• 1 Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 2 Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2017 May;17(5):839-846.
PMID: 27215446 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.12783


AIM: Cytokines released from chronically-activated microglia could result in neuroinflammation. An accurate profile of the relationship between cytokines and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, as well as the patterns of these inflammatory mediators in AD patients could lead to the identification of peripheral markers for the disease. The present study was undertaken to identify pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines associated with AD in the Malaysian population.

METHODS: Further to informed consent from 39 healthy subjects and 39 probable AD patients, 8.5 mL of peripheral blood was collected and serum was extracted. The differential levels of 12 serum cytokines extracted from peripheral blood samples were measured using Procarta Multiplex Cytokine and enzyme-linked immunoassay kits. Concentrations of cytokines were measured at 615 nm using a fluorometer.

RESULTS: Except for tumor necrosis factor-α, all classical pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and interferon-γ) were found to be significantly upregulated (P 53.65 ρg/mL and <9.315 ρg/mL, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Both the non-classical pro-inflammatory CXCL-10 and anti-inflammatory IL-13 cytokines showed promising potential as blood-based cytokine biomarkers for AD. This is the first study of non-classical cytokine profiles of Malaysian AD patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 839-846.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.