The suitability of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique for gas chromatography (GC) characterization of minor organic compounds in honey samples is evaluated. Under optimized conditions, samples were pre-treated by liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile followed by DLLME using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 0.075 mL) as extractant. The yielded settled phase was analyzed by GC using high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The whole sample preparation process is completed in approximately 10 min, with a total consumption of organic solvents below 4 mL, relative standard deviations lower than 12% and with more than 70 organic compounds, displaying linear retention index in the range from 990 to 2900, identified in the obtained extracts. In comparison with HS SPME extraction, higher peak intensities were attained for most volatile and semi-volatile compounds amenable to both extraction techniques. Furthermore, other species such as highly polar and water soluble benzene acids, long chain fatty acids, esters and flavonoids, which are difficult to concentrate by HS SPME, could be identified in DLLME extracts. Some of the compounds identified in DLLME extracts have been proposed as useful for samples classification and/or they are recognized as markers of honeys from certain geographic areas.
The present study describes a simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of apigenin, chamazulene, bisabolol and the use of DPPH free radical as a post-chromatographic derivatization agent to compare the free radical scavenging activities of these components in leaf and flower head extracts from feverfew, German chamomile and marigold from the Asteraceae family. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) leaves have been traditionally used in the treatment of migraine with parthenolide being the main bioactive compound. However, due to similar flowers, feverfew is sometimes mistaken for the German chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Bisabolol and chamazulene are the main components in chamomile essential oil. Marigold (Calendula officinalis) was included in the study for comparison, as it belongs to the same family. Parthenolide was found to be present in all leaf extracts but was not detected in calendula flower extract. Chamazulene and bisabolol were found to be present in higher concentrations in chamomile and Calendula flowers. Apigenin was detected and quantified only in chamomile extracts (highest concentration in flower head extracts). Antioxidant activity in sample extracts was compared by superimposing the chromatograms obtained after post-chromatographic derivatization with DPPH and post-chromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde. It was found that extracts from chamomile flower heads and leaves have the most prominent antioxidant activity, with bisabolol and chamazulene being the most effective antioxidants.
The accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in contaminated shellfish is a serious health risk making early detection important to improve shellfish safety and biotoxin management. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been proven as a high resolution separation technique compatible with miniaturization, making it an attractive choice in the development of portable instrumentation for early, on-site detection of PSTs. In this work, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) and UV detection were examined with counter-flow transient isotachophoresis (tITP) to improve the sensitivity and deal with the high conductivity sample matrix. The high sodium concentration in the sample was used as the leading ion while l-alanine was used as the terminating electrolyte (TE) and background electrolyte (BGE) in which the toxins were separated. Careful optimization of the injected sample volume and duration of the counter-flow resulted in limit of detections (LODs) ranging from 74.2 to 1020 ng/mL for tITP-CZE-C(4)D and 141 to 461 ng/mL for tITP-CZE-UV, an 8-97 fold reduction compared to conventional CZE. The LODs were adequate for the analysis of PSTs in shellfish samples close to the regulatory limit. Intra-day and inter-day repeatability values (percentage relative standard deviation, n=3) of tITP-CZE-C(4)D and tITP-CZE-UV methods for both migration time and peak height were in the range of 0.82-11% and 0.76-10%, respectively. The developed method was applied to the analysis of a contaminated mussel sample and validated against an Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC)-approved method for PSTs analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) after pre-column oxidation of the sample. The method presented has potential for incorporation in to field-deployable devices for the early detection of PSTs on-site.
In-house method validation was conducted to determine amino acid composition in gelatin by a pre-column derivatization procedure with the 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate reagent. The analytical parameters revealed that the validated method was capable of selectively performing a good chromatographic separation for 18 amino acids in less than 40 min; the overall detection and quantitation limit for amino acids fell into ranges of 5.68-12.48 and 36.0-39.0 pmol/μl, respectively; the matrix effect was not observed, and the linearity range was 37.5-1000 pmol/μl. The accuracy (precision and recovery) analyses of the method were conducted under repeatable conditions on different days in random order. Method precision revealed by HorRat values was significantly less than 2, except for histidine with a precision of 2.19, and the method recoveries had a range of 80-115% except for alanine which was recovered at 79.4%. The findings were reproducible and accurately defined, and the method was found to be suited to routine analysis of amino acid composition in gelatin-based ingredients.
An analytical method that facilitated the analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals residue (caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, levonorgestrel, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, gliclazide, diclofenac-Na, and mefenamic acid) with a single pre-treatment protocol was developed. The proposed method included an isolation and concentration procedure using solid phase extraction (Oasis HLB), a separation step using high-performance liquid chromatography, and a detection procedure that applies time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The method was validated for drinking water (DW), surface water (SW), sewage treatment plant (STP) influent and effluent, and hospital (HSP) influent and effluent. The limits of quantification were as low as 0.4, 1.6, 5, 3, 2.2 and 11 ng/L in DW, SW, HSP influent and effluent, STP effluent, and STP influent, respectively. On average, good recoveries higher than 75% were obtained for most of the target analytes in all matrices. Matrix effect was evaluated for all samples matrices. The proposed method successfully determined and quantified the target compounds in raw and treated wastewater of four STPs and three hospitals in Malaysia, as well as in two SW sites. The results showed that a number of the studied compounds pose moderate to high persistency in sewage treatment effluents as well as in the recipient rivers, namely; caffeine, simvastatin, and hydrochlorothiazide. Ten out of 11 compounds were detected and quantified in 13 sampling points. Caffeine was detected with the highest level, with concentrations reaching up to 9099 ng/L in STP influent.
A new microextraction procedure termed agarose gel liquid phase microextraction (AG-LPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the determination of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water. The technique utilized an agarose gel disc impregnated with the acceptor phase (1-octanol). The extraction procedure was performed by allowing the solvent-impregnated agarose gel disc to tumble freely in the stirred sample solution. After extraction, the agarose gel disc was removed and subjected to centrifugation to disrupt its framework and to release the impregnated solvent, which was subsequently withdrawn and injected into the GC-MS for analysis. Under optimized extraction conditions, the new method offered high enrichment factors (89-177), trace level LODs (9-14ngL(-1)) and efficient extraction with good relative recoveries in the range of 93.3-108.2% for spiked drinking water samples. AG-LPME did not exhibit any problems related to solvent dissolution, and it provided high extraction efficiencies that were comparable to those of hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and significantly higher than those of agarose film liquid phase microextraction (AF-LPME). This technique employed a microextraction format and utilized an environmentally compatible solvent holder that supported the green chemistry concept.
A capillary electrophoresis (CE)-capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) method for the simultaneous separation of eleven underivatized fatty acids (FAs), namely, lauric, myristic, tridecanoic (internal standard), pentadecanoic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, elaidic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids is described. The separation was carried out in normal polarity mode at 20 °C, 30 kV and using hydrodynamic injection (50 mbar for 1 s). The separation was achieved in a bare fused-silica capillary (70 cm × 75 μm i.d.) using a background electrolyte of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (~6 mM) and heptakis-(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (~8 mM) dissolved in a mixture of Na2HPO4/KH2PO4 (5 mM, pH 7.4):ACN:MeOH:n-octanol (3:4:2.5:0.5, v/v/v/v). C(4)D parameters were set at fixed amplitude of 100 V and frequency of 1000 kHz. The developed method was validated. Calibration curves of the ten FAs were well correlated (r(2)>0.99) within the range of 5-250 μg mL(-1) for lauric acid, and 3-250 μg mL(-1) for the other FAs. The method was simple and sensitive with detection limits (S/N=3) of 0.9-1.9 μg mL(-1) and good relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day for migration times and peak areas (≤9.7%) were achieved. The method was applied to the determination of FAs in margarine samples. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over the GC and HPLC methods, especially in terms of simplicity (without derivatization) and sensitivity.
A simple sample preparation technique coupled with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals. The sample preparation procedure involved a small-scale hydrolysis of 0.5g cereal sample by saponification, followed by the extraction and concentration of tocopherols and tocotrienols from saponified extract using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). Parameters affecting the DLLME performance were optimized to achieve the highest extraction efficiency and the performance of the developed DLLME method was evaluated. Good linearity was observed over the range assayed (0.031-4.0μg/mL) with regression coefficients greater than 0.9989 for all tocopherols and tocotrienols. Limits of detection and enrichment factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.11μg/mL and 50 to 73, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 8.9% and the recoveries were around 85.5-116.6% for all tocopherols and tocotrienols. The developed DLLME method was successfully applied to cereals: rice, barley, oat, wheat, corn and millet. This new sample preparation approach represents an inexpensive, rapid, simple and precise sample cleanup and concentration method for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals.
Agarose film liquid phase microextraction (AF-LPME) procedure for the extraction and preconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water has been investigated. Agarose film was used for the first time as an interface between donor and acceptor phases in liquid phase microextraction which allowed for selective extraction of the analytes prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using 1-octanol as acceptor phase, high enrichment factors in the range of 57-106 for the targeted analytes (fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) were achieved. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 0.1-200 μgL(-1), good correlation coefficients in the range of 0.9963-0.9999, acceptable reproducibility (RSD 6.1-9.2%, n=3), low limits of detection (0.01-0.04 μgL(-1)) and satisfactory relative recoveries (92.9-104.7%). As the AF-LPME device was non-expensive, reuse or recycle of the film was not required, thus eliminating the possibility of analytes carry-over between runs. The AF-LPME technique is environment-friendly and compatible with the green chemistry concept as agarose is biodegradable polysaccharide extracted from seaweed and the procedure requires small volume of organic solvent and generates little waste. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of the four analytes in river water samples.
Urocanic acid (UCA) has been reported to be a mast cell degranulator and has also been suggested as a complementary agent in implicated scombroid fish poisoning. In this research, a new method is described to extract, clean up and perform simultaneous ion-pair chromatographic analysis of trans- and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) in fish samples. UCA was extracted using 0.05 M HCl and protein was removed from the extract by precipitation with 10% trisodium citrate and 10% citric acid. The HPLC method that is developed showed a rapid, precise and sensitive method with short retention time for simultaneous separation of UCA isomers in fish samples. Estimation of trans- and cis-UCA in the muscle of Indian mackerel, tuna and sardine showed that, as expected, no cis-UCA existed in fish muscles and the highest concentration of trans-UCA was found in Indian mackerel with 118.8 mg kg(-1) while the highest concentrations of trans-UCA in tuna and sardine were 12.1 and 17.5 mg kg(-1), respectively.
Zeolite Linde Type L (LTL) crystals with different length, diameter and particle size (nanosized LTL, rod LTL, cylinder LTL and needle LTL) were synthesized, characterized and were used as sorbent in the micro-solid phase extraction of ochratoxin A (OTA) before the high performance liquid chromatography detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of OTA for coffee and cereal were 0.09 ng g(-1) and 0.03 ng g(-1), respectively, while the quantification limits were 0.28 ng g(-1) and 0.08 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of OTA of coffee and cereal spiked at 0.5, 10 and 25 ng g(-1) ranged from 91.7 to 101.0%. The proposed method was applied to forty-five samples of coffee and cereal. The presence of OTA was found in twenty-five samples, ranging from 0.28 to 9.33 ng g(-1).
A novel sol-gel hybrid methyltrimethoxysilane-tetraethoxysilane (MTMOS-TEOS) was produced and applied as sorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE). Five selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) were employed as model compounds to evaluate the extraction performance of the synthesized sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several important SPE parameters were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method using the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS as SPE sorbent showed good linearity in the range of 0.001-1 μg L(-1), good repeatability (RSD 2.1-3.1%, n=5), low limits of detection at S/N=3 (0.5-0.9 pg mL(-1)) and limit of quantification (1-3 pg mL(-1), S/N=10). The performance of the MTMOS-TEOS SPE was compared to commercial C18 Supelclean SPE since C18 SPE is widely used for OPPs. The MTMOS-TEOS SPE method LOD was 500-600 × lower than the LOD of commercial C18 SPE. The LOD achieved with the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent allowed the detection of these OPPs in drinking water well below the level set by European Union (EU) at 0.1 μg L(-1) of each pesticides. The developed MTMOS-TEOS SPE method was successfully applied to real sample analysis of the selected OPPs from several water samples and its application extended to the analysis of several fruits samples. Excellent recoveries and RSDs of the OPPs were obtained from the various water samples (recoveries: 97-111%, RSDs 0.4-2.8%, n=3) and fruit samples (recoveries: 96-111%), RSDs 1-4%, n=5) using the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent. Recoveries and RSDs of OPPs from river water samples and fruit samples using C18 Supelclean SPE sorbent were 91-97%, RSD 0.9-2.6, n=3 and 86-96%, RSD 3-8%, n=5, respectively). The novel sol-gel hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent demonstrate the potential as an alternative inexpensive extraction sorbent for OPPs with higher sensitivity for the OPPs.
A multi-residue analytical method was developed to quantify nine antibiotics and one hormone in soil, broiler manure and manure compost. The developed method was based on ultrasonic extraction with MeOH:ACN:EDTA:McIlvaine buffer, solid phase extraction (SPE) using HLB (3 cc/60 mg) cartridge, followed by instrumental analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with 25 min total run time. It was validated and tested on soil, broiler manure and manure compost samples and showed that the method is able to simultaneously detect and quantify the target analytes with good selectivity and sensitivity. The developed method was linear in a concentration range from its instrumental quantification limit (IQL) to 500 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999. The overall method performance was good for the majority of the analytes, with recoveries range from 63% to 121% in all the sample matrices. The method quantification limit (MQL) for the 10 target analytes in the soil, broiler manure and manure compost samples were 2-10, 3-16 and 5-15 μg/kg dry weight (DW), respectively. The method has also included tilmicosin, an antibiotic known to be reported in the environment for the first time. The developed method was then applied on broiler manure samples and its relative manure amended agricultural soil samples to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. These analytes were detected in broiler manure and soil samples, with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78516.1 μg/kg DW (doxycycline) and 1331.4 μg/kg DW (flumequine), respectively. The results showed that the method can potentially be adopted for the analysis of veterinary antibiotic and hormone wastes in solid environmental matrices.
Sildenafil analogues have been found adulterated in herbal preparations and food products that claim to have natural aphrodisiacs. In this study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assay was developed for the screening and identification of thioketone analogues of sildenafil. Thiopyrazolopyrimidine, a precursor or a cleavage product of thioketone analogue, exhibited characteristic fragment ions of m/z 328 and m/z 299 was found to be the best marker to screen the presence of general thioketone analogues. Identification by GC-MS assay was rapid and specific as all the studied thioketones showed characteristic mass fragmentations including their intact molecular ions. The developed GC-MS assay had successfully identified thiosildenafil, thiohomosildenafil and thiodimethylsildenafil in herbal preparation and food products.
Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is widely employed in the analysis and the extraction of active compounds from plants. This review summarizes the research done during the last decade on the MAE of active ingredients from plants. Advances and modifications to improve the performance of MAE are presented and discussed in detail. Modified MAE such as vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE), nitrogen-protected microwave-assisted extraction (NPMAE), ultrasonic microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE), dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) and other advancements in MAE are also detailed in this article. In addition, the microwave extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each MAE techniques.
The development of a two phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction technique, followed by gas-chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for the profiling of the fatty acids (FAs) (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic) in vegetable oils is described. Heptadecanoic acid methyl ester was used as the internal standard. The FAs were transesterified to their corresponding methyl esters prior to the extraction. Extraction parameters such as type of extracting solvent, temperature, extraction time, stirring speed and salt addition were studied and optimized. Recommended conditions were extraction solvent, n-tridecane; extraction time, 35 min; extraction temperature, ambient; without addition of salt. Enrichment factors varying from 37 to 115 were achieved. Calibration curves for the nine FAs were well correlated (r(2)>0.994) within the range of 10-5000 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (signal:noise, 3) was 4.73-13.21 ng L(-1). The method was successfully applied to the profiling of the FAs in palm oils (crude, olein, kernel, and carotino cooking oil) and other vegetable oils (soybean, olive, coconut, rice bran and pumpkin). The encouraging enrichments achieved offer an interesting option for the profiling of the minor and major FAs in palm and other vegetable oils.
A new sol-gel hybrid coating, polydimethylsiloxane-2-hydroxymethyl-18-crown-6 (PDMS-2OHMe18C6) was prepared in-house for use in solid phase microextraction (SPME). The three compositions produced were assessed for its extraction efficiency towards three selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) based on peak area extracted obtained from gas chromatography with electron capture detection. All three compositions showed superior extraction efficiencies compared to commercial 100 microm PDMS fiber. The composition showing best extraction performance was used to obtain optimized SPME conditions: 75 degrees C extraction temperature, 10 min extraction time, 120 rpm stirring rate, desorption time 5 min, desorption temperature 250 degrees C and 1.5% (w/v) of NaCl salt addition. The method detection limits (S/N=3) of the OPPs with the new sol-gel hybrid material ranged from 4.5 to 4.8 ng g(-1), which is well below the maximum residue limit set by Codex Alimentarius Commission and European Commission. Percentage recovery of OPPs from strawberry, green apple and grape samples with the new hybrid sol-gel SPME material ranged from 65 to 125% with good precision of the method (%RSD) ranging from 0.3 to 7.4%.
An extensive comparative study on the electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry using automated flow injection analysis (FIA), was performed on eurycomanone (1), 13α(21)-epoxyeurycomanone (2), eurycomanol (3), eurycomanol-2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), and 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone (5), the bioactive markers isolated from Eurycoma longifolia. The effects of eluent mixture (methanol or acetonitrile in water) and acidic modifiers (acetic acid, formic acid and trifluoroacetic acid) on the ionization efficiency of the markers were also investigated. The ESI in the positive ion mode with methanol containing 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid was selected for the subsequent optimization of nebulizer pressure, dry gas flow, dry gas temperature and capillary voltage to improve the sensitivity of the total ion chromatogram (TIC). Fragmentation of the analytes was further investigated by varying the capillary exit offset voltage and fragmentation amplitude in positive mode of ESI. The detection limits (LODs) were determined in isolation mode (selected ion monitoring, SIM). Their limits of detection (LODs) ranged between 0.03 and 0.1μgmL(-1) while the intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 5.72% and 4.82%, respectively. The method was next applied for the simultaneous analysis of the markers to standardize various batches of manufactured extracts of E. longifolia for potential use as antimalarial products. Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode was used for the quantification of analytes which gave protonated molecular ion, [M+H](+). For those without pseudo-molecular ions, SIM mode was used to quantify the analytes. The batches contained 5.65-9.95% of eurycomanone (1), 5.21-19.75% of eurycomanol (3) and 7.59-19.95% of eurycomanol-2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4) as major quassinoids whereas, 13α(21)-epoxyeurycomanone (2), and 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone (5) were much lower in concentrations of 0.78-3.90% and 0.47-1.76%, respectively.
A dynamic supported liquid membrane tip extraction (SLMTE) procedure for the effective extraction and preconcentration of glyphosate (GLYP) and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in water has been investigated. The SLMTE procedure was performed in a semi-automated dynamic mode and demonstrated a greater performance against a static extraction. Several important extraction parameters such as donor phase pH, cationic carrier concentration, type of membrane solvent, type of acceptor stripping phase, agitation and extraction time were comprehensively optimized. A solution of Aliquat-336, a cationic carrier, in dihexyl ether was selected as the supported liquid incorporated into the membrane phase. Quantification of GLYP and AMPA was carried out using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. An electrolyte solution consisting of 12 mM histidine (His), 8 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES), 75 microM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), 3% methanol, pH 6.3, was used as running buffer. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-200 microg/L (GLYP) and 0.1-400 microg/L (AMPA), acceptable reproducibility (RSD 5-7%, n=5), low limits of detection of 0.005 microg/L for GLYP and 0.06 microg/L for AMPA, and satisfactory relative recoveries (90-94%). Due to the low cost, the SLMTE device was disposed after each run which additionally eliminated the possibility of carry-over between runs. The validated method was tested for the analysis of both analytes in spiked tap water and river water with good success.
Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is used as a diagnostic reagent for the detection of hepatitis B virus infection. In this study, immobilized metal affinity-expanded bed adsorption chromatography (IMA-EBAC) was employed to purify N-terminally His-tagged HBcAg from unclarified bacterial homogenate. Streamline Chelating was used as the adsorbent and the batch adsorption experiment showed that the optimal binding pH of His-tagged HBcAg was 8.0 with a binding capacity of 1.8 mg per ml of adsorbent. The optimal elution condition for the elution of His-tagged HBcAg from the adsorbent was at pH 7 in the presence of 500 mM imidazole and 1.5 M NaCl. The IMA-EBAC has successfully recovered 56% of His-tagged HBcAg from the unclarified E. coli homogenate with a purification factor of 3.64. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the antigenicity of the recovered His-tagged HBcAg was not affected throughout the IMA-EBAC purification process and electron microscopy revealed that the protein assembled into virus-like particles (VLP).