Many phytochemicals derived from edible medicinal plants have been investigated intensively for their various bioactivities. However, the detailed mechanism and their corresponding molecular targets frequently remain elusive. In this review, we present a summary of the research works done on phytochemical-mediated molecular targets, identified via proteomic approach. Concurrently, we also highlighted some pharmaceutical drugs which could be traced back to their origins in phytochemicals. For ease of presentation, these identified protein targets were categorized into two important healthcare-related fields, namely anti-bacterial and anti-cancer research. Through this review, we hope to highlight the usefulness of comparative proteomic as a powerful tool in phytochemical-mediated protein target identifications. Likewise, we wish to inspire further investigations on some of these protein targets identified over the last few years. With contributions from all researchers, the accumulative efforts could eventually lead to the discovery of some target-specific, low-toxicity therapeutic agents.
During the past few years the scientific and medical community has been confronted with a continual interest in vitamin E with the interest prompted by new discoveries. Tocopherols and tocotrienols, commonly known as vitamin E, are extremely invaluable compounds and have various nutritional functionalities and benefits to human health. Great deals of research projects have been launched in order to develop effective methods for the extraction of vitamin E. By and large, three distinct extractive methods are usually employed: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), molecular distillation, and adsorption methods. These methods are sensitive to different experimental conditions, such as pressure, temperature, and flow rate with noticeable effects on the efficiency of the extraction and enrichment of vitamin E. This review has covered the most commonly adapted extraction methods and has probed into the extraction yields under variable operational parameters.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of isomers of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), which is mostly found in the ruminant meat and dairy products. The CLA is known to have many potential health benefits, and considered a potent powerful fatty acid, which is linked to animal and human health. The present work aims to discuss the source and production, mechanism of action, and effects of CLA on humans, poultry, and ruminants by reviewing the recent studies carried out on CLA. Despite most of the recent studies indicating beneficial effects of CLA on improving body weight control parameters, its effects on reducing risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), inflammation, blood glucose, and insulin are still controversial, and need to be further studied in different hosts.
The need for accurate nutrition labeling on food products has never been greater. Obesity has assumed near-epidemic levels in both industrialized and emerging nations in recent years, and governments and consumer groups around the world are looking for ways to improve the nutritional choices for their citizenry while simultaneously balancing their freedom of choice through the use of nutrition labeling. Despite increasingly aggressive efforts by government and industry organizations to raise consumer awareness, though, many consumers either do not consult nutrition labels or they are not in a position to interpret the information on these labels accurately. To gain some fresh insights into nutrition labeling practices worldwide, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed, scholarly, and government literature to describe regulations enacted to date, evolving and future trends, and the likely impact of food product labels. In this regard, the paper highlights similarities and discrepancies that exist, identifies gaps, and gives directions for the future.
Umami, the fifth basic taste, is the inimitable taste of Asian foods. Several traditional and locally prepared foods and condiments of Asia are rich in umami. In this part of world, umami is found in fermented animal-based products such as fermented and dried seafood, and plant-based products from beans and grains, dry and fresh mushrooms, and tea. In Southeast Asia, the most preferred seasonings containing umami are fish and seafood sauces, and also soybean sauces. In the East Asian region, soybean sauces are the main source of umami substance in the routine cooking. In Japan, the material used to obtain umami in dashi, the stock added to almost every Japanese soups and boiled dishes, is konbu or dried bonito. This review introduces foods and seasonings containing naturally high amount of umami substances of both animal and plant sources from different countries in Asia.
It is said that the backbone of Indian economy is agriculture. The contribution of the agriculture sector to the national GDP (Gross Domestic Products) was 14.6% in the year 2010. To attain a growth rate equivalent to that of industry (viz., about 9%), it is highly mandatory for Indian agriculture to modernize and use automation at various stages of cultivation and post-harvesting techniques. The use of computers in assessing the quality of fruits is one of the major activities in post-harvesting technology. As of now, this assessment is majorly done manually, except for a few fruits. Currently, the fruit quality assessment by machine vision in India is still at research level. Major research has been carried out in countries like China, Malaysia, UK, and Netherlands. To suit the Indian market and psychology of Indian farmers, it is necessary to develop indigenous technology. This paper is the first step toward evaluating the research carried out by the research community all over world for tropical fruits. For the purpose of survey, we have concentrated on the tropical fruits of the state of Maharashtra, while keeping in focus of the review image processing algorithms.
Heat exchanger performance degrades rapidly during operation due to formation of deposits on heat transfer surfaces which ultimately reduces service life of the equipment. Due to scaling, product deteriorates which causes lack of proper heating. Chemistry of milk scaling is qualitatively understood and the mathematical models for fouling at low temperatures have been produced but the behavior of systems at ultra high temperature processing has to be studied further to understand in depth. In diversified field, the effect of whey protein fouling along with pressure drop in heat exchangers were conducted by many researchers. Adding additives, treatment of heat exchanger surfaces and changing of heat exchanger configurations are notable areas of investigation in milk fouling. The present review highlighted information about previous work on fouling, influencing parameters of fouling and its mitigation approach and ends up with recommendations for retardation of milk fouling and necessary measures to perform the task.
Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form.
Lipid is the general name given to fats and oils, which are the basic components of cooking oils, shortening, ghee, margarine, and other edible fats. The chosen term depends on the physical state at ambient temperature; fats are solids and oils are liquids. The chemical properties of the lipids, including degree of saturation, fatty acid chain length, and acylglycerol molecule composition are the basic determinants of physical characteristics such as melting point, cloud point, solid fat content, and thermal behavior. This review will discuss the major lipid modification strategies, hydrogenation, and chemical and enzymatic interesterification, describing the catalysts used mechanisms, kinetics, and impacts on the health-related properties of the final products. Enzymatic interesterification will be emphasized as method that produces a final product with good taste, zero trans fatty acids, and a low number of calories, requires less contact with chemicals, and is cost efficient.
Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons.
The characteristic flavor of exotic tropical fruits is one of their most attractive attributes to consumers. In this article, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavors is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are concerned, the majority of fruits have terpenes predominating in their aroma profile. Some of the fruits in this group are the Amazonian fruits such as pitanga, umbu-caja, camu-camu, garcinia, and bacuri. The ester group is made up of rambutan, durians, star fruit, snake fruit, acerola, tamarind, sapodilla, genipap, soursop, cashew, melon, jackfruit, and cupuacu respectively. Also, the role of sulphur-volatiles in some of the exotic fruits is detailed.
Nanotechnology is seeing higher propensity in various industries, including food and bioactives. New nanomaterials are constantly being developed from both natural biodegradable polymers of plant and animal origins such as polysaccharides and derivatives, peptides and proteins, lipids and fats, and biocompatible synthetic biopolyester polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkonoates (PHA), and polycaprolactone (PCL). Applications in food industries include molecular synthesis of new functional food compounds, innovative food packaging, food safety, and security monitoring. The relevance of bioactives includes targeted delivery systems with improved bioavailability using nanostructure vehicles such as association colloids, lipid based nanoencapsulator, nanoemulsions, biopolymeric nanoparticles, nanolaminates, and nanofibers. The extensive use of nanotechnology has led to the need for parallel safety assessment and regulations to protect public health and adverse effects to the environment. This review covers the use of biopolymers in the production of nanomaterials and the propensity of nanotechnology in food and bioactives. The exposure routes of nanoparticles, safety challenges, and measures undertaken to ensure optimal benefits that outweigh detriments are also discussed.
Bacteriocin is a proteinaceous biomolecule produced by bacteria (both Gram-positive and Gram-negative) that exhibits antimicrobial activity against closely related species, and food-borne pathogens. It has recently gained importance and attracted the attention of several researchers looking to produce it from various substrates and bacterial strains. This ushers in a new era of food preservation where the use of bacteriocin in food products will be an alternative to chemical preservatives, and heat treatment which are understood to cause unwanted side effects, and reduce sensory and nutritional quality. However, this new market depends on the success of novel downstream separation schemes from various types of crude feedstocks which are both effective and economic. This review focuses on the downstream separation of bacteriocin from various sources using both conventional and novel techniques. Finally, recommendations for future interesting areas of research that need to be pursued are highlighted.
Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.
Since the discovery of vitamin A as a fat-soluble growth factor in the early part of the century, research into carotenoids and retinoids has attracted the attention of many scientists. These two groups of compounds are still being actively studied all over the world since many gaps in knowledge exist and new frontiers are being pursued. Recent developments in studies into the possible roles of carotenoids and retinoids beyond their classical functions in vision have created a great deal of excitement in the biomedical community. This review covers a wide range of topics pertaining to these two closely related compounds. Particular emphasis is given to the functions of these compounds and their roles in human nutrition. Various aspects of vitamin A deficiency and studies on carotenoids and retinoids in cancer development and prevention are reviewed in some detail.
Gut microbiomes may have a significant impact on mood and cognition, which is leading experts towards a new frontier in neuroscience. Studies have shown that increase in the amount of good bacteria in the gut can curb inflammation and cortisol level, reduces symptoms of depression and anxiety, lowers stress reactivity, improves memory and even lessens neuroticism and social anxiety. This shows that, probably the beneficial gut bacteria or probiotics function mechanistically as delivery vehicles for neuroactive compounds. Thus, a psychobiotic is a live organism, when ingested in adequate amounts, produces a health benefit in patients suffering from psychiatric illness. Study of these novel class of probiotics may open up the possibility of rearrangement of intestinal microbiota for effective management of various psychiatric disorders.
In recent years, infection of the stomach with the organism Helicobacter Pylori has been found to be the main cause of gastric ulcers, one of the common ailments afflicting humans. Excessive acid secretion in the stomach, reduction in gastric mucosal blood flow, constant intake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), ethanol, smoking, stress etc. are also considered responsible for ulcer formation. The prevalent notion among sections of population in this country and perhaps in others is that "red pepper" popularly known as "Chilli," a common spice consumed in excessive amounts leads to "gastric ulcers" in view of its irritant and likely acid secreting nature. Persons with ulcers are advised either to limit or avoid its use. However, investigations carried out in recent years have revealed that chilli or its active principle "capsaicin" is not the cause for ulcer formation but a "benefactor." Capsaicin does not stimulate but inhibits acid secretion, stimulates alkali, mucus secretions and particularly gastric mucosal blood flow which help in prevention and healing of ulcers. Capsaicin acts by stimulating afferent neurons in the stomach and signals for protection against injury causing agents. Epidemiologic surveys in Singapore have shown that gastric ulcers are three times more common in the "Chinese" than among Malaysians and Indians who are in the habit of consuming more chillis. Ulcers are common among people who are in the habit of taking NSAIDS and are infected with the organism "Helicobacter Pylori," responsible for excessive acid secretion and erosion of the mucosal layer. Eradication of the bacteria by antibiotic treatment and avoiding the NSAIDS eliminates ulcers and restores normal acid secretion.
The food and health applications of bioactive peptides have grown remarkably in the past few decades. Current elucidations have shown that bioactive peptides have unique structural arrangement of amino acids, conferring distinct functionalities, and molecular affinity characteristics. However, whereas interest in the biological potency of bioactive peptides has grown, cost-effective techniques for monitoring the structural changes in these peptides and how these changes affect the biological properties have not grown at the same rate. Due to the high binding affinity of aptamers for other biomolecules, they have a huge potential for use in tracking the structural, conformational, and compositional changes in bioactive peptides. This review provides an overview of bioactive peptides and their essential structure-activity relationship. The review further highlights on the types and methods of synthesis of aptamers before the discussion of the prospects, merits, and challenges in the use of aptamers for bioaffinity interactions with bioactive peptides.
The emergence of bacterial resistance against conventional antibiotics and the growing interest in developing alternative, natural antibacterial agents have prompted the search for plant-derived antibacterial peptides in recent decades. Different classes of endogenous antibacterial peptides have been identified from various plant species. Moreover, protein hydrolysates and hydrolysate-derived peptides with potent antibacterial effects have also been identified from numerous plant sources. Antibacterial peptides are often cationic and amphipathic, consisting of fewer than 100 amino acids. They are able to disrupt bacterial membrane integrity via pore formation and/or compromise bacterial metabolic processes. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the characteristics and modes of action of antibacterial peptides, as well as salient points concerning the production of antibacterial protein hydrolysates from plant proteins. Examples of plant-derived antibacterial hydrolysates and peptides will be highlighted, with particular attention to less explored seeds, fermented plant foods and agricultural by-products. Promising future research directions with regards to the application of plant-derived antibacterial hydrolysates and peptides in food preservation, farm animal disease management, and nutraceutical/functional food development will be proposed.
Gelatin is a highly purified animal protein of pig, cow, and fish origins and is extensively used in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. However, the acceptability of gelatin products greatly depends on the animal sources of the gelatin. Porcine and bovine gelatins have attractive features but limited acceptance because of religious prohibitions and potential zoonotic threats, whereas fish gelatin is welcomed in all religions and cultures. Thus, source authentication is a must for gelatin products but it is greatly challenging due to the breakdown of both protein and DNA biomarkers in processed gelatins. Therefore, several methods have been proposed for gelatin identification, but a comprehensive and systematic document that includes all of the techniques does not exist. This up-to-date review addresses this research gap and presents, in an accessible format, the major gelatin source authentication techniques, which are primarily nucleic acid and protein based. Instead of presenting these methods in paragraph form which needs much attention in reading, the major methods are schematically depicted, and their comparative features are tabulated. Future technologies are forecasted, and challenges are outlined. Overall, this review paper has the merit to serve as a reference guide for the production and application of gelatin in academia and industry and will act as a platform for the development of improved methods for gelatin authentication.