Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 54 in total

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  1. Dianita R, Jantan I, Jalil J, Amran AZ
    Phytomedicine, 2016 Jul 15;23(8):810-7.
    PMID: 27288916 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2016.04.004
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies on Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) have showed that it could inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and provide protection on myocardial infarction in rats.

    HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: We hypothesized that LPva extracts can modulate the lipid profiles and serum antioxidant status of hypercholesterolemic rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of LPva on atherogenic and serum antioxidant parameters as well as changes in abdominal aorta of high-cholesterol diet rats.

    METHODS: The major components of the extracts, gallic acid, flavonoids and alkyl resorcinols were analyzed by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The rats were induced to hypercholesterolemic status with daily intake of 2% cholesterol for a duration of 8 weeks. Three different doses (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) of the extracts were administered daily on the 4th week onwards. The rats were then sacrificed and the blood was collected via abdominal aorta and serum was separated by centrifugation for biochemical analysis. Part of the aorta tissues were excised immediately for histopathological examination.

    RESULTS: The serum of LPva treated rats showed significant reduction in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and the abdominal aorta showed a significant decrease of atheroma lesions in treated rats. Serum lipid profiles of treated rats showed a decrease in total cholesterol, total triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels as compared to control group. The atherogenic indices in treated rats were significantly improved along with an increasing level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The extracts also exhibited significant increase of antioxidant enzymes and decrease of MDA as a product of lipid peroxidation.

    CONCLUSION: LPva extracts can reduce the risk of dyslipidemia by improving the serum lipid profiles and modulating serum antioxidants.

  2. Sidahmed HM, Hashim NM, Amir J, Abdulla MA, Hadi AH, Abdelwahab SI, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2013 Jul 15;20(10):834-43.
    PMID: 23570997 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.03.002
    Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (PA), a xanthone derived from the Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, belongs to the Moraceae family which is native to the tropical forest of Malaysia. In this study, the efficacy of PA as a gastroprotective compound was examined against ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. The rats were pretreated with PA and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, histological analysis, glutathione (GSH) levels, malondialdehyde level (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NP-SH) contents were evaluated in vivo. The activities of PA as anti-Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor and free radical scavenger were also investigated in vitro. The results showed that the oral administration of PA protects gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced gastric lesions. PA pretreatment significantly (p<0.05) restored the depleted GSH, NP-SH and NO levels in the gastric homogenate. Moreover, PA significantly (p<0.05) reduced the elevated MDA level due to ethanol administration. The gastroprotective effect of PA was associated with an over expression of HSP70 and suppression of Bax proteins in the ulcerated tissue. In addition, PA exhibited a potent FRAP value and significant COX-2 inhibition. It also showed a significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against H. pylori bacterium. The efficacy of PA was accomplished safely without the presence of any toxicological parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the gastroprotective effect of PA might contribute to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the anti-apoptotic mechanism and antibacterial action against Helicobacter pylori.
  3. Yap PS, Lim SH, Hu CP, Yiap BC
    Phytomedicine, 2013 Jun 15;20(8-9):710-3.
    PMID: 23537749 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.02.013
    In this study we investigated the relationship between several selected commercially available essential oils and beta-lactam antibiotics on their antibacterial effect against multidrug resistant bacteria. The antibacterial activity of essential oils and antibiotics was assessed using broth microdilution. The combined effects between essential oils of cinnamon bark, lavender, marjoram, tea tree, peppermint and ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, carbenicillin, ceftazidime, meropenem, were evaluated by means of the checkerboard method against beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. In the latter assays, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values were calculated to characterize interaction between the combinations. Substantial susceptibility of the bacteria toward natural antibiotics and a considerable reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were noted in some paired combinations of antibiotics and essential oils. Out of 35 antibiotic-essential oil pairs tested, four of them showed synergistic effect (FIC≤0.5) and 31 pairs showed no interaction (FIC>0.5-4.0). The preliminary results obtained highlighted the occurrence of a pronounced synergistic relationship between piperacillin/cinnamon bark oil, piperacillin/lavender oil, piperacillin/peppermint oil as well as meropenem/peppermint oil against two of the three bacteria under study with a FIC index in the range 0.26-0.5. The finding highlighted the potential of peppermint, cinnamon bark and lavender essential oils being as antibiotic resistance modifying agent. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to decrease the adverse effects and possibly to reverse the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance.
  4. Ahmad M, Lim CP, Akowuah GA, Ismail NN, Hashim MA, Hor SY, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2013 Sep 15;20(12):1124-30.
    PMID: 23827665 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.05.005
    The present study aims to evaluate the safety of methanol extract of Cinnamomum burmannii (MECB) by acute 14-day (single dose) and sub-chronic 28-day (repeated doses) oral administration to Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results showed that no toxicity was found in either acute or sub-chronic toxicity studies. MECB (containing 0.07% and 0.20% (w/w) of coumarin and trans-cinnamaldehyde, respectively), which was given orally at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg caused neither visible signs of toxicity nor mortality. No significant differences were observed in general condition, growth, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical values, or the gross and microscopic appearance of the organs from the treatment groups as compared to the control group. In conclusion, MECB did not cause any mortality nor did it cause any abnormalities in the necropsy and histopathology findings of treated rats. The LD50 for the MECB was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg. No adverse effects were observed in the treated rats at all the doses tested. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the 28-day study was determined to be 2000 mg/kg body weight/day.
  5. Lee ST, Wong PF, Hooper JD, Mustafa MR
    Phytomedicine, 2013 Nov 15;20(14):1297-305.
    PMID: 23920276 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.07.002
    Alpha (α)-tomatine, a major saponin found in tomato has been shown to inhibit the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The effects of α-tomatine in combination with the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel against PC-3 cells were investigated in the present study. Combined treatment with a sub-toxic dose of α-tomatine and paclitaxel significantly decreased cell viability with concomitant increase in the percentage of apoptotic PC-3 cells. The combined treatment, however, had no cytotoxic effect on the non-neoplastic prostate RWPE-1 cells. Apoptosis of PC-3 cells was accompanied by the inhibition of PI3K/Akt pro-survival signaling, an increase in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD but a decrease in the expressions of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Results from a mouse xenograft model showed the combined treatment completely suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth without significant side effects. Consistent with its in vitro anti-cancer effects, tumor materials from mice showed increased apoptosis of tumor cells with reduced protein expression of activated PI3K/Akt. These results suggest that the synergistic anti-cancer effects of paclitaxel and α-tomatine may be beneficial for refractory prostate cancer treatment.
  6. Feroz SR, Mohamad SB, Lee GS, Malek SN, Tayyab S
    Phytomedicine, 2015 Jun 1;22(6):621-30.
    PMID: 26055127 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.03.016
    6-Shogaol, one of the main bioactive constituents of Zingiber officinale has been shown to possess various therapeutic properties. Interaction of a therapeutic compound with plasma proteins greatly affects its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties.
  7. Hafizur RM, Hameed A, Shukrana M, Raza SA, Chishti S, Kabir N, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2015 Feb 15;22(2):297-300.
    PMID: 25765836 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.01.003
    Although the anti-diabetic activity of cinnamic acid, a pure compound from cinnamon, has been reported but its mechanism(s) is not yet clear. The present study was designed to explore the possible mechanism(s) of anti-diabetic activity of cinnamic acid in in vitro and in vivo non-obese type 2 diabetic rats. Non-obese type 2 diabetes was developed by injecting 90 mg/kg streptozotocin in 2-day-old Wistar pups. Cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde were administered orally to diabetic rats for assessing acute blood glucose lowering effect and improvement of glucose tolerance. Additionally, insulin secretory activity of cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde was evaluated in isolated mice islets. Cinnamic acid, but not cinnamaldehyde, decreased blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of cinnamic acid with 5 and 10 mg/kg doses to diabetic rats improved glucose tolerance in a dose-dependent manner. The improvement by 10 mg/kg cinnamic acid was comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). Further in vitro studies showed that cinnamaldehyde has little or no effect on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; however, cinnamic acid significantly enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated islets. In conclusion, it can be said that cinnamic acid exerts anti-diabetic activity by improving glucose tolerance in vivo and stimulating insulin secretion in vitro.
  8. Liew K, Yong PV, Navaratnam V, Lim YM, Ho AS
    Phytomedicine, 2015 May 15;22(5):517-27.
    PMID: 25981917 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.03.007
    We have previously reported the anti-metastatic effects of 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ) against MDA-MB-231 cell line.
  9. Hazalin NA, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Cole AL, Majeed AB
    Phytomedicine, 2012 May 15;19(7):609-17.
    PMID: 22397996 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.01.007
    Endophytic fungi have been shown to be a promising source of biologically active natural products. In the present study, extracts of four endophytic fungi isolated from plants of the National Park, Pahang were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and the nature of their active compounds determined. Those extracts exhibiting activity with IC(50) values less than 17 μg/ml against HCT116, MCF-7 and K562 cell lines were shown to induce apoptosis in these cell lines. Molecular analysis, based on sequences of the rDNA internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS4, revealed all four endophytic fungi to be ascomycetes: three sordariomycetes and a dothideomycete. Six known compounds, cytochalasin J, dechlorogriseofulvin, demethylharzianic-acid, griseofulvin, harzianic acid and 2-hexylidene-3-methyl-succinic acid were identified from a rapid dereplication technique for fungal metabolites using an in-house UV library. The results from the present study suggest the potential of endophytic fungi as cytotoxic agents, and there is an indication that the isolates contain bioactive compounds that mainly kill cancer cells by apoptosis.
  10. Mohan S, Abdelwahab SI, Kamalidehghan B, Syam S, May KS, Harmal NS, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2012 Aug 15;19(11):1007-15.
    PMID: 22739412 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.05.012
    The plant Artocarpus obtusus is a tropical plant that belongs to the family Moraceae. In the present study a xanthone compound Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (PA) was isolated from this plant and the apoptosis mechanism was investigated. PA induced cytotoxicity was observed using MTT assay. High content screening (HCS) was used to observe the nuclear condensation, cell permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytochrome c release. Reactive oxygen species formation was investigated on treated cells by using fluorescent analysis. Human apoptosis proteome profiler assays were performed to investigate the mechanism of cell death. In addition mRNA levels of Bax and Bcl2 were also checked using RT-PCR. Caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 were measured for their induction while treatment. The involvement of NF-κB was analyzed using HCS assay. The results showed that PA possesses the characteristics of selectively inducing cell death of tumor cells as no inhibition was observed in non-tumorigenic cells even at 30 μg/ml. Treatment of MCF7 cells with PA induced apoptosis with cell death-transducing signals, that regulate the MMP by down-regulation of Bcl2 and up-regulation of Bax, triggering the cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol. The release of cytochrome c triggered the activation of caspases-9, then activates downstream executioner caspase-3/7 and consequently cleaved specific substrates leading to apoptotic changes. This form of apoptosis was found closely associated with the extrinsic pathway caspase (caspase-8) and inhibition of translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus. The results demonstrated that PA induced apoptosis of MCF7 cells through NF-κB and Bcl2/Bax signaling pathways with the involvement of caspases.
  11. Khaw KY, Choi SB, Tan SC, Wahab HA, Chan KL, Murugaiyah V
    Phytomedicine, 2014 Sep 25;21(11):1303-9.
    PMID: 25172794 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.06.017
    Garcinia mangostana is a well-known tropical plant found mostly in South East Asia. The present study investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of G. mangostana extract and its chemical constituents using Ellman's colorimetric method. Cholinesterase inhibitory-guided approach led to identification of six bioactive prenylated xanthones showing moderate to potent cholinesterases inhibition with IC50 values of lower than 20.5 μM. The most potent inhibitor of AChE was garcinone C while γ-mangostin was the most potent inhibitor of BChE with IC50 values of 1.24 and 1.78 μM, respectively. Among the xanthones, mangostanol, 3-isomangostin, garcinone C and α-mangostin are AChE selective inhibitors, 8-deoxygartanin is a BChE selective inhibitor while γ-mangostin is a dual inhibitor. Preliminary structure-activity relationship suggests the importance of the C-8 prenyl and C-7 hydroxy groups for good AChE and BChE inhibitory activities. The enzyme kinetic studies indicate that both α-mangostin and garcinone C are mixed-mode inhibitors, while γ-mangostin is a non-competitive inhibitor of AChE. In contrast, both γ-mangostin and garcinone C are uncompetitive inhibitors, while α-mangostin is a mixed-mode inhibitor of BChE. Molecular docking studies revealed that α-mangostin, γ-mangostin and garcinone C interacts differently with the five important regions of AChE and BChE. The nature of protein-ligand interactions is mainly hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding. These bioactive prenylated xanthones are worthy for further investigations.
  12. Pan Y, Tiong KH, Abd-Rashid BA, Ismail Z, Ismail R, Mak JW, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2014 Oct 15;21(12):1645-50.
    PMID: 25442272 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.08.003
    This study was designed to investigate eight herbal active constituents (andrographolide, asiaticoside, asiatic acid, madecassic acid, eupatorin, sinensetin, caffeic acid, and rosmarinic acid) on their potential inhibitory effects on human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity. A fluorescence-based enzyme assay was performed by co-incubating human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 with its selective probe substrate, 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin (CEC), in the absence or presence of various concentrations of herbal active constituents. The metabolite (cyano-hydroxycoumarin) formed was subsequently measured in order to obtain IC50 values. The results indicated that only eupatorin and sinensetin moderately inhibited CYP1A2 with IC50 values of 50.8 and 40.2 μM, while the other active compounds did not significantly affect CYP1A2 activity with IC50 values more than 100 μM. Ki values further determined for eupatorin and sinensetin were 46.4 and 35.2 μM, respectively. Our data indicated that most of the investigated herbal constituents have negligible CYP1A2 inhibitory effect. In vivo studies however may be warranted to ascertain the inhibitory effect of eupatorin and sinensetin on CYP1A2 activity in clinical situations.
  13. Yap WH, Khoo KS, Lim SH, Yeo CC, Lim YM
    Phytomedicine, 2012 Jan 15;19(2):183-91.
    PMID: 21893403 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2011.08.058
    Maslinic acid, a natural pentacyclic triterpene has been shown to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in some tumour cell lines. We studied the molecular response of Raji cells towards maslinic acid treatment. A proteomics approach was employed to identify the target proteins. Seventeen differentially expressed proteins including those involved in DNA replication, microtubule filament assembly, nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking, cell signaling, energy metabolism and cytoskeletal organization were identified by MALDI TOF-TOF MS. The down-regulation of stathmin, Ran GTPase activating protein-1 (RanBP1), and microtubule associated protein RP/EB family member 1 (EB1) were confirmed by Western blotting. The study of the effect of maslinic acid on Raji cell cycle regulation showed that it induced a G1 cell cycle arrest. The differential proteomic changes in maslinic acid-treated Raji cells demonstrated that it also inhibited expression of dUTPase and stathmin which are known to induce early S and G2 cell cycle arrests. The mechanism of maslinic acid-induced cell cycle arrest may be mediated by inhibiting cyclin D1 expression and enhancing the levels of cell cycle-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 protein. Maslinic acid suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity which is known to stimulate expression of anti-apoptotic and cell cycle regulatory gene products. These results suggest that maslinic acid affects multiple signaling molecules and inhibits fundamental pathways regulating cell growth and survival in Raji cells.
  14. Nasir MN, Abdullah J, Habsah M, Ghani RI, Rammes G
    Phytomedicine, 2012 Feb 15;19(3-4):311-6.
    PMID: 22112723 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2011.10.004
    The asiatic acid, a triterpenoids isolated from Centella asiatica was used to delineate its inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) properties, excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP) and locomotor activity. This study is consistent with asiatic acid having an effect on AChE, a selective GABA(B) receptor agonist and no sedative effect on locomotor.
  15. Wong PF, Cheong WF, Shu MH, Teh CH, Chan KL, AbuBakar S
    Phytomedicine, 2012 Jan 15;19(2):138-44.
    PMID: 21903368 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2011.07.001
    Bioactive compounds from the medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack have been shown to promote anti-proliferative effects on various cancer cell lines. Here we examined the effects of purified eurycomanone, a quassinoid found in Eurycoma longifolia Jack extract, on the expression of selected genes of the A549 lung cancer cells. Eurycomanone inhibited A549 lung cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 5 to 20 μg/ml. The concentration that inhibited 50% of cell growth (GI(50)) was 5.1 μg/ml. The anti-proliferative effects were not fully reversible following the removal of eurycomanone, in which 30% of cell inhibition still remained (p<0.0001, T-test). At 8 μg/ml (GI(70)), eurycomanone suppressed anchorage-independent growth of A549 cells by >25% (p<0.05, T-test, n=8) as determined using soft agar colony formation assay. Cisplatin, a chemotherapy drug used for the treatment of non small cell lung cancer on the other hand, inhibited A549 cells proliferation at concentrations ranging from 0.2 μg/ml to 15 μg/ml with a GI(50) of 0.58 μg/ml. The treatment with eurycomanone reduced the abundance expression of the lung cancer markers, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1, p53 tumor suppressor protein and other cancer-associated genes including prohibitin (PHB), annexin 1 (ANX1) and endoplasmic reticulum protein 28 (ERp28) but not the house keeping genes. The mRNA expressions of all genes with the exception of PHB were significantly downregulated, 72 h after treatment (p<0.05, T-test, n=9). These findings suggest that eurycomanone at viable therapeutic concentrations of 5-20 μg/ml exhibited significant anti-proliferative and anti-clonogenic cell growth effects on A549 lung cancer cells. The treatment also resulted in suppression of the lung cancer cell tumor markers and several known cancer cell growth-associated genes.
  16. Idayu NF, Hidayat MT, Moklas MA, Sharida F, Raudzah AR, Shamima AR, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2011 Mar 15;18(5):402-7.
    PMID: 20869223 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.08.011
    Mitragyna speciosa Korth. leaves have been used for decades as a traditional medicine to treat diarrhea, diabetes and to improve blood circulation by natives of Malaysia, Thailand and other regions of Southeast Asia. Mitragynine is the major active alkaloid in the plant. To date, the role of mitragynine in psychological disorders such as depression is not scientifically evaluated. Hence, the present investigation evaluates the antidepressant effect of mitragynine in the mouse forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), two models predictive of antidepressant activity and the effect of mitragynine towards neuroendocrine system of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by measuring the corticosterone concentration of mice exposed to FST and TST. An open-field test (OFT) was used to detect any association of immobility in the FST and TST with changes in motor activity of mice treated with mitragynine. In the present study, mitragynine at dose of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg i.p. injected significantly reduced the immobility time of mice in both FST and TST without any significant effect on locomotor activity in OFT. Moreover, mitragynine significantly reduced the released of corticosterone in mice exposed to FST and TST at dose of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg. Overall, the present study clearly demonstrated that mitragynine exerts an antidepressant effect in animal behavioral model of depression (FST and TST) and the effect appears to be mediated by an interaction with neuroendocrine HPA axis systems.
  17. Hasima N, Aun LI, Azmi MN, Aziz AN, Thirthagiri E, Ibrahim H, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2010 Oct;17(12):935-9.
    PMID: 20729047 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.03.011
    Medicinal plants containing active natural compounds have been used as an alternative treatment for cancer patients in many parts of the world especially in Asia (Itharat et al. 2004). In this report, we describe the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (AEA), an analogue of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), isolated from the Malaysian ethno-medicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff (Zingiberaceae) on human breast cancer cells. Data from MTT cell viability assays indicated that AEA induced both time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity with an IC(50) value of 14.0 μM within 36 h of treatment on MCF-7 cells, but not in HMEC normal control cells. Both annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation assays confirmed that AEA induced cell death via apoptosis. AEA was also found to induce cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells at the G(0)/G(1) phase with no adverse cell cycle arrest effects on HMEC normal control cells. It was concluded that AEA isolated from the Malaysian tropical ginger represents a potential chemotherapeutic agent against human breast cancer cells with higher cytotoxicity potency than its analogue, ACA.
  18. Jantan I, Raweh SM, Sirat HM, Jamil S, Mohd Yasin YH, Jalil J, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2008 Apr;15(4):306-9.
    PMID: 17913483
    Twelve compounds isolated from Alpinia mutica Roxb., Kaempferia rotunda Linn., Curcuma xanthorhiza Roxb., Curcuma aromatica Valeton and Zingiber zerumbet Smith (Family: Zingiberaceae) and three synthesized derivatives of xanthorrhizol were evaluated for their ability to inhibit arachidonic acid- (AA), collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood. Antiplatelet activity of the compounds was measured in vitro by the Chrono Log whole blood aggregometer using an electrical impedance method. Among the compounds tested, curcumin from C. aromatica, cardamonin, pinocembrine and 5,6-dehydrokawain from A. mutica and 3-deacetylcrotepoxide from K. rotunda showed strong inhibition on platelet aggregation induced by AA with IC(50) values of less than 84 microM. Curcumin was the most effective antiplatelet compound as it inhibited AA-, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 37.5, 60.9 and 45.7 microM, respectively.
  19. Abdullah NR, Ismail Z, Ismail Z
    Phytomedicine, 2009 Mar;16(2-3):222-6.
    PMID: 17498941
    The acute toxicity of standardized extract of Orthosiphon stamineus was studied in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were administered a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight (BW) orally on Day 0 and observed for 14 days. There were no deaths recorded and the animals did not show signs of toxicity during the experimental period. The effect of the extract on general behavior, BW, food and water intake, relative organ weight per 100 g BW, hematology and clinical biochemistry were measured. All the parameters measured were unaffected as compared to the control. The acute toxicity LD(50) was estimated to be > 5000 mg/kg BW.
  20. Rasadah MA, Khozirah S, Aznie AA, Nik MM
    Phytomedicine, 2004 Feb;11(2-3):261-3.
    PMID: 15070182
    The anti-inflammatory activity of the stem extracts of Sandoricum koetjape was investigated on topical administration using the TPA (tetradecanoylphorbol acetate)-induced mouse ear inflammation model. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of active fractions led to the isolation 3-oxo-12-oleanen-29-oic acid and katonic acid as the bioactive principles responsible for the anti-inflammatory acitivity. The percentage of inhibition exhibited by 3-oxo-12-oleanen-29-oic acid was almost equivalent to indomethacin.
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