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  1. Quah HJ, Ahmad FH, Lim WF, Hassan Z
    ACS Omega, 2020 Oct 20;5(41):26347-26356.
    PMID: 33110962 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.0c02120
    Nitrogen-infused wet oxidation at different temperatures (400-1000 °C) was employed to transform tantalum-hafnia to hafnium-doped tantalum oxide films. High-temperature wet oxidation at 1000 °C marked an onset of crystallization occurring in the film, accompanied with the formation of an interfacial oxide due to a reaction between the inward-diffusing hydroxide ions, which were dissociated from the water molecules during wet oxidation. The existence of nitrogen has assisted in controlling the interfacial oxide formation. However, high-temperature oxidation caused a tendency for the nitrogen to desorb and form N-H complex after reacting with the hydroxide ions. Besides, the presence of N-H complex implied a decrease in the passivation at the oxide-Si interface by hydrogen. As a consequence, defect formation would happen at the interface and influence the metal-oxide-semiconductor characteristics of the samples. In comparison, tantalum-hafnia subjected to nitrogen-infused wet oxidation at 600 °C has obtained the highest dielectric constant, the largest band gap, and the lowest slow trap density.
  2. Tan L, Ganapathy SS, Sooryanarayana R, Hasim MH, Saminathan TA, Mohamad Anuar MF, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 Nov;31(8_suppl):18S-29S.
    PMID: 31470742 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519870665
    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bullying victimization from a nationwide school-based survey among 27 458 students aged 13 to 17 years. The overall prevalence of having been bullied in the past 30 days was 16.2%; this decreased with age. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that factors most strongly associated with bullying victimization were exposure to physical attacks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.17-2.79), illicit drug use (aOR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.78-3.34), involvement in physical fights (aOR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.74-2.23), being younger than 14 years (aOR =1.95, 95% CI = 1.59-2.38), and having ever attempted suicide (aOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.51-2.21). Other significantly associated factors include loneliness, truancy, making suicidal plans, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Exposure to bullying victimization can result in negative lifelong sequelae and important associated factors should be considered in planning effective school-based anti-bullying interventions.
  3. Ganapathy SS, Tan L, Sooryanarayana R, Hashim MH, Saminathan TA, Ahmad FH, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 11;31(8_suppl):38S-47S.
    PMID: 31617372 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519879339
    Body weight is a factor, with body weight perception a mediator, toward being a victim of bullying. This study aimed to explore the association between body weight, body weight perception, and bullying among students 13 to 17 years of age in Malaysia. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling design was used, and 212 schools across Malaysia were selected for this survey. Body weight was measured and body weight perception was the student's reflection of their body weight. The prevalence of being bullied among adolescents in Malaysia was 16.2%. Being too thin or being obese increased the probability of being bullied. Students with a normal body mass index, but with a misperception of their body weight, also had increased odds of being bullied. Obesity prevention, together with instilling positive body weight perception, should be part of all programs directed toward tackling the problem of bullying.
  4. Awaluddin SM, Ahmad FH, Jeevananthan C, Ganapathy SS, Sooryanarayana R, Mohamad Anuar MF, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 Nov;31(8_suppl):65S-72S.
    PMID: 31522523 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519872662
    Serious injury due to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) significantly contributes to the adolescents' health status. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of nonfatal injury due to MVAs and its associated factors among Malaysian school-going adolescents. Nationally representative samples were selected via 2-stage stratified cluster sampling. Data was collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations between the variables. A total of 1088 out of 27 497 adolescents reported that they had sustained serious injury due to MVAs with a prevalence of 4.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.7-4.5). Serious injury due to MVAs among adolescents was positively associated with being current cigarette smokers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.5; 95% CI = 2.2-2.9), followed by Malay ethnicity (aOR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.9-3.0), current drug users (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.9-3.0), boys (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.8-2.4), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.2-2.5), and those who were in upper secondary school (aOR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.2-1.5). Targeted intervention and curbing substance use among boys may reduce the morbidities from MVAs and its resulting complications.
  5. Saminathan TA, Ganapathy SS, Sooryanarayana R, Hasim MHB, Mohd Anuar MF, Ahmad FH, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 11;31(8_suppl):88S-96S.
    PMID: 31680535 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519883139
    We assessed the current situation of physical abuse among adolescents at home in Malaysia. A total of 27 497 school-going adolescents answered a self-administered questionnaire during the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017. A complex sampling analysis was applied to identify factors associated with physical abuse among adolescents using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of physical abuse at home among students was 11.8%. Our result shows that adolescents aged 13 years had significantly higher odds of such abuse, with odds decreasing as the adolescents age. Girls and adolescents from Indian ethnicity (minority ethnic group) had higher odds of such abuse. Other associated factors were mental health problems, substance abuse, and problems at school. Physical abuse among adolescents at home should be countered with appropriate measures.
  6. Ahmad NA, Abd Razak MA, Kassim MS, Sahril N, Ahmad FH, Harith AA, et al.
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2020 Dec;20 Suppl 2:21-25.
    PMID: 33370850 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.14012
    AIM: This study aimed to assess the relationship between functional limitations and depression among community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Data from a nation-wide community-based cross-sectional study were analyzed. This study was conducted using a two-stage stratified random sampling design. In total, 3772 older adults aged ≥60 years responded to the survey. Depression was identified using a validated Malay version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (M-GDS-14), with those scored ≥6 categorized as having depression. Functional limitations were assessed using both Barthel's Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Lawton's Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). The relationship was determined by multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for other variables.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of depression was 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.4, 13.4). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that older adults with limitations in ADL were 2.6 times more likely of having depression (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.58, 95% CI 2.01, 3.32), while those with limitations in IADL the risk of having depression was almost doubled (aOR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.14). Other significant factors were incontinence (aOR 3.33, 95% CI: 2.33, 4.74), chronic medical illness (aOR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.81), current smoker (aOR 4.19, 95% CI: 1.69, 10.39), poor social support (aOR 4.30, 95% CI: 2.98, 6.20), do not have partner, ethnic minorities and low individual monthly income.

    CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with functional limitation in both basic ADL and complex IADL are independently at higher risk of having depression. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 21-25.

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