a potential as the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.
Seaweeds have been used by mankind as medicine and food for more than 13,000 years. Marine algae are considered to produce a valuable phytoconstituents characterized by a broad spectrum of antitumor activities. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of different solvent extracts of Sargassum wightii, Greville against Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss male albino mice. DAL cells were injected intraperitoneally 1 x10(6) cell to the mice. Two days after cells injection the animals were treated with different solvent extracts of Sargassum wightii at dose of 200 mg kg(-1) for 14 days. 5-fluorouracil (20 mg kg(-1)) was used as reference drug. On day 11, cancer cell number, packed cell volume, decrease in tumour weight of the mice, increase in life span and hematological parameters were evaluated and compared with the same parameters in control. A significant increase in the life span and a decrease in the cancer cell number and tumour weight were noted in the tumour-induced mice after treatment with the extract. The haematological parameters were also normalized by the ethanolic and chloroform extracts in tumour-induced mice. These observations are suggestive of the protective effect of ethanolic extract of Sargassum wightii is comparatively better than other two tested extracts against Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma (DAL).
Morinda citrifolia, is a valuable medicinal plant with a wide range of therapeutic properties and extensive transformation study on this plant has yet been known. Present study was conducted to establish a simple and reliable transformation protocol for M. citrifolia utilising Agrobacterium tumefaciens via direct seed exposure. In this study, the seeds were processed by tips clipping and dried and subsequently incubated in inoculation medium. Four different parameters during the incubation such as incubation period, bacterial density, temperature and binary vectors harbouring beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (pBI121 and pGSA1131), were tested to examine its effect on transformation efficiency. The leaves from the treated and germinated seedlings were analysed via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), histochemical assay of the GUS gene and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Results of the study showed that Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 with optical density of 1.0 and 2 h incubation period were optimum for M. citrifolia transformation. It was found that various co-cultivation temperatures tested and type of vector used did not affect the transformation efficiency. The highest transformation efficiency for M. citrifolia direct seed transformation harbouring pBI121 and pGSA1131 was determined to be 96.8% with 2 h co-cultivation treatment and 80.4% when using bacterial density of 1.0, respectively. The transformation method can be applied for future characterization study of M. citrifolia.
This research was conducted in order to investigate rumen degradability of some factors includes; Dray Matter (DM), Organic Matter (OM), Crude Protein (CP), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) in three different plant protein supplements includes; soybean, canola and cottonseed meal. The experiment was carried out using in three castrated and fistulated male Zel sheep. Each feedstuff was weighed into duplicate nylon bags and incubated in each of the three rumen fistulated sheep for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h. Results revealed that effective degradability of DM of soybean, canola and cottonseed meal were 55.8, 73.8 and 48.5%, respectively. Effective degradabilities of the CP in feedstuffs were 55.8, 62 and 48.3% for the respective feedstuffs. Effective degradabilities of the OM were 55.7, 56.4 and 47.4%, respectively. Results also showed that effective degradabilities of the ADF were 55, 56.4 and 37.6, respectively. According to the results the researchers concluded that canola and soybean were more degradable in the rumen of the sheep while cottonseed meal were less degradable and, hence resulted in higher rumen undegradable protein.
Effective waste management has been greatly restricted by insufficient statistical data on the generation, processing and waste disposal. This study was undertaken in the municipality of Tehran. A total of 6,060 samples were compared by statistically comparing source generation, destination and intermediate stations. The results from these analyses showed that the average per capita waste generation in Tehran was 589 g day(-1). It was also observed that, of the total amount of waste generated in the municipality of Tehran, 73% was domestic waste and 27% was non-domestic waste. In addition, 68% of total household waste was organic waste, while 41% of non-domestic waste was organic waste. Furthermore, 61% of waste in Tehran was generated at the source, while 72% of the waste coming into the Aradkoh disposal and processing center was organic waste. The physical analysis was showed that there was no significant difference between the wastes generated in 2004 and those generated in 2009 and that there was not equal percentage of wet waste coming into the disposal center with urban service stations. This indicates that active source separation programs in metropolitan Tehran.