Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 52 in total

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  1. Dianita R, Jantan I, Jalil J, Amran AZ
    Phytomedicine, 2016 Jul 15;23(8):810-7.
    PMID: 27288916 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2016.04.004
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies on Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) have showed that it could inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and provide protection on myocardial infarction in rats.

    HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: We hypothesized that LPva extracts can modulate the lipid profiles and serum antioxidant status of hypercholesterolemic rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of LPva on atherogenic and serum antioxidant parameters as well as changes in abdominal aorta of high-cholesterol diet rats.

    METHODS: The major components of the extracts, gallic acid, flavonoids and alkyl resorcinols were analyzed by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The rats were induced to hypercholesterolemic status with daily intake of 2% cholesterol for a duration of 8 weeks. Three different doses (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) of the extracts were administered daily on the 4th week onwards. The rats were then sacrificed and the blood was collected via abdominal aorta and serum was separated by centrifugation for biochemical analysis. Part of the aorta tissues were excised immediately for histopathological examination.

    RESULTS: The serum of LPva treated rats showed significant reduction in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and the abdominal aorta showed a significant decrease of atheroma lesions in treated rats. Serum lipid profiles of treated rats showed a decrease in total cholesterol, total triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels as compared to control group. The atherogenic indices in treated rats were significantly improved along with an increasing level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The extracts also exhibited significant increase of antioxidant enzymes and decrease of MDA as a product of lipid peroxidation.

    CONCLUSION: LPva extracts can reduce the risk of dyslipidemia by improving the serum lipid profiles and modulating serum antioxidants.

  2. Nordin N, Majid NA, Mohan S, Dehghan F, Karimian H, Rahman MA, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2016 Apr 15;23(4):406-16.
    PMID: 27002411 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2016.02.016
    Cleistopholine is a natural alkaloid present in plants with numerous biological activities. However, cleistopholine has yet to be isolated using modern techniques and the mechanism by which this alkaloid induces apoptosis in cancer cells remains to be elucidated.
  3. Fong LY, Ng CT, Cheok ZL, Mohd Moklas MA, Hakim MN, Ahmad Z
    Phytomedicine, 2016 Feb 15;23(2):191-9.
    PMID: 26926181 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.11.019
    Endothelial cell activation is characterized by increased endothelial permeability and increased expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). This allows monocyte adherence and migration across the endothelium to occur and thereby initiates atherogenesis process. Asiatic acid is a major triterpene isolated from Centella asiatica (L.) Urban and has been shown to possess anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-inflammatory activities.
  4. Feroz SR, Mohamad SB, Lee GS, Malek SN, Tayyab S
    Phytomedicine, 2015 Jun 1;22(6):621-30.
    PMID: 26055127 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.03.016
    6-Shogaol, one of the main bioactive constituents of Zingiber officinale has been shown to possess various therapeutic properties. Interaction of a therapeutic compound with plasma proteins greatly affects its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties.
  5. Liew K, Yong PV, Navaratnam V, Lim YM, Ho AS
    Phytomedicine, 2015 May 15;22(5):517-27.
    PMID: 25981917 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.03.007
    We have previously reported the anti-metastatic effects of 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ) against MDA-MB-231 cell line.
  6. Hafizur RM, Hameed A, Shukrana M, Raza SA, Chishti S, Kabir N, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2015 Feb 15;22(2):297-300.
    PMID: 25765836 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.01.003
    Although the anti-diabetic activity of cinnamic acid, a pure compound from cinnamon, has been reported but its mechanism(s) is not yet clear. The present study was designed to explore the possible mechanism(s) of anti-diabetic activity of cinnamic acid in in vitro and in vivo non-obese type 2 diabetic rats. Non-obese type 2 diabetes was developed by injecting 90 mg/kg streptozotocin in 2-day-old Wistar pups. Cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde were administered orally to diabetic rats for assessing acute blood glucose lowering effect and improvement of glucose tolerance. Additionally, insulin secretory activity of cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde was evaluated in isolated mice islets. Cinnamic acid, but not cinnamaldehyde, decreased blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of cinnamic acid with 5 and 10 mg/kg doses to diabetic rats improved glucose tolerance in a dose-dependent manner. The improvement by 10 mg/kg cinnamic acid was comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). Further in vitro studies showed that cinnamaldehyde has little or no effect on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; however, cinnamic acid significantly enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated islets. In conclusion, it can be said that cinnamic acid exerts anti-diabetic activity by improving glucose tolerance in vivo and stimulating insulin secretion in vitro.
  7. Lai SL, Wong PF, Lim TK, Lin Q, Mustafa MR
    Phytomedicine, 2015 Jan 15;22(1):203-12.
    PMID: 25636890 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.11.016
    Panduratin A (PA), a cyclohexanyl chalcone from Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. was shown to possess anti-angiogenic effects in our previous study. In the present study, the molecular targets and anti-angiogenic mechanisms of PA on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were identified using an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach. A total of 263 proteins were found to be differentially regulated in response to treatment with PA. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that cellular growth and proliferation, protein synthesis, RNA post-transcriptional modification, cellular assembly and organization and cell-to-cell signaling and interaction were the most significantly deregulated molecular and cellular functions in PA-treated HUVECs. PA inhibited the expressions of ARPC2 and CTNND1 that are associated with the formation of actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion and cellular protrusions. In addition, PA down-regulated CD63, GRB-2, ICAM-2 and STAB-1 that are implicated in adhesion, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells. The differential expressions of three targets, namely, ARPC2, CDK4, and GRB-2 were validated by western blot analyses. Furthermore, PA inhibited G1-S progression, and resulted in G0/G1 arrest in HUVECs. The blockage in cell cycle progression was accompanied with the suppression of mTOR signaling. Treatment of HUVECs with PA resulted in decreased phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 and 4EBP1 proteins, the two downstream effectors of mTOR signaling. We further showed that PA is able to inhibit mTOR signaling induced by VEGF, a potent inducer of angiogenesis. Taken together, by integrating quantitative proteomic approach, we identified protein targets in which PA mediates its anti-angiogenic effects. The present study thus provides mechanistic evidence to the previously reported multifaceted anti-angiogenic effects of PA. Our study further identified mTOR signaling as an important target of PA, and therefore highlights the potential of PA for therapeutic intervention against angiogenesis-related pathogenesis, particularly, metastatic malignancy.
  8. Liew SY, Khaw KY, Murugaiyah V, Looi CY, Wong YL, Mustafa MR, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2015 Jan 15;22(1):45-8.
    PMID: 25636869 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.11.003
    Nine monoterpenoid indole alkaloids; naucletine (1), angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), naucline (5), angustoline (6), harmane (7), 3,14-dihydroangustoline (8), strictosamide (9) and one quinoline alkaloid glycoside; pumiloside (10) from Nauclea officinalis were tested for cholinesterase inhibitory activity. All the alkaloids except for pumiloside (10) showed strong to weak BChE inhibitory effect with IC50 values ranging between 1.02-168.55 μM. Angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), angustoline (6) and harmane (7) showed higher BChE inhibiting potency compared to galanthamine. Angustidine (2) was the most potent inhibitor towards both AChE and BChE. Molecular docking (MD) studies showed that angustidine (2) docked deep into the bottom gorge of hBChE and formed hydrogen bonding with Ser 198 and His 438. Kinetic study of angustidine (2) on BChE suggested a mixed inhibition mode with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 6.12 μM.
  9. Pan Y, Tiong KH, Abd-Rashid BA, Ismail Z, Ismail R, Mak JW, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2014 Oct 15;21(12):1645-50.
    PMID: 25442272 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.08.003
    This study was designed to investigate eight herbal active constituents (andrographolide, asiaticoside, asiatic acid, madecassic acid, eupatorin, sinensetin, caffeic acid, and rosmarinic acid) on their potential inhibitory effects on human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity. A fluorescence-based enzyme assay was performed by co-incubating human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 with its selective probe substrate, 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin (CEC), in the absence or presence of various concentrations of herbal active constituents. The metabolite (cyano-hydroxycoumarin) formed was subsequently measured in order to obtain IC50 values. The results indicated that only eupatorin and sinensetin moderately inhibited CYP1A2 with IC50 values of 50.8 and 40.2 μM, while the other active compounds did not significantly affect CYP1A2 activity with IC50 values more than 100 μM. Ki values further determined for eupatorin and sinensetin were 46.4 and 35.2 μM, respectively. Our data indicated that most of the investigated herbal constituents have negligible CYP1A2 inhibitory effect. In vivo studies however may be warranted to ascertain the inhibitory effect of eupatorin and sinensetin on CYP1A2 activity in clinical situations.
  10. Lee ST, Wong PF, Hooper JD, Mustafa MR
    Phytomedicine, 2013 Nov 15;20(14):1297-305.
    PMID: 23920276 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.07.002
    Alpha (α)-tomatine, a major saponin found in tomato has been shown to inhibit the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The effects of α-tomatine in combination with the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel against PC-3 cells were investigated in the present study. Combined treatment with a sub-toxic dose of α-tomatine and paclitaxel significantly decreased cell viability with concomitant increase in the percentage of apoptotic PC-3 cells. The combined treatment, however, had no cytotoxic effect on the non-neoplastic prostate RWPE-1 cells. Apoptosis of PC-3 cells was accompanied by the inhibition of PI3K/Akt pro-survival signaling, an increase in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD but a decrease in the expressions of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Results from a mouse xenograft model showed the combined treatment completely suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth without significant side effects. Consistent with its in vitro anti-cancer effects, tumor materials from mice showed increased apoptosis of tumor cells with reduced protein expression of activated PI3K/Akt. These results suggest that the synergistic anti-cancer effects of paclitaxel and α-tomatine may be beneficial for refractory prostate cancer treatment.
  11. Ilavenil S, Arasu MV, Lee JC, Kim DH, Roh SG, Park HS, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2014 Apr 15;21(5):758-65.
    PMID: 24369814 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.11.007
    Trigonelline is a natural alkaloid mainly found in Trigonella Foenum Graecum (fenugreek) Fabaceae and other edible plants with a variety of medicinal applications. Therefore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of trigonelline (TG) on the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Trigonelline suppressed lipid droplet accumulation in a concentration (75 and 100 μM) dependent manner. Treatment of adipocyte with of TG down regulates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) and CCAAT element binding protein (C/EBP-α) mRNA expression, which leads to further down regulation of other gene such as adiponectin, adipogenin, leptin, resistin and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) as compared with respective control cells on 5th and 10th day of differentiation. Further, addition of triognelline along with troglitazone to the adipocyte attenuated the troglitazone effects on PPARγ mediated differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Trigonelline might compete against troglitazone for its binding to the PPARγ. In addition, adipocyte treated with trigonelline and isoproterenol separately. Isoproterenol, a lipolytic agent which inhibits the fatty acid synthase and GLUT-4 transporter expression via cAMP mediated pathway, we found that similar magnitude response of fatty acid synthase and GLUT-4 transporter expression in trigonelline treated adipocyte. These results suggest that the trigonelline inhibits the adipogenesis by its influences on the expression PPARγ, which leads to subsequent down regulation of PPAR-γ mediated pathway during adipogenesis. Our findings provide key approach to the mechanism underlying the anti-adipogenic activity of trigonelline.
  12. Zahari Z, Jani NA, Amanah A, Latif MN, Majid MI, Adenan MI
    Phytomedicine, 2014 Feb 15;21(3):282-5.
    PMID: 24269185 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.09.011
    Methanolic extracts of 70 Malaysia plants were screened for their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity using Trypanosome brucei rhodesience, strain STIB 900 and mouse skeletal cell (L-6) in cytotoxicity activity assay. Results indicated that methanol extract from Elephantopus scaber Linn. (E. scaber) possessed the highest value of antitrypanosomal activity with good selectivity index (antitrypanosomal IC50 of 0.22±0.02 μg/ml, SI value of 204.55). Based on these results, E. scaber was chosen for further study by applying bioassay guided fractionation to isolate its antiprotozoal principle. The antiprotozoal principle was isolated from the ethyl acetate partition through solvent fractionation and crystallization process. The isolated active compound 1 was identified as deoxyelephantopin on the basis of its spectral analysis (FTIR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR).
  13. Jantan I, Raweh SM, Sirat HM, Jamil S, Mohd Yasin YH, Jalil J, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2008 Apr;15(4):306-9.
    PMID: 17913483
    Twelve compounds isolated from Alpinia mutica Roxb., Kaempferia rotunda Linn., Curcuma xanthorhiza Roxb., Curcuma aromatica Valeton and Zingiber zerumbet Smith (Family: Zingiberaceae) and three synthesized derivatives of xanthorrhizol were evaluated for their ability to inhibit arachidonic acid- (AA), collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood. Antiplatelet activity of the compounds was measured in vitro by the Chrono Log whole blood aggregometer using an electrical impedance method. Among the compounds tested, curcumin from C. aromatica, cardamonin, pinocembrine and 5,6-dehydrokawain from A. mutica and 3-deacetylcrotepoxide from K. rotunda showed strong inhibition on platelet aggregation induced by AA with IC(50) values of less than 84 microM. Curcumin was the most effective antiplatelet compound as it inhibited AA-, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 37.5, 60.9 and 45.7 microM, respectively.
  14. Abdullah NR, Ismail Z, Ismail Z
    Phytomedicine, 2009 Mar;16(2-3):222-6.
    PMID: 17498941
    The acute toxicity of standardized extract of Orthosiphon stamineus was studied in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were administered a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight (BW) orally on Day 0 and observed for 14 days. There were no deaths recorded and the animals did not show signs of toxicity during the experimental period. The effect of the extract on general behavior, BW, food and water intake, relative organ weight per 100 g BW, hematology and clinical biochemistry were measured. All the parameters measured were unaffected as compared to the control. The acute toxicity LD(50) was estimated to be > 5000 mg/kg BW.
  15. Jantan I, Rafi IA, Jalil J
    Phytomedicine, 2005 Jan;12(1-2):88-92.
    PMID: 15693713
    Forty-nine methanol extracts of 37 species of Malaysian medicinal plants were investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) binding to rabbit platelets, using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, the extracts of six Zingiberaceae species (Alpinia galanga Swartz., Boesenbergia pandurata Roxb., Curcuma ochorrhiza Val., C. aeruginosa Roxb., Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Z. zerumbet Koenig.), two Cinnamomum species (C. altissimum Kosterm. and C. pubescens Kochummen.), Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. f. Momordica charantia Linn. and Piper aduncum L. are potential sources of new PAF antagonists, as they showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 18.4 microg ml(-1).
  16. Othman R, Ibrahim H, Mohd MA, Mustafa MR, Awang K
    Phytomedicine, 2006 Jan;13(1-2):61-6.
    PMID: 16360934
    Bioassay-guided fractionation was performed on a crude dichloromethane extract of Kaempferia galanga L. using chromatography techniques. Screening of the extract for biological activity started with the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, followed by the study of its antihypertensive activity on anaesthetized rats, which involved monitoring of the extract's effect on mean arterial blood pressure. The components of the fractions obtained from the separation procedures were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC). The yield of the CH(2)Cl(2) extract was 0.29% of the crude plant extract. Analysis of the data for brine shrimp lethality test using the Finney computer program showed that this extract exhibited potent bioactivity with an ED(50) value of 7.92+/-0.13 microgml(-1). Intravenous administration of the extract induced a dose-related reduction of basal mean arterial pressure (MAP) (130+/-5 mmHg) in the anaesthetized rat, with maximal effects seen after 5-10 min of injection. The gas chromatogram showed that the common compound in the active fractions obtained from the bioassay-guided fractionation of the CH(2)Cl(2) extract was ethyl cinnamate. This vasorelaxant active compound, ethyl cinnamate, was isolated as a colorless oil. Ethyl p-methoxycinnamic acid was also isolated as white needles but did not exhibit any relaxant effect on the precontracted thoracic rat aorta.
  17. Yap PS, Lim SH, Hu CP, Yiap BC
    Phytomedicine, 2013 Jun 15;20(8-9):710-3.
    PMID: 23537749 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.02.013
    In this study we investigated the relationship between several selected commercially available essential oils and beta-lactam antibiotics on their antibacterial effect against multidrug resistant bacteria. The antibacterial activity of essential oils and antibiotics was assessed using broth microdilution. The combined effects between essential oils of cinnamon bark, lavender, marjoram, tea tree, peppermint and ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, carbenicillin, ceftazidime, meropenem, were evaluated by means of the checkerboard method against beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. In the latter assays, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values were calculated to characterize interaction between the combinations. Substantial susceptibility of the bacteria toward natural antibiotics and a considerable reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were noted in some paired combinations of antibiotics and essential oils. Out of 35 antibiotic-essential oil pairs tested, four of them showed synergistic effect (FIC≤0.5) and 31 pairs showed no interaction (FIC>0.5-4.0). The preliminary results obtained highlighted the occurrence of a pronounced synergistic relationship between piperacillin/cinnamon bark oil, piperacillin/lavender oil, piperacillin/peppermint oil as well as meropenem/peppermint oil against two of the three bacteria under study with a FIC index in the range 0.26-0.5. The finding highlighted the potential of peppermint, cinnamon bark and lavender essential oils being as antibiotic resistance modifying agent. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to decrease the adverse effects and possibly to reverse the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance.
  18. Ahmad M, Lim CP, Akowuah GA, Ismail NN, Hashim MA, Hor SY, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2013 Sep 15;20(12):1124-30.
    PMID: 23827665 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.05.005
    The present study aims to evaluate the safety of methanol extract of Cinnamomum burmannii (MECB) by acute 14-day (single dose) and sub-chronic 28-day (repeated doses) oral administration to Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results showed that no toxicity was found in either acute or sub-chronic toxicity studies. MECB (containing 0.07% and 0.20% (w/w) of coumarin and trans-cinnamaldehyde, respectively), which was given orally at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg caused neither visible signs of toxicity nor mortality. No significant differences were observed in general condition, growth, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical values, or the gross and microscopic appearance of the organs from the treatment groups as compared to the control group. In conclusion, MECB did not cause any mortality nor did it cause any abnormalities in the necropsy and histopathology findings of treated rats. The LD50 for the MECB was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg. No adverse effects were observed in the treated rats at all the doses tested. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the 28-day study was determined to be 2000 mg/kg body weight/day.
  19. Sidahmed HM, Hashim NM, Amir J, Abdulla MA, Hadi AH, Abdelwahab SI, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2013 Jul 15;20(10):834-43.
    PMID: 23570997 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.03.002
    Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (PA), a xanthone derived from the Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, belongs to the Moraceae family which is native to the tropical forest of Malaysia. In this study, the efficacy of PA as a gastroprotective compound was examined against ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. The rats were pretreated with PA and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, histological analysis, glutathione (GSH) levels, malondialdehyde level (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NP-SH) contents were evaluated in vivo. The activities of PA as anti-Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor and free radical scavenger were also investigated in vitro. The results showed that the oral administration of PA protects gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced gastric lesions. PA pretreatment significantly (p<0.05) restored the depleted GSH, NP-SH and NO levels in the gastric homogenate. Moreover, PA significantly (p<0.05) reduced the elevated MDA level due to ethanol administration. The gastroprotective effect of PA was associated with an over expression of HSP70 and suppression of Bax proteins in the ulcerated tissue. In addition, PA exhibited a potent FRAP value and significant COX-2 inhibition. It also showed a significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against H. pylori bacterium. The efficacy of PA was accomplished safely without the presence of any toxicological parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the gastroprotective effect of PA might contribute to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the anti-apoptotic mechanism and antibacterial action against Helicobacter pylori.
  20. Rasadah MA, Khozirah S, Aznie AA, Nik MM
    Phytomedicine, 2004 Feb;11(2-3):261-3.
    PMID: 15070182
    The anti-inflammatory activity of the stem extracts of Sandoricum koetjape was investigated on topical administration using the TPA (tetradecanoylphorbol acetate)-induced mouse ear inflammation model. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of active fractions led to the isolation 3-oxo-12-oleanen-29-oic acid and katonic acid as the bioactive principles responsible for the anti-inflammatory acitivity. The percentage of inhibition exhibited by 3-oxo-12-oleanen-29-oic acid was almost equivalent to indomethacin.
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