This study was designed to investigate eight herbal active constituents (andrographolide, asiaticoside, asiatic acid, madecassic acid, eupatorin, sinensetin, caffeic acid, and rosmarinic acid) on their potential inhibitory effects on human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity. A fluorescence-based enzyme assay was performed by co-incubating human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 with its selective probe substrate, 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin (CEC), in the absence or presence of various concentrations of herbal active constituents. The metabolite (cyano-hydroxycoumarin) formed was subsequently measured in order to obtain IC50 values. The results indicated that only eupatorin and sinensetin moderately inhibited CYP1A2 with IC50 values of 50.8 and 40.2 μM, while the other active compounds did not significantly affect CYP1A2 activity with IC50 values more than 100 μM. Ki values further determined for eupatorin and sinensetin were 46.4 and 35.2 μM, respectively. Our data indicated that most of the investigated herbal constituents have negligible CYP1A2 inhibitory effect. In vivo studies however may be warranted to ascertain the inhibitory effect of eupatorin and sinensetin on CYP1A2 activity in clinical situations.
Nine monoterpenoid indole alkaloids; naucletine (1), angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), naucline (5), angustoline (6), harmane (7), 3,14-dihydroangustoline (8), strictosamide (9) and one quinoline alkaloid glycoside; pumiloside (10) from Nauclea officinalis were tested for cholinesterase inhibitory activity. All the alkaloids except for pumiloside (10) showed strong to weak BChE inhibitory effect with IC50 values ranging between 1.02-168.55 μM. Angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), angustoline (6) and harmane (7) showed higher BChE inhibiting potency compared to galanthamine. Angustidine (2) was the most potent inhibitor towards both AChE and BChE. Molecular docking (MD) studies showed that angustidine (2) docked deep into the bottom gorge of hBChE and formed hydrogen bonding with Ser 198 and His 438. Kinetic study of angustidine (2) on BChE suggested a mixed inhibition mode with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 6.12 μM.
Panduratin A (PA), a cyclohexanyl chalcone from Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. was shown to possess anti-angiogenic effects in our previous study. In the present study, the molecular targets and anti-angiogenic mechanisms of PA on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were identified using an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach. A total of 263 proteins were found to be differentially regulated in response to treatment with PA. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that cellular growth and proliferation, protein synthesis, RNA post-transcriptional modification, cellular assembly and organization and cell-to-cell signaling and interaction were the most significantly deregulated molecular and cellular functions in PA-treated HUVECs. PA inhibited the expressions of ARPC2 and CTNND1 that are associated with the formation of actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion and cellular protrusions. In addition, PA down-regulated CD63, GRB-2, ICAM-2 and STAB-1 that are implicated in adhesion, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells. The differential expressions of three targets, namely, ARPC2, CDK4, and GRB-2 were validated by western blot analyses. Furthermore, PA inhibited G1-S progression, and resulted in G0/G1 arrest in HUVECs. The blockage in cell cycle progression was accompanied with the suppression of mTOR signaling. Treatment of HUVECs with PA resulted in decreased phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 and 4EBP1 proteins, the two downstream effectors of mTOR signaling. We further showed that PA is able to inhibit mTOR signaling induced by VEGF, a potent inducer of angiogenesis. Taken together, by integrating quantitative proteomic approach, we identified protein targets in which PA mediates its anti-angiogenic effects. The present study thus provides mechanistic evidence to the previously reported multifaceted anti-angiogenic effects of PA. Our study further identified mTOR signaling as an important target of PA, and therefore highlights the potential of PA for therapeutic intervention against angiogenesis-related pathogenesis, particularly, metastatic malignancy.
Garcinia mangostana is a well-known tropical plant found mostly in South East Asia. The present study investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of G. mangostana extract and its chemical constituents using Ellman's colorimetric method. Cholinesterase inhibitory-guided approach led to identification of six bioactive prenylated xanthones showing moderate to potent cholinesterases inhibition with IC50 values of lower than 20.5 μM. The most potent inhibitor of AChE was garcinone C while γ-mangostin was the most potent inhibitor of BChE with IC50 values of 1.24 and 1.78 μM, respectively. Among the xanthones, mangostanol, 3-isomangostin, garcinone C and α-mangostin are AChE selective inhibitors, 8-deoxygartanin is a BChE selective inhibitor while γ-mangostin is a dual inhibitor. Preliminary structure-activity relationship suggests the importance of the C-8 prenyl and C-7 hydroxy groups for good AChE and BChE inhibitory activities. The enzyme kinetic studies indicate that both α-mangostin and garcinone C are mixed-mode inhibitors, while γ-mangostin is a non-competitive inhibitor of AChE. In contrast, both γ-mangostin and garcinone C are uncompetitive inhibitors, while α-mangostin is a mixed-mode inhibitor of BChE. Molecular docking studies revealed that α-mangostin, γ-mangostin and garcinone C interacts differently with the five important regions of AChE and BChE. The nature of protein-ligand interactions is mainly hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding. These bioactive prenylated xanthones are worthy for further investigations.
Methanolic extracts of 70 Malaysia plants were screened for their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity using Trypanosome brucei rhodesience, strain STIB 900 and mouse skeletal cell (L-6) in cytotoxicity activity assay. Results indicated that methanol extract from Elephantopus scaber Linn. (E. scaber) possessed the highest value of antitrypanosomal activity with good selectivity index (antitrypanosomal IC50 of 0.22±0.02 μg/ml, SI value of 204.55). Based on these results, E. scaber was chosen for further study by applying bioassay guided fractionation to isolate its antiprotozoal principle. The antiprotozoal principle was isolated from the ethyl acetate partition through solvent fractionation and crystallization process. The isolated active compound 1 was identified as deoxyelephantopin on the basis of its spectral analysis (FTIR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR).
Trigonelline is a natural alkaloid mainly found in Trigonella Foenum Graecum (fenugreek) Fabaceae and other edible plants with a variety of medicinal applications. Therefore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of trigonelline (TG) on the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Trigonelline suppressed lipid droplet accumulation in a concentration (75 and 100 μM) dependent manner. Treatment of adipocyte with of TG down regulates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) and CCAAT element binding protein (C/EBP-α) mRNA expression, which leads to further down regulation of other gene such as adiponectin, adipogenin, leptin, resistin and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) as compared with respective control cells on 5th and 10th day of differentiation. Further, addition of triognelline along with troglitazone to the adipocyte attenuated the troglitazone effects on PPARγ mediated differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Trigonelline might compete against troglitazone for its binding to the PPARγ. In addition, adipocyte treated with trigonelline and isoproterenol separately. Isoproterenol, a lipolytic agent which inhibits the fatty acid synthase and GLUT-4 transporter expression via cAMP mediated pathway, we found that similar magnitude response of fatty acid synthase and GLUT-4 transporter expression in trigonelline treated adipocyte. These results suggest that the trigonelline inhibits the adipogenesis by its influences on the expression PPARγ, which leads to subsequent down regulation of PPAR-γ mediated pathway during adipogenesis. Our findings provide key approach to the mechanism underlying the anti-adipogenic activity of trigonelline.
The present study aims to evaluate the safety of methanol extract of Cinnamomum burmannii (MECB) by acute 14-day (single dose) and sub-chronic 28-day (repeated doses) oral administration to Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results showed that no toxicity was found in either acute or sub-chronic toxicity studies. MECB (containing 0.07% and 0.20% (w/w) of coumarin and trans-cinnamaldehyde, respectively), which was given orally at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg caused neither visible signs of toxicity nor mortality. No significant differences were observed in general condition, growth, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical values, or the gross and microscopic appearance of the organs from the treatment groups as compared to the control group. In conclusion, MECB did not cause any mortality nor did it cause any abnormalities in the necropsy and histopathology findings of treated rats. The LD50 for the MECB was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg. No adverse effects were observed in the treated rats at all the doses tested. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the 28-day study was determined to be 2000 mg/kg body weight/day.
Alpha (α)-tomatine, a major saponin found in tomato has been shown to inhibit the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The effects of α-tomatine in combination with the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel against PC-3 cells were investigated in the present study. Combined treatment with a sub-toxic dose of α-tomatine and paclitaxel significantly decreased cell viability with concomitant increase in the percentage of apoptotic PC-3 cells. The combined treatment, however, had no cytotoxic effect on the non-neoplastic prostate RWPE-1 cells. Apoptosis of PC-3 cells was accompanied by the inhibition of PI3K/Akt pro-survival signaling, an increase in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD but a decrease in the expressions of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Results from a mouse xenograft model showed the combined treatment completely suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth without significant side effects. Consistent with its in vitro anti-cancer effects, tumor materials from mice showed increased apoptosis of tumor cells with reduced protein expression of activated PI3K/Akt. These results suggest that the synergistic anti-cancer effects of paclitaxel and α-tomatine may be beneficial for refractory prostate cancer treatment.
In this study we investigated the relationship between several selected commercially available essential oils and beta-lactam antibiotics on their antibacterial effect against multidrug resistant bacteria. The antibacterial activity of essential oils and antibiotics was assessed using broth microdilution. The combined effects between essential oils of cinnamon bark, lavender, marjoram, tea tree, peppermint and ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, carbenicillin, ceftazidime, meropenem, were evaluated by means of the checkerboard method against beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. In the latter assays, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values were calculated to characterize interaction between the combinations. Substantial susceptibility of the bacteria toward natural antibiotics and a considerable reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were noted in some paired combinations of antibiotics and essential oils. Out of 35 antibiotic-essential oil pairs tested, four of them showed synergistic effect (FIC≤0.5) and 31 pairs showed no interaction (FIC>0.5-4.0). The preliminary results obtained highlighted the occurrence of a pronounced synergistic relationship between piperacillin/cinnamon bark oil, piperacillin/lavender oil, piperacillin/peppermint oil as well as meropenem/peppermint oil against two of the three bacteria under study with a FIC index in the range 0.26-0.5. The finding highlighted the potential of peppermint, cinnamon bark and lavender essential oils being as antibiotic resistance modifying agent. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to decrease the adverse effects and possibly to reverse the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance.
Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (PA), a xanthone derived from the Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, belongs to the Moraceae family which is native to the tropical forest of Malaysia. In this study, the efficacy of PA as a gastroprotective compound was examined against ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. The rats were pretreated with PA and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, histological analysis, glutathione (GSH) levels, malondialdehyde level (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NP-SH) contents were evaluated in vivo. The activities of PA as anti-Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor and free radical scavenger were also investigated in vitro. The results showed that the oral administration of PA protects gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced gastric lesions. PA pretreatment significantly (p<0.05) restored the depleted GSH, NP-SH and NO levels in the gastric homogenate. Moreover, PA significantly (p<0.05) reduced the elevated MDA level due to ethanol administration. The gastroprotective effect of PA was associated with an over expression of HSP70 and suppression of Bax proteins in the ulcerated tissue. In addition, PA exhibited a potent FRAP value and significant COX-2 inhibition. It also showed a significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against H. pylori bacterium. The efficacy of PA was accomplished safely without the presence of any toxicological parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the gastroprotective effect of PA might contribute to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the anti-apoptotic mechanism and antibacterial action against Helicobacter pylori.
The plant Artocarpus obtusus is a tropical plant that belongs to the family Moraceae. In the present study a xanthone compound Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (PA) was isolated from this plant and the apoptosis mechanism was investigated. PA induced cytotoxicity was observed using MTT assay. High content screening (HCS) was used to observe the nuclear condensation, cell permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytochrome c release. Reactive oxygen species formation was investigated on treated cells by using fluorescent analysis. Human apoptosis proteome profiler assays were performed to investigate the mechanism of cell death. In addition mRNA levels of Bax and Bcl2 were also checked using RT-PCR. Caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 were measured for their induction while treatment. The involvement of NF-κB was analyzed using HCS assay. The results showed that PA possesses the characteristics of selectively inducing cell death of tumor cells as no inhibition was observed in non-tumorigenic cells even at 30 μg/ml. Treatment of MCF7 cells with PA induced apoptosis with cell death-transducing signals, that regulate the MMP by down-regulation of Bcl2 and up-regulation of Bax, triggering the cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol. The release of cytochrome c triggered the activation of caspases-9, then activates downstream executioner caspase-3/7 and consequently cleaved specific substrates leading to apoptotic changes. This form of apoptosis was found closely associated with the extrinsic pathway caspase (caspase-8) and inhibition of translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus. The results demonstrated that PA induced apoptosis of MCF7 cells through NF-κB and Bcl2/Bax signaling pathways with the involvement of caspases.
Endophytic fungi have been shown to be a promising source of biologically active natural products. In the present study, extracts of four endophytic fungi isolated from plants of the National Park, Pahang were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and the nature of their active compounds determined. Those extracts exhibiting activity with IC(50) values less than 17 μg/ml against HCT116, MCF-7 and K562 cell lines were shown to induce apoptosis in these cell lines. Molecular analysis, based on sequences of the rDNA internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS4, revealed all four endophytic fungi to be ascomycetes: three sordariomycetes and a dothideomycete. Six known compounds, cytochalasin J, dechlorogriseofulvin, demethylharzianic-acid, griseofulvin, harzianic acid and 2-hexylidene-3-methyl-succinic acid were identified from a rapid dereplication technique for fungal metabolites using an in-house UV library. The results from the present study suggest the potential of endophytic fungi as cytotoxic agents, and there is an indication that the isolates contain bioactive compounds that mainly kill cancer cells by apoptosis.
Maslinic acid, a natural pentacyclic triterpene has been shown to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in some tumour cell lines. We studied the molecular response of Raji cells towards maslinic acid treatment. A proteomics approach was employed to identify the target proteins. Seventeen differentially expressed proteins including those involved in DNA replication, microtubule filament assembly, nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking, cell signaling, energy metabolism and cytoskeletal organization were identified by MALDI TOF-TOF MS. The down-regulation of stathmin, Ran GTPase activating protein-1 (RanBP1), and microtubule associated protein RP/EB family member 1 (EB1) were confirmed by Western blotting. The study of the effect of maslinic acid on Raji cell cycle regulation showed that it induced a G1 cell cycle arrest. The differential proteomic changes in maslinic acid-treated Raji cells demonstrated that it also inhibited expression of dUTPase and stathmin which are known to induce early S and G2 cell cycle arrests. The mechanism of maslinic acid-induced cell cycle arrest may be mediated by inhibiting cyclin D1 expression and enhancing the levels of cell cycle-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 protein. Maslinic acid suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity which is known to stimulate expression of anti-apoptotic and cell cycle regulatory gene products. These results suggest that maslinic acid affects multiple signaling molecules and inhibits fundamental pathways regulating cell growth and survival in Raji cells.
The asiatic acid, a triterpenoids isolated from Centella asiatica was used to delineate its inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) properties, excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP) and locomotor activity. This study is consistent with asiatic acid having an effect on AChE, a selective GABA(B) receptor agonist and no sedative effect on locomotor.
Bioactive compounds from the medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack have been shown to promote anti-proliferative effects on various cancer cell lines. Here we examined the effects of purified eurycomanone, a quassinoid found in Eurycoma longifolia Jack extract, on the expression of selected genes of the A549 lung cancer cells. Eurycomanone inhibited A549 lung cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 5 to 20 μg/ml. The concentration that inhibited 50% of cell growth (GI(50)) was 5.1 μg/ml. The anti-proliferative effects were not fully reversible following the removal of eurycomanone, in which 30% of cell inhibition still remained (p<0.0001, T-test). At 8 μg/ml (GI(70)), eurycomanone suppressed anchorage-independent growth of A549 cells by >25% (p<0.05, T-test, n=8) as determined using soft agar colony formation assay. Cisplatin, a chemotherapy drug used for the treatment of non small cell lung cancer on the other hand, inhibited A549 cells proliferation at concentrations ranging from 0.2 μg/ml to 15 μg/ml with a GI(50) of 0.58 μg/ml. The treatment with eurycomanone reduced the abundance expression of the lung cancer markers, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1, p53 tumor suppressor protein and other cancer-associated genes including prohibitin (PHB), annexin 1 (ANX1) and endoplasmic reticulum protein 28 (ERp28) but not the house keeping genes. The mRNA expressions of all genes with the exception of PHB were significantly downregulated, 72 h after treatment (p<0.05, T-test, n=9). These findings suggest that eurycomanone at viable therapeutic concentrations of 5-20 μg/ml exhibited significant anti-proliferative and anti-clonogenic cell growth effects on A549 lung cancer cells. The treatment also resulted in suppression of the lung cancer cell tumor markers and several known cancer cell growth-associated genes.
Mitragyna speciosa Korth. leaves have been used for decades as a traditional medicine to treat diarrhea, diabetes and to improve blood circulation by natives of Malaysia, Thailand and other regions of Southeast Asia. Mitragynine is the major active alkaloid in the plant. To date, the role of mitragynine in psychological disorders such as depression is not scientifically evaluated. Hence, the present investigation evaluates the antidepressant effect of mitragynine in the mouse forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), two models predictive of antidepressant activity and the effect of mitragynine towards neuroendocrine system of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by measuring the corticosterone concentration of mice exposed to FST and TST. An open-field test (OFT) was used to detect any association of immobility in the FST and TST with changes in motor activity of mice treated with mitragynine. In the present study, mitragynine at dose of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg i.p. injected significantly reduced the immobility time of mice in both FST and TST without any significant effect on locomotor activity in OFT. Moreover, mitragynine significantly reduced the released of corticosterone in mice exposed to FST and TST at dose of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg. Overall, the present study clearly demonstrated that mitragynine exerts an antidepressant effect in animal behavioral model of depression (FST and TST) and the effect appears to be mediated by an interaction with neuroendocrine HPA axis systems.
In a previous communication we showed that atrovirinone, a 1,4-benzoquinone isolated from the roots of Garcinia atroviridis, was able to inhibit several major proinflammatory mediators of inflammation. In this report we show that atrovirinone inhibits NO and PGE(2) synthesis through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. We also show that atrovirinone inhibits the secretion of IL-1beta and IL-6 in a dose dependent fashion whereas the secretion of IL-10, the anti-inflammatory cytokine, was enhanced. Subsequently we determined that the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis and inducible enzyme expression was due to a dose-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. We also showed that atrovirinone prevented phosphorylation of I-kappaBalpha, which resulted in a reduction of p65NF-kappaB nuclear translocation as demonstrated by expression analysis. We conclude that atrovirinone is a potential anti-inflammatory drug lead that targets both the MAPK and NF-kappaB pathway.
Medicinal plants containing active natural compounds have been used as an alternative treatment for cancer patients in many parts of the world especially in Asia (Itharat et al. 2004). In this report, we describe the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (AEA), an analogue of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), isolated from the Malaysian ethno-medicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff (Zingiberaceae) on human breast cancer cells. Data from MTT cell viability assays indicated that AEA induced both time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity with an IC(50) value of 14.0 μM within 36 h of treatment on MCF-7 cells, but not in HMEC normal control cells. Both annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation assays confirmed that AEA induced cell death via apoptosis. AEA was also found to induce cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells at the G(0)/G(1) phase with no adverse cell cycle arrest effects on HMEC normal control cells. It was concluded that AEA isolated from the Malaysian tropical ginger represents a potential chemotherapeutic agent against human breast cancer cells with higher cytotoxicity potency than its analogue, ACA.
The acute toxicity of standardized extract of Orthosiphon stamineus was studied in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were administered a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight (BW) orally on Day 0 and observed for 14 days. There were no deaths recorded and the animals did not show signs of toxicity during the experimental period. The effect of the extract on general behavior, BW, food and water intake, relative organ weight per 100 g BW, hematology and clinical biochemistry were measured. All the parameters measured were unaffected as compared to the control. The acute toxicity LD(50) was estimated to be > 5000 mg/kg BW.
Twelve compounds isolated from Alpinia mutica Roxb., Kaempferia rotunda Linn., Curcuma xanthorhiza Roxb., Curcuma aromatica Valeton and Zingiber zerumbet Smith (Family: Zingiberaceae) and three synthesized derivatives of xanthorrhizol were evaluated for their ability to inhibit arachidonic acid- (AA), collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood. Antiplatelet activity of the compounds was measured in vitro by the Chrono Log whole blood aggregometer using an electrical impedance method. Among the compounds tested, curcumin from C. aromatica, cardamonin, pinocembrine and 5,6-dehydrokawain from A. mutica and 3-deacetylcrotepoxide from K. rotunda showed strong inhibition on platelet aggregation induced by AA with IC(50) values of less than 84 microM. Curcumin was the most effective antiplatelet compound as it inhibited AA-, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 37.5, 60.9 and 45.7 microM, respectively.