Clomiphene is a widely prescribed drug for the treatment of infertility. Visual symptoms that occur as a side effect of this drug are uncommon. Some doctors may neglect to mention this side effect when prescribing clomiphene. Thus these visual disturbances can be very alarming to the patient and may also pose a hazard if the patient is doing activities such as driving or operating machinery. The patient should be told to stop taking clomiphene and ophthalmologic evaluation should be performed. Although visual disturbances generally cease on stopping clomiphene, some women may experience persistent visual disturbances.
Vomiting in pregnancy is a very common phenomenon, though not well understood. The extreme form, hyperemesis gravidarum can lead to severe complications. Articles published in the last decade in this field were searched and studied. Various aetiological factors were identified, the recent ones being the association of Helicobacter. pylori with hyperemesis, as well as the presence of cell free fetal DNA. The management of the condition involves symptomatic treatment along with antiemetic, pyridoxine and thiamine. Important role of alternative therapies like ginger and P6 acupoint stimulation in the treatment of hyperemesis has been identified.
Renal angiomyolipoma is a benign tumour of the kidney which is often mistaken for a renal cell carcinoma resulting in an unnecessary nephrectomy. It can be diagnosed preoperatively and managed conservatively without surgery. Large symptomatic renal angiomyolipomas can often be treated by renal-sparing surgery. We report a case of a large renal angiomyolipoma diagnosed preoperatively and excised completely with preservation of the kidney.
A 45-year-old Malay lady who presented with intermittent abdominal pain and a left hypochondrial mass was found to have a 10 x 8 x 5 cm duodenal tumour without local invasion at laparotomy. En bloc resection of the tumour with adequate margin of clearance was done and histopathological diagnosis of low grade leiomyosarcoma was made. Fourteen months later, she returned with multiple metastases in the liver and needed palliative chemotherapy for pain relief. Duodenal leiomyosarcomata are very rare tumour. Their prognostic indicators include biological grading, tumour size and presence of metastases. Recognition of its high malignant potential calls for close surveillance calls even after apparent curative surgery.
Two cases of oral speckled leukoplakia with differing behaviour are presented. This precancerous lesion of unknown aetiology requires early diagnosis for proper management. Candida albicans are frequently found in these lesions. The significance of epithelial dysplasia in relation to treatment is discussed. Surgical removal is the treatment of choice.
Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection commonly seen in HIV cases. We present a case of disseminated cryptococcosis with multiple non-continuous infective foci in a non-HIV, non-transplant case.
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecologic malignancy among females worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the median survival time of endometrial cancer patients at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM).
Tuberculosis of the genital tract was diagnosed in only 12 patients during the 17 year period from March 1968 to February 1985 at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, which serves as a major referral centre in Malaysia. The incidence was 0.31 per 1000 gynaecological admissions and the peak age incidence was in the age group 26 to 35 years. The surgical management was mainly conservative as infertility was the most frequent mode of presentation (50%). Evidence of previous pulmonary tuberculosis was present in only five cases. Adnexal adhesions were the commonest pelvic finding; the fallopian tubes and endometrium were affected with equal frequency. Positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained in only five of the 12 patients. All patients received combination anti-tuberculosis drugs with satisfactory response.
Raised prolactin levels have been implicated as a cause for infertility in patients with endometriosis. This study was done to investigate if serum prolactin levels were significantly raised in infertile patients with endometriosis. Serum prolactin levels were studied in 43 infertile patients with endometriosis. For controls, 36 infertile patients with normal pelvic findings were used. For standardization, blood samples were drawn on day 21 of the menstrual cycle. Analysis was done by radioimmunoassay using reagent kits. The mean prolactin level in the endometriotic group was 372 mIU/l (range 187-752) while that in the controls was 333 mIU/l.(range 124-767). There was no statistical difference (t = 1.12). Furthermore the accepted normal level for serum prolactin in our population is less than 540 mIU/l. These results show that there is no evidence to implicate raised prolactin levels as a cause for infertility in patients with endometriosis.