The last few decades have seen an alarming rise in fungal infections, which currently represent a global health threat. Despite extensive research towards the development of new antifungal agents, only a limited number of antifungal drugs are available in the market. The routinely used polyene agents and many azole antifungals are associated with some common side effects such as severe hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Also, antifungal resistance continues to grow and evolve and complicate patient management, despite the introduction of new antifungal agents. This suitation requires continuous attention. Cinnamaldehyde has been reported to inhibit bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous molds via the inhibition of ATPases, cell wall biosynthesis, and alteration of membrane structure and integrity. In this regard, several novel cinnamaldehyde derivatives were synthesized with the claim of potential antifungal activities. The present article describes antifungal properties of cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives against diverse classes of pathogenic fungi. This review will provide an overview of what is currently known about the primary mode of action of cinnamaldehyde. Synergistic approaches for boosting the effectiveness of cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives have been highlighted. Also, a keen analysis of the pharmacologically active systems derived from cinnamaldehyde has been discussed. Finally, efforts were made to outline the future perspectives of cinnamaldehyde-based antifungal agents. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antifungal properties and antifungal mode of action of cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of cinnamaldehyde as a natural antifungal.
Giganteone E (1), a new dimeric acylphenol was isolated as a minor constituent from the bark of Myristica maxima Warb. The structure of 1 was established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Malabaricones A-C (2-4), giganteones A and C (5 and 6), maingayones A and B (7 and 8), maingayic acid B (9) and β-sitosteryl oleate (10) were also characterized in this plant for the first time. Compound 10 was identified for the first time in the Myristicaceae. Compounds 2 and 5 were active against human prostate cancer cell-lines, thus making this the first report on the prostate cancer inhibiting potential of acylphenols and dimeric acylphenols. Compounds 1, 4, 5, 7 and 8 exhibited potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This is the first report on their free radical scavenging capacity.
A study on the leaves of Aglaia exima led to the isolation of one new and seven known compounds: six triterpenoids and two steroids. Their structures were elucidated and analyzed mainly by using spectroscopic methods; 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry, UV spectrometry and X-ray. All the triterpenoids and steroids were measured in vitro for their cytotoxic activities against eight cancer cell lines; lung (A549), prostate (DU-145), skin (SK-MEL-5), pancreatic (BxPC-3), liver (Hep G2), colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7) and (MDA-MB-231). The new cycloartane triterpenoid, 24(E)-cycloart-24-ene-26-ol-3-one 1, showed potent cytotoxic activity against colon (HT-29) cancer cell line (IC(50) 11.5μM).
A new oligostilbenoid tetramer, malaysianol B (1), was isolated from the acetone extract of the stem bark of Dryobalanops lanceolata along with seven oligostilbenoids tetramers; hopeaphenol (2), stenophyllol A (3), nepalensinol B (4), vaticanol B (5) and C (6), upunaphenol D (7), and flexuosol A (8). The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data evidence. The antibacterial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated using resazurin microtitre-plate assay.
A new flavanone derivative, malaysianone A (1), four prenylated flavanones, 6-prenyl-3'-methoxyeriodictyol (2), nymphaeol B (3), nymphaeol C (4) and 6-farnesyl-3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanone (5), and two coumarins, 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin (6) and scopoletin (7), were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the inflorescences of Macaranga triloba. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D), UV, IR and mass spectrometry. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was tested against several cell lines, with 5 inhibiting very strongly the growth of HeLa and HL-60 cells (IC(50): 1.3 μg/ml and 3.3 μg/ml, respectively). Compound 5 also showed strong antiplasmodial activity (IC(50): 0.06 μM).
Labisia pumila is a traditional herb widely used as post-partum medication for centuries. Recently, extensive researches have been carried out on the phytochemical identification, biological and toxicological studies for the herb. Phytochemicals found in the herbal extract showed high antioxidant properties, which were essential for various pharmacological activities. The significant findings are anti-estrogenic deficiency and -immunodeficiency diseases. Another finding that has considerable impact on natural product research is the contribution of L. pumila in promoting skin collagen synthesis. The performance of the herb as anti-aging agent due to natural aging process and accelerated by UV radiation was reviewed critically.
The in vivo and in vitro mechanistic anti-inflammatory actions of cucurbitacin E (CE) (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) were examined. The results showed that LPS/INF-γ increased NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages, whereas L-NAME and CE curtailed it. CE did not reveal any cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 and WRL-68 cells. CE inhibited both COX enzymes with more selectivity toward COX-2. Intraperitoneal injection of CE significantly suppressed carrageenan-induced rat's paw edema. ORAC and FRAP assays showed that CE is not a potent ROS scavenger. It could be concluded that CE is potentially useful in treating inflammation through the inhibition of COX and RNS but not ROS.
Lipoxygenase (LOX)-inhibiting compounds from the leaves of Chisocheton polyandrus Merr. were isolated in this study using a bioactivity-guided fractionation technique. Two dammarane triterpenoids, dammara-20,24-dien-3-one (1) (IC(50)=0.69±0.07 μM) and 24-hydroxydammara-20,25-dien-3-one (2) (IC(50)=1.11±0.38 μM), were isolated and identified based on the soybean LOX assay. Dammara-20,24-dien-3-one (1) exhibited dual inhibition of both human 5-LOX (IC(50)=24.27±2.92 μM) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (IC(50)=3.17±0.90 μM), whereas 24-hydroxydammara-20,25-dien-3-one (2) did not exhibit any significant inhibitory effects. This report is the first to detail the inhibition of LOX and COX by both C. polyandrus and its isolated compounds.
The galloylated cyanogenic glucosides based on prunasin (1-7), gallotannins (8-14), ellagitannins (15-17), ellagic acid derivatives (18, 19) and gallic acid (20) isolated from the leaves of Phyllagathis rotundifolia (Melastomataceae) were investigated for their neuroprotective activity against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative damage in NG108-15 hybridoma cell line. Among these compounds, the gallotannins and ellagitannins exhibited remarkable neuroprotective activities against oxidative damage in vitro as compared to galloylated cyanogenic glucosides and ellagic acid derivatives in a dose-dependent manner. They could be explored further as potential natural neuroprotectors in various remedies of neurodegenerative diseases.
Malaysian Gelam honey has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, a high antioxidant capacity, and free radical-scavenging activity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates immune cells to sequentially release early pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and induces the synthesis of several related enzymes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the intravenous injection of honey in rats with LPS-induced endotoxemia. The results showed that after 4h of treatment, honey reduced cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins 1β, and 10) and NO levels and increased heme oxygenase-1 levels. After 24h, a decrease in cytokines and NO and an increase in HO-1 were seen in all groups, whereas a reduction in HMGB1 occurred only in the honey-treated groups. These results support the further examination of honey as a natural compound for the treatment of a wide range of inflammatory diseases.
Phytochemical investigation of Beilschmiedia alloiophylla has resulted in the isolation of one new alkaloid, 2-hydroxy-9-methoxyaporphine (1), and ten known natural products, laurotetanine (2), liriodenine (3), boldine (4), secoboldine (5), isoboldine (6), asimilobine (7), oreobeiline (8), 6-epioreobeiline (9), β-amyrone (10), and (S)-3-methoxynordomesticine (11). Chemical studies on the bark of B. kunstleri afforded compounds 2 and 4 along with one bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, N-dimethylphyllocryptine (12). Structures of compounds 1-12 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. All of these isolates were evaluated for their anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE), anti-α-glucosidase, anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal activities. Compounds 1-12 exhibited strong to moderate bioactivities in aforementioned bioassays.
Seventy-two extracts (methanol) obtained from the leaves, barks, and roots of 50 plant species used in the traditional medicine of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, have been screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Peristrophe tinctoria, Polyalthia lateriflora, Knema malayana, Solanum torvum, Celosia argentea, Eclipta prostrata, Ancistrocladus tectorius, Dillenia suffruticosa, Piper stylosum and Rafflesia hasseltii displayed the broadest spectrum of activity.
A new resveratrol trimer, malaysianol A (1), five known resveratrol oligomers: laevifonol (2), ampelopsin E (3), α-viniferin (4), ε-viniferin (5), diptoindonesin A (6), and bergenin (7) have been isolated from the acetone extract of the stem bark of Dryobalanops aromatica by combination of vacuum and radial chromatography techniques. Their structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic evidence and comparison with the published data. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was tested against several cell lines in which compound 4 was found to inhibit strongly the growth of HL-60 cell line.
We investigated the effects of honey and its methanol and ethyl acetate extracts on inflammation in animal models. Rats' paws were induced with carrageenan in the non-immune inflammatory and nociceptive model, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the immune inflammatory model. Honey and its extracts were able to inhibit edema and pain in inflammatory tissues as well as showing potent inhibitory activities against NO and PGE(2) in both models. The decrease in edema and pain correlates with the inhibition of NO and PGE(2). Phenolic compounds have been implicated in the inhibitory activities. Honey is potentially useful in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.
Eurycoma longifolia Jack is an herbal medicinal plant of South-East Asian origin, popularly recognized as 'Tongkat Ali.' The plant parts have been traditionally used for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and anti-pyretic activities, which have also been proved scientifically. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds (like eurycomaoside, eurycolactone, eurycomalactone, eurycomanone, and pasakbumin-B) among which the alkaloids and quassinoids form a major portion. Even though toxicity and safety evaluation studies have been pursued, still a major gap exists in providing scientific base for commercial utilization and clearance of the Tongkat Ali products with regard to consumer's safety. The present review aims at reviewing the research works undertaken till date, on this plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future works and for commercial exploitation.
The anti-inflammatory activity of zerumbone (1), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tissue formation test in mice. It was demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of 1 at a dose of 5, 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg produced significant dose-dependent inhibition of paw edema induced by carrageenan. It was also demonstrated that 1 at similar doses significantly suppressed granulomatous tissue formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test.
Vindogentianine, a new indole alkaloid together with six known alkaloids, vindoline, vindolidine, vindolicine, vindolinine, perivine and serpentine were isolated from leaf extract (DA) of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods; NMR, MS, UV and IR. Vindogentianine is a dimer containing a vindoline moiety coupled to a gentianine moiety. After 24h incubation, vindogentianine exhibited no cytotoxic effect in C2C12 mouse myoblast and β-TC6 mouse pancreatic cells (IC50>50μg/mL). Real-time cell proliferation monitoring also indicated vindogentianine had little or no effect on C2C12 mouse myoblast cell growth at the highest dose tested (200μg/mL), without inducing cell death. Vindogentianine exhibited potential hypoglycemic activity in β-TC6 and C2C12 cells by inducing higher glucose uptake and significant in vitro PTP-1B inhibition. However, in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assay showed low inhibition under treatment of vindogentianine. This suggests that hypoglycemic activity of vindogentianine may be due to the enhancement of glucose uptake and PTP-1B inhibition, implying its therapeutic potential against type 2 diabetes.
A triflavanone, Garcineflavanone A (1) and a biflavonol, Garcineflavonol A (2) have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae), collected in Peninsular Malaysia. Their structures were established using one and two-dimensional NMR, UV, IR and mass spectrometry and evaluated in vitro for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibitory activity. Molecular docking studies of the isolated compounds were performed using docking procedure of AutoDock to disclose the binding interaction and orientation of these molecules into the active site gorge.
The evolution of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus showed that there is no long-lasting remedy against this pathogen. The limited number of antibacterial classes and the common occurrence of cross-resistance within and between classes reinforce the urgent need to discover new compounds targeting novel cellular functions not yet targeted by currently used drugs. One of the experimental approaches used to discover novel antibacterials and their in vitro targets is natural product screening. Three known pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated for the first time from the bark of Callicarpa farinosa Roxb. (Verbenaceae) and identified as α-amyrin [3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-3-ol], betulinic acid [3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupaene-28-oic acid], and betulinaldehyde [3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupen-28-al]. These compounds exhibited antimicrobial activities against reference and clinical strains of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 2 to 512 μg/mL. From the genome-wide transcriptomic analysis to elucidate the antimicrobial effects of these compounds, multiple novel cellular targets in cell division, two-component system, ABC transporters, fatty acid biosynthesis, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, ribosomes and β-lactam resistance pathways are affected, resulting in destabilization of the bacterial cell membrane, halt in protein synthesis, and inhibition of cell growth that eventually lead to cell death. The novel targets in these essential pathways could be further explored in the development of therapeutic compounds for the treatment of S. aureus infections and help mitigate resistance development due to target alterations.