METHODS: A total of 2322 Malaysian older adults aged 60 years and older were recruited using multistage random sampling in a population-based cross-sectional study. Out of 2322 older adults recruited, 2309 (48% men) completed assessments on cognitive function and body composition. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Malay version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Bahasa Malaysia version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Digit Span Test, Digit Symbol Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Body composition included body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference, calf circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, percentage body fat and skeletal muscle mass.
RESULTS: The association between body composition and cognitive functions was analyzed using multiple linear regression. After adjustment for age, education years, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, depression, smoking status and alcohol consumption, we found that calf circumference appeared as a significant predictor for all cognitive tests among both men and women (P
METHODS: Further to informed consent from 39 healthy subjects and 39 probable AD patients, 8.5 mL of peripheral blood was collected and serum was extracted. The differential levels of 12 serum cytokines extracted from peripheral blood samples were measured using Procarta Multiplex Cytokine and enzyme-linked immunoassay kits. Concentrations of cytokines were measured at 615 nm using a fluorometer.
RESULTS: Except for tumor necrosis factor-α, all classical pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and interferon-γ) were found to be significantly upregulated (P 53.65 ρg/mL and <9.315 ρg/mL, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Both the non-classical pro-inflammatory CXCL-10 and anti-inflammatory IL-13 cytokines showed promising potential as blood-based cytokine biomarkers for AD. This is the first study of non-classical cytokine profiles of Malaysian AD patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 839-846.
METHODS: Participants (n = 202) were aged ≥65 years with two or more falls or one injurious fall in the past year, whereas controls (n = 156) included volunteers aged ≥65 years with no falls in the past year. A detailed medication history was obtained alongside demographic data. Polypharmacy was defined as "regular use of five or more prescription drugs." FRID were identified as cardiovascular agents, central nervous system drugs, analgesics and endocrine drugs; multiple FRID were defined as two or more FRID. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for confounders.
RESULTS: The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was independently associated with an increased risk of falls. Univariate analyses showed both polypharmacy (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.39-3.56; P = 0.001) and the use of two or more FRID (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.5; P = 0.0001) were significantly more likely amongst fallers. After adjustment for age, sex and comorbidities, blood pressure, and physical performance scores, polypharmacy was no longer associated with falls (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9-2.9; P = 0.102), whereas the consumption of two or more FRID remained a significant predictor for falls (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.3; P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Among high risk fallers, the use of two or more FRID was an independent risk factor for falls instead of polypharmacy. Our findings will inform clinical practice in terms of medication reviews among older adults at higher risk of falls. Future intervention studies will seek to confirm whether avoidance or withdrawal of multiple FRID reduces the risk of future falls. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 463-470.
METHODS: A total of 2322 respondents aged ≥60 years were recruited at baseline using the multistage sampling method, followed up at 18 months and 36 months.
RESULTS: Response rates at baseline, 18 months and 36 months were 87.8%, 77.3% and 67.1%, respectively. At baseline, the prevalence of successful aging, usual aging and mild cognitive impairment was 11%, 73% and 16%, respectively. The prevalence of single and multimorbidity at baseline were 25.9% and 50.3%, respectively. The incidence rates of mild cognitive impairment at 18 months and 36 months were 6.5 and 5.6 per 100 person-years. The incidence rates of multimorbidity at 18 months and 36 months were 23.7 and 21.5 per 100 person-years, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The Long-Term Research Grant Scheme project: Towards Usual Aging study provides an opportunity to investigate the interactions between wide ranges of aspects of the older population in a nationally representative sample of the older population. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 233-239.
METHODS: Secondary analysis was carried out on data collected by the Grand Challenge Project among older adults aged ≥65 years from Selangor. Data on sociodemographic information, medical history, cognitive function and functional performance were obtained through face-to-face interviews using standardized questionnaires. Visual acuity was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart while hearing was assessed using pure-tone audiometry. Descriptive analysis was used to measure the prevalence of the impairments, and logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors.
RESULTS: The prevalence of dual sensory impairment and hearing impairment were at 10.5% and 76.2% respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants with lower cognitive scores were associated with dual sensory impairment (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.98), while smoking was found associated with hearing impairment (odds ratio, 6.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-28.65).
CONCLUSION: Dual sensory impairment is common among older adults in Selangor. The association between dual sensory impairment and cognitive function suggests the need to have visual and hearing screening on older adults for early detection particularly those at risk of cognitive impairment. The prevalence of hearing impairment was reported high among older adults and smokers appeared to be at higher risk of the impairment. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 911-916.
METHODS: A nationwide population-based survey involving 3977 community-dwelling older persons aged ≥60 years was conducted via face-to-face interview, of whom 3466 older persons were eligible for screening using a locally validated tool. Elder abuse was defined as any one occurrence of neglect, financial, psychological, physical or sexual abuse perpetrated by someone in a position of trust that was experienced in the past 12 months.
RESULTS: About 9.0% of older persons in Malaysia have experienced elder abuse in the past 12 months, with neglect being the commonest type experienced (7.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.54, 10.07). There is no significant difference by age group and geographical location. Males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.7; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.60), poorer social support (aOR 5.0; 95% CI: 2.25, 11.22), dependency in activities of daily living (aOR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.44) and a previous history of abuse (aOR 10.1; 95% CI: 4.50, 22.86) show higher odds of experiencing elder abuse. Almost 5% of abused older persons reported experiencing multiple types of abuse. Reporting is low at 19.3% with none reporting to healthcare personnel.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of elder abuse in this study is lower than global estimates, but similar to local studies. Preventive measures and programs are crucial to overcoming elder abuse and need to be carried out at multiple levels - the individual, community, healthcare and other stakeholders. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 85-91.
METHODS: Data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2018, a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey using a two-stage stratified sampling design, were analyzed. A representative sample of individuals aged ≥60 years identified through national sampling frames throughout Malaysia was included. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using validated questionnaires on activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL). Social support was measured using the Duke Social Support Index.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of the presence of any limitations in ADL and IADL was 17.0% and 42.9% respectively. Overall prevalence of the older persons with low to fair social support was 30.8% and high to very high social support was 69.2%. Logistic regression analysis identified the following factors as being associated with limitations in ADL and IADL: being female, of older age, having a monthly income
METHODS: This was a nationwide cross-sectional study using two-stage stratified random sampling. In total, 3977 older adults aged ≥60 years were involved in this study. Socio-demography characteristics were obtained using self-administered questionnaire. AO was measured using waist circumference and classified according to the cut-off values of ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women based on the WHO recommendation. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analysis using a complex sample design were performed for data analysis.
RESULTS: Our findings showed that 2371 (67.3%) older adults had AO. Older adults who were from urban areas (69.7%), of women (78.4%), married (66.7%), with tertiary education (73.6%) and unemployed (70.9%) had the highest prevalence of AO. Those from urban areas (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.29), women (aOR = 3.12), unemployed (aOR = 1.14), diagnosed with hypertension (aOR = 1.56) and diabetes mellitus (aOR = 2.08) were also significantly associated with a higher risk of AO.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified several risk factors that are associated with AO among older adults in Malaysia. Such information is important and needed to improve the healthcare system systematically, enable nutrition screening and appropriate intervention to combat the growing AO in Malaysia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 68-72.
METHODS: A nationwide survey was conducted among individuals aged ≥60 years. Cognition was assessed with the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) tool. QoL of older caregivers was assessed using the Control, Autonomy, Self-Realization and Pleasure (CASP-19) questionnaire.
RESULTS: The prevalence of dementia among older adults aged ≥60 years in Malaysia was found to be 8.5%. The prevalence was found to be higher among females, those with no formal education and those in rural areas in Malaysia. The mean QoL of family caregivers of PLwD was significantly lower than the caregivers of older adults without dementia were (P
METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2018 (NHMS 2018), a cross-sectional study using stratified cluster sampling design. Older persons were defined as aged ≥60 years in this study. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version 25.0.
RESULTS: Overall, 14.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.46, 15.84) of older persons reported having experienced at least one fall during the past 12 months. Univariate analyses revealed an association between the history of falls with not being employed (odds ratio [OR]: 1.35 [95% CI: 1.03, 1.77]), diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.65 [95% CI: 1.33, 2.04]), limitation in activities of daily living (ADL) (OR: 1.90 [95% CI: 1.43, 2.54]) or instrumental ADL (OR: 1.47 [95% CI: 1.16, 1.84]). Multiple logistic regression revealed that falls were positively associated with those who had diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.55 [95% CI: 1.23, 1.94]) and limitation in ADL (OR: 1.56 [95% CI: 1.14, 2.15]); 43.9% of falls occurred outdoors.
CONCLUSION: One in six older Malaysian people experience at least one fall over a 12-month period. Diabetes mellitus and limitation in ADL were the factors associated with falls among older persons. A comprehensive and targeted program designed to reduce risk of falls is urgently needed. Future research should identify suitable programs for our setting to reduce the potential society burden of falls in older Malaysians. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 33-37.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with two-stage stratified random sampling. In total, 3977 older persons participated in this study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a mobile device to obtain information about socio-demographic background, food insecurity, non-communicable diseases, social support and living arrangements. Descriptive and multiple complex sample logistic regression analyses were performed for data analysis.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of food insecurity among older persons was 10.4%. Older persons from rural areas with no or only primary and secondary education, income less than RM 2000 (USD 477.57), at risk of malnutrition and not receiving very high social support were more likely to be food-insecure.
CONCLUSION: Approximately, one-tenth of Malaysian older adults were classified as food-insecure; particularly those living in rural areas from lower socio-economic status, not receiving very high social support and malnourished were more likely to be at risk. A specific nutrition program, such as meals on wheels and food vouchers, should be targeted toward older persons who are at risk to improve their malnutrition status. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 73-78.
METHODS: The survey included 3977 community-dwelling respondents, aged ≥60 years across Malaysia. Two-stage stratified random sampling with selection of enumeration blocks from both urban and rural areas ensured the findings were representative of the Malaysian older population.
RESULTS: Complex sampling analyses ensured that findings on various geriatric syndromes, non-communicable diseases, nutritional status, functional status, social well-being and quality of life are representative of the Malaysian older population. Among the limitations are that the composition of older persons varied slightly from the general older population.
CONCLUSIONS: This article presents the methodology of the survey, and a baseline of the major health issues for older persons in Malaysia to provide clear guidance to researchers, program managers and policymakers to fully utilize the data from the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Survey toward achieving healthy aging. The findings might stimulate more research on the health problems faced by older people to provide inputs for policymaking and program implementation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 7-15.
METHODS: Data from a nation-wide community-based cross-sectional study were analyzed. This study was conducted using a two-stage stratified random sampling design. In total, 3772 older adults aged ≥60 years responded to the survey. Depression was identified using a validated Malay version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (M-GDS-14), with those scored ≥6 categorized as having depression. Functional limitations were assessed using both Barthel's Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Lawton's Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). The relationship was determined by multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for other variables.
RESULTS: The prevalence of depression was 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.4, 13.4). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that older adults with limitations in ADL were 2.6 times more likely of having depression (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.58, 95% CI 2.01, 3.32), while those with limitations in IADL the risk of having depression was almost doubled (aOR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.14). Other significant factors were incontinence (aOR 3.33, 95% CI: 2.33, 4.74), chronic medical illness (aOR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.81), current smoker (aOR 4.19, 95% CI: 1.69, 10.39), poor social support (aOR 4.30, 95% CI: 2.98, 6.20), do not have partner, ethnic minorities and low individual monthly income.
CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with functional limitation in both basic ADL and complex IADL are independently at higher risk of having depression. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 21-25.
METHODS: We used the 19-item Control, Autonomy, Self-realization and Pleasure scale, a validated instrument that measures psychological well-being related to QoL in older persons. Scores range from 0 to 57, and higher scores indicate better QoL. We included several factors as covariates. Analysis of complex samples was carried out using Stata 15. Descriptive analysis was carried out to determine QoL by sociodemographic characteristics and other factors. Linear regression analysis was used to identify psychosocial factors that influence QoL.
RESULTS: A total of 3444 individuals aged ≥60 years completed all 19-item Control, Autonomy, Self-realization and Pleasure items. The estimated mean QoL score was 47.01 (95% CI 46.30-47.72). Adjusted for confounders, QoL was lower among individuals with no formal education (-2.554, 95% CI -3.684, -1.424), probable depression (-1.042, 95% CI -1.212, -0.871) and food insecurity (-0.815, 95% CI -1.083, -0.548). QoL continued to improve with improved ADL score (0.302, 95% CI 0.052, 0.552), IADL score (0.646, 95% CI 0.382, 0.909) and better social support (0.308, 95% CI 0.187, 0.429).
CONCLUSIONS: Lower education, depression, food insecurity, presence of limited functional status and poor social support negatively influenced QoL in older Malaysians. This study identified potentially modifiable factors that could be targeted for interventions to enhance QoL of older persons in Malaysia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 92-97.
METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among community dwelling older persons utilizing stratified cluster sampling was conducted in 2018. Well-trained interviewers conducted a face-to-face interview with older persons aged ≥60 years to collect information on participants' sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception on general as well as oral health using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). Multivariate analysis of the data collected was performed using SPSS version 23.
RESULTS: Overall, the GOHAI mean ± SD score for older persons in Malaysia was 51.83 ± 7.98, which was an average of fair mean (P
METHODS: The study used data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2018. It was a cross-sectional study with two-staged stratified cluster sampling design. In total, 3977 adults aged ≥60 years were selected for this study. Respondents were interviewed face to face using a structured questionnaire. Self-reported diabetes, hypertension or hypercholesterolemia was defined as having ever been told they have these diseases by a medical doctor or paramedic. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25. The multiple logistic regression model was used to examine the factors associated with the prevalence of self-reporting.
RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia among older persons in Malaysia were 27.7%, 51.1% and 41.8% respectively. Presence of other comorbidities and being obese showed higher odds for all three diseases. Indians, unemployed, inactive had higher odds for diabetes. Other Bumiputras, unemployed, non-smoker, obese and inactive had higher odds for hypertension. Non-smoker had higher odds for hypercholesterolemia.
CONCLUSIONS: Health promotion, vigilance, attention and services targeting on the associated factors should be strengthened for older persons in Malaysia to ensure healthy aging. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 79-84.