Giganteone E (1), a new dimeric acylphenol was isolated as a minor constituent from the bark of Myristica maxima Warb. The structure of 1 was established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Malabaricones A-C (2-4), giganteones A and C (5 and 6), maingayones A and B (7 and 8), maingayic acid B (9) and β-sitosteryl oleate (10) were also characterized in this plant for the first time. Compound 10 was identified for the first time in the Myristicaceae. Compounds 2 and 5 were active against human prostate cancer cell-lines, thus making this the first report on the prostate cancer inhibiting potential of acylphenols and dimeric acylphenols. Compounds 1, 4, 5, 7 and 8 exhibited potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This is the first report on their free radical scavenging capacity.
A phytochemical study of the EtOAc-soluble part of the methanolic extract of the bark of Endiandra kingiana led to the isolation of three new pentacyclic kingianins as racemic mixtures, kingianins O-Q (1-3), together with the known kingianins A, F, K, L, M and N (4-9), respectively. The structures of the new kingianins 1-3 were determined by 1D and 2D NMR analysis in combination with HRESIMS experiments. Kingianins A-Q were assayed for Mcl-1 binding affinity. Kingianins G and H were found to be potent inhibitors of Mcl-1/Bid interaction. A structure-activity relationship study showed that potency is very sensitive to the substitution pattern on the pentacyclic core. In addition, in contrast with the binding affinity for Bcl-xL, the levorotatory enantiomers of kingianins G, H and J exhibited similar binding affinities for Mcl-1 than their dextrorotatory counterparts, indicating that the two anti-apoptotic proteins have slightly different binding profiles.
Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. f. & Thoms. is a plant widely distributed in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to identify compounds from the roots of G. macrophyllus. The ground roots were extracted with aqueous methanol and partitioned sequentially with n-hexane, chloroform and butanol. Purification from this extracts afforded six compounds with two new compounds, namely goniolandrene-A (1), -B (2). The absolute configuration of goniolandrene B (2) was established by circular dichrosim. The compounds were cytotoxic against the P388 cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.42 to 160 μM. Goniothalamin (3) exhibited the highest inhibition of 0.42 μM.
A study on the leaves of Aglaia exima led to the isolation of one new and seven known compounds: six triterpenoids and two steroids. Their structures were elucidated and analyzed mainly by using spectroscopic methods; 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry, UV spectrometry and X-ray. All the triterpenoids and steroids were measured in vitro for their cytotoxic activities against eight cancer cell lines; lung (A549), prostate (DU-145), skin (SK-MEL-5), pancreatic (BxPC-3), liver (Hep G2), colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7) and (MDA-MB-231). The new cycloartane triterpenoid, 24(E)-cycloart-24-ene-26-ol-3-one 1, showed potent cytotoxic activity against colon (HT-29) cancer cell line (IC(50) 11.5μM).
Malaysian Gelam honey has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, a high antioxidant capacity, and free radical-scavenging activity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates immune cells to sequentially release early pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and induces the synthesis of several related enzymes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the intravenous injection of honey in rats with LPS-induced endotoxemia. The results showed that after 4h of treatment, honey reduced cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins 1β, and 10) and NO levels and increased heme oxygenase-1 levels. After 24h, a decrease in cytokines and NO and an increase in HO-1 were seen in all groups, whereas a reduction in HMGB1 occurred only in the honey-treated groups. These results support the further examination of honey as a natural compound for the treatment of a wide range of inflammatory diseases.
A new flavanone derivative, malaysianone A (1), four prenylated flavanones, 6-prenyl-3'-methoxyeriodictyol (2), nymphaeol B (3), nymphaeol C (4) and 6-farnesyl-3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanone (5), and two coumarins, 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin (6) and scopoletin (7), were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the inflorescences of Macaranga triloba. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D), UV, IR and mass spectrometry. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was tested against several cell lines, with 5 inhibiting very strongly the growth of HeLa and HL-60 cells (IC(50): 1.3 μg/ml and 3.3 μg/ml, respectively). Compound 5 also showed strong antiplasmodial activity (IC(50): 0.06 μM).
A new oligostilbenoid tetramer, malaysianol B (1), was isolated from the acetone extract of the stem bark of Dryobalanops lanceolata along with seven oligostilbenoids tetramers; hopeaphenol (2), stenophyllol A (3), nepalensinol B (4), vaticanol B (5) and C (6), upunaphenol D (7), and flexuosol A (8). The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data evidence. The antibacterial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated using resazurin microtitre-plate assay.
Lipoxygenase (LOX)-inhibiting compounds from the leaves of Chisocheton polyandrus Merr. were isolated in this study using a bioactivity-guided fractionation technique. Two dammarane triterpenoids, dammara-20,24-dien-3-one (1) (IC(50)=0.69±0.07 μM) and 24-hydroxydammara-20,25-dien-3-one (2) (IC(50)=1.11±0.38 μM), were isolated and identified based on the soybean LOX assay. Dammara-20,24-dien-3-one (1) exhibited dual inhibition of both human 5-LOX (IC(50)=24.27±2.92 μM) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (IC(50)=3.17±0.90 μM), whereas 24-hydroxydammara-20,25-dien-3-one (2) did not exhibit any significant inhibitory effects. This report is the first to detail the inhibition of LOX and COX by both C. polyandrus and its isolated compounds.
Labisia pumila is a traditional herb widely used as post-partum medication for centuries. Recently, extensive researches have been carried out on the phytochemical identification, biological and toxicological studies for the herb. Phytochemicals found in the herbal extract showed high antioxidant properties, which were essential for various pharmacological activities. The significant findings are anti-estrogenic deficiency and -immunodeficiency diseases. Another finding that has considerable impact on natural product research is the contribution of L. pumila in promoting skin collagen synthesis. The performance of the herb as anti-aging agent due to natural aging process and accelerated by UV radiation was reviewed critically.
Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that is difficult to be treated. Current therapies available are either ineffective or non-specific thus requiring newer treatment approaches. In this study, we investigated the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone, a bioactive sesquiterpene from Zingiber zerumbet in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain animal model. Our findings showed that single and repeated dose of intra-peritoneal administration of zerumbone (5, 10, 50, 100 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the CCI-induced neuropathic pain when evaluated using the electronic von Frey anesthesiometer, cold plate, Randall-Selitto analgesiometer and the Hargreaves plantar test. Zerumbone significantly alleviated tactile and cold allodynia as well as mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Our findings are in comparison to the positive control drugs thatused gabapentin (20 mg/kgi.p.) and morphine (1 mg/kgi.p.). Together, these results showed that the systemic administration of zerumbone produced marked antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects in the CCI-induced neuropathic pain in mice and may serve as a potential lead compound for further analysis.
The galloylated cyanogenic glucosides based on prunasin (1-7), gallotannins (8-14), ellagitannins (15-17), ellagic acid derivatives (18, 19) and gallic acid (20) isolated from the leaves of Phyllagathis rotundifolia (Melastomataceae) were investigated for their neuroprotective activity against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative damage in NG108-15 hybridoma cell line. Among these compounds, the gallotannins and ellagitannins exhibited remarkable neuroprotective activities against oxidative damage in vitro as compared to galloylated cyanogenic glucosides and ellagic acid derivatives in a dose-dependent manner. They could be explored further as potential natural neuroprotectors in various remedies of neurodegenerative diseases.
The in vivo and in vitro mechanistic anti-inflammatory actions of cucurbitacin E (CE) (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) were examined. The results showed that LPS/INF-γ increased NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages, whereas L-NAME and CE curtailed it. CE did not reveal any cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 and WRL-68 cells. CE inhibited both COX enzymes with more selectivity toward COX-2. Intraperitoneal injection of CE significantly suppressed carrageenan-induced rat's paw edema. ORAC and FRAP assays showed that CE is not a potent ROS scavenger. It could be concluded that CE is potentially useful in treating inflammation through the inhibition of COX and RNS but not ROS.
Phytochemical investigation of Beilschmiedia alloiophylla has resulted in the isolation of one new alkaloid, 2-hydroxy-9-methoxyaporphine (1), and ten known natural products, laurotetanine (2), liriodenine (3), boldine (4), secoboldine (5), isoboldine (6), asimilobine (7), oreobeiline (8), 6-epioreobeiline (9), β-amyrone (10), and (S)-3-methoxynordomesticine (11). Chemical studies on the bark of B. kunstleri afforded compounds 2 and 4 along with one bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, N-dimethylphyllocryptine (12). Structures of compounds 1-12 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. All of these isolates were evaluated for their anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE), anti-α-glucosidase, anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal activities. Compounds 1-12 exhibited strong to moderate bioactivities in aforementioned bioassays.
A new resveratrol trimer, malaysianol A (1), five known resveratrol oligomers: laevifonol (2), ampelopsin E (3), α-viniferin (4), ε-viniferin (5), diptoindonesin A (6), and bergenin (7) have been isolated from the acetone extract of the stem bark of Dryobalanops aromatica by combination of vacuum and radial chromatography techniques. Their structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic evidence and comparison with the published data. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was tested against several cell lines in which compound 4 was found to inhibit strongly the growth of HL-60 cell line.
The anti-inflammatory activity of zerumbone (1), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tissue formation test in mice. It was demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of 1 at a dose of 5, 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg produced significant dose-dependent inhibition of paw edema induced by carrageenan. It was also demonstrated that 1 at similar doses significantly suppressed granulomatous tissue formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test.
We investigated the effects of honey and its methanol and ethyl acetate extracts on inflammation in animal models. Rats' paws were induced with carrageenan in the non-immune inflammatory and nociceptive model, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the immune inflammatory model. Honey and its extracts were able to inhibit edema and pain in inflammatory tissues as well as showing potent inhibitory activities against NO and PGE(2) in both models. The decrease in edema and pain correlates with the inhibition of NO and PGE(2). Phenolic compounds have been implicated in the inhibitory activities. Honey is potentially useful in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.
Eurycoma longifolia Jack is an herbal medicinal plant of South-East Asian origin, popularly recognized as 'Tongkat Ali.' The plant parts have been traditionally used for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and anti-pyretic activities, which have also been proved scientifically. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds (like eurycomaoside, eurycolactone, eurycomalactone, eurycomanone, and pasakbumin-B) among which the alkaloids and quassinoids form a major portion. Even though toxicity and safety evaluation studies have been pursued, still a major gap exists in providing scientific base for commercial utilization and clearance of the Tongkat Ali products with regard to consumer's safety. The present review aims at reviewing the research works undertaken till date, on this plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future works and for commercial exploitation.
We have investigated the antinociceptive activity of zerumbone (1), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test and hot plate test in mice. 1 given by intraperitoneal route produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all the test models used. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of 1 in the hot plate test was reversed by the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, suggesting that the opioid system is involved in its analgesic mechanism of action.
The aqueous extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves was evaluated for possible antinociceptive activity in three models of nociception, namely, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, formalin and hot plate test. The results of the present study showed that intraperitoneal administration of the F. deltoidea leaves aqueous extract at the dose of 1, 50 and 100 mg/kg, 30 min prior to pain induction produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all the models used, which indicating the presence of both central and peripherally mediated activities. Furthermore, the antinociceptive effect of the extract in the formalin and hot plate test was reversed by the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone suggesting that the endogenous opioid system is involved in its analgesic mechanism of action. Thus, the present results demonstrated that F. deltoidea leaves aqueous extract contains pharmacologically active constituents which possess antinociceptive activity justifying its popular therapeutic use in treating conditions associated with the painful conditions.
3,4',5-Trihydroxy-3',7-dimethoxyflavanone was isolated from the ligroin extract of the leaves of Blumea balsamifera, while the acetone extract yielded 3',4',5-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone and a new biflavonoid identifed as 3-O-7''-biluteolin (1). The isolation of 1 is significant since a biflavonoid with a C-O-C linkage of the type [I-3-O-II-7] has not been previously reported from a plant.