A well-supported and well-resolved phylogeny based on a concatenated data set from one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, six morphological characters, and nine color pattern characters for 44 of the 50 species of the Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) is consistent with the previous taxonomy of Cnemaspis based solely on morphology and color pattern. Cnemaspis is partitioned into four major clades that collectively contain six species groups. The monophyly of all clades and species groups is strongly supported and they are parapatrically distributed across well-established, biogeographical regions ranging from southern Vietnam westward through southern Indochina, southward through the Thai-Malay Peninsula, then eastward to Borneo. Eight new species (Cnemaspis omari sp. nov. from the Thai-Malaysian border; C. temiah sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia; C. stongensis sp. nov. from Gunung Stong, Kelantan, Malaysia; C. hangus sp. nov. from Bukit Hangus, Pahang, Malaysia; C. sundagekko sp. nov. from Pulau Siantan, Indonesia; C. peninsularis sp. nov. from southern Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, and C. mumpuniae sp. nov. and C. sundainsula sp. nov. from Pulau Natuna Besar, Indonesia) are described based on morphology and color pattern and all but C. sundagekko sp. nov. are included in the phylogenetic analyses. Cnemaspis kendallii is polyphyletic and a composite of six species. An updated taxonomy consistent with the phylogeny is proposed for all 50 species and is based on 25 morphological and 53 color pattern characters scored across 594 specimens. Cladogenetic events and biogeographical relationships within Cnemaspis were likely influenced by this group's low vagility and the cyclical patterns of geographical and environmental changes in Sundaland over the last 25 million years and especially within the last 2.5 million years. The phylogeny indicates that nocturnality, diurnality, substrate preferences, and the presence of ocelli in the shoulder regions have evolved independently multiple times.
The small pseudoscorpion family Pseudochiridiidae Chamberlin, 1923 comprises two genera and 12 extant species recorded from Asia (Burma, Christmas Island, Indonesia, India, Nepal, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Nicobars and Sumba), eastern, central and southern Africa (Chad, D.R. Congo, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania), Madagascar, Seychelles (Aldabra), North America (Florida) and the Caribbean Islands of Dominican Republic and Cuba (Harvey 2013, Barba & Barroso 2013); one unidentified species is mentioned for the fauna of Mexico (Ceballos 2004). A fossil species has been described from Dominican amber by Judson (2007), who predicted the presence of this family in South America.
New species of the Scirtes flavoguttatus species-group are described from SE Asia. Altogether 34 species are newly described, including Scirtes beccus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. bocakorum sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. crockerensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. decorus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. dumogensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. gunongmulensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. ishikawai sp. nov. (Vietnam), S. kinabalensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. kundasangensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. lambriensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. leuserensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. luteus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. malaisei sp. nov. (Myanmar), S. melinauensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. noonadan sp. nov. (Philippines), S. pallicolor sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. penampangensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. phoupanensis sp. nov. (Laos), S. prodigiosus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. punctatus sp. nov. (Philippines), S. quasibalehensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. ranauensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. sarawakensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. seblatensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. sibayensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. sibolangitensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. sulawesicus sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. sulcigeroides sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. talinisensis sp. nov. (Philippines), S. ulukimanisensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. velutinus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. vietnamicus sp. nov. (Vietnam), S. wallacei sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. yangsinensis sp. nov. (Vietnam). New localities of six species are provided. An updated identification key, checklist and a summary of distributional data are included. Probability of the occurrence of the Scirtes flavoguttatus species-group was evaluated with an analysis in MaxEnt software. It is highly plausible that members of the group occur in most mountainous rainforests of SE Asia.
The genus Paraheligmonelloides Fukumoto, Kamiya and Suzuki, 1980 (Nippostrongylinae) is revised and split into four genera, mainly based on characters of the synlophe not previously considered at the supraspecific level. These characters mainly include the homology of the left ridge with ridge 1', the relative size of the right ridge to the left ridge and to ridge 1' and the distribution of the largest ridges. Paraheligmonelloides sensu stricto, characterized by the homology of the left ridge with ridge 1', contains only the type species, Paraheligmonelloides kenyensis Fukumoto, Kamiya and Suzuki, 1980, parasitic in a lagomorph from Kenya. Krishnasamyos n. gen., characterized by ridge 1' forming a comarete, two minute left ventral ridges and ridge 1 larger than other dorsal ridges, only includes the species Krishnasamyos triangulus n. comb., parasitic in Malaysian murids. Hughjonestrongylus n. gen., characterized by numerous ridges markedly unequal in size, with the largest ridges grouped in relation to the lateral fields, includes Hughjonestrongylus ennisae n. comb., Hughjonestrongylus amplicaudae n. comb., Hughjonestrongylus mirzai n. comb., and Hughjonestrongylus singauwaensis n. comb., all parasitic in murids from Papua Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Syafruddinema n. gen., characterized by ridge 1 as long as other dorsal ridges and a gap associated with the left lateral field, between ridges 2' and 3', includes Syafruddinema paruromyos n. comb., Syafruddinema annandalei n. comb., and Syafruddinema eropeplios n. comb., parasitic in murids from Malaysia and Indonesia. A key to the proposed genera is provided.
A new species of Narrow-mouthed frog of the genus Kaloula is described from northern Peninsular Malaysia. Kaloula latidisca sp. nov. is genetically and morphologically most similar to K. baleata and K. indochinensis but differs from those and other congeners by the unique combination of the following characters: (1) adult males SVL 49.2-56.2 mm (x̅=53.5 ± 3.0; N=4); (2) finger tips expanded into large, transversely expanded discs (disc width 2.8-3.1 mm, x̅=3.0 ± 0.1); (3) inner metatarsal tubercle large, oval, distinctly raised, slightly shorter than first toe; (4) three subarticular tubercles on fourth toe; (5) toe webbing formula: I 1-2 II 1-3 III 2-3.5 IV 4-2 V; and (6) yellow to orange irregularly shaped patch on the axillary, inguinal and posterior region of thigh.
We describe two new species and provide one new species record of the family Comesomatidae from a submarine canyon habitat on the Southern Hikurangi margin, New Zealand. Vasostoma hexodontium n. sp. is characterized by having an amphideal fovea with three turns, buccal cavity with six teeth and gubernaculum with long and straight caudal apophyses. Sabatieria dispunctata n. sp. is characterized by the absence of cuticle punctations, large amphideal fovea with 4.5 turns, pharynx with posterior bulb, absence of pre-cloacal supplements, strongly arcuate and cuticularized spicules, simple gubernaculum with short caudal apophyses, and vulva opening directed posteriorly. Laimella subterminata Chen & Vincx, 2000, which was originally described from the Beagle Channel and the Magellan Strait (Chile), is recorded from the Southwest Pacific for the first time.
Two new species of Pharta, P. sudmannorum sp. nov. (♂♀, Borneo) and P. koponeni sp. nov. (♂, Thailand) are described. Furthermore, Ibana senagang gen. nov. & sp. nov. from Malaysia is described based on its exceptional palp, which has a reduced, movable conductor and thick-long spines on the distal, ventral surface of the tibia, reminiscent of Epidius Thorell, 1877.
The genus Lichnofugia is reported for the first time from India with a description of Lichnofugia umshingensis sp. nov. from Shillong, Meghalaya. The distribution of Lichnofugia thus extends eastward from Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand to north- eastern India.
Descriptions are presented of new species of water mites from two mountains in the Malaysian part of Borneo. A new subgenus of the genus Javalbia (Hygrobatidae), i.e. Megapes n. subgen., and 34 new species are described: Limnocharidae: Limnochares (Limnochares) spinosa n. sp.; Oxidae: Oxus (Oxus) fuscus n. sp.; Hydryphantidae: Protzia borneoensis n. sp.; Sperchontidae: Sperchon kinabaluensis n. sp., Sperchonopsis orientalis n. sp.; Hygrobatidae: Hygrobates (Hygrobates) acutipalpis n. sp., H. (Hygrobates) hamatoides n. sp., H. (Hygrobates) striatus n. sp., Atractides (Atractides) neospatiosus n. sp., A. (Atractides) sabahensis n. sp., A. (Atractides) crockerensis n. sp., A. (Atractides) curtisetus n. sp., A.(Tympanomegapus) borneoensis n. sp.; Frontipodopsidae: Frontipodopsis suturalis n. sp.; Aturidae: Javalbia (Javalbia) montana n. sp., J. (Javalbia) solitaria n. sp., J. (Javalbiopsis) borneoensis n. sp., J. (Javalbiopsis) kinabaluensis n. sp., J. (Javalbiopsis) magniseta n. sp., J. (Javalbiopsis) reticulata n. sp., J. (Megapes) uncinata n. sp., Albaxona mahuaensis n. sp., Axonopsis (Axonopsis) longigenitalis n. sp., A. (Axonopsis) rugosa n. sp., A. (Paraxonopsis) truncata n. sp., A. (Brachypodopsis) latipalpis n. sp., A. (Vicinaxonopsis) caeca n. sp., Erebaxonopsis kipungitensis n. sp., Ljania inconspicua n. sp., L. obliterata n. sp., Albia (Albiella) crocker n. sp., Aturus borneoensis n. sp.; Athienemanniidae: Africasia acuticoxalis n. sp.; Arrenuridae: Thoracophoracarus uniacetabulatus n. sp. A key is presented for the Javalbia species of Borneo. New records are given for 10 further species. In the course of revisional work, lectotypes are designated for the following species: Atractides cognatus (K. Viets) and A. propatulus (K. Viets).
Taxonomic status of fanged frogs from the Peninsular Malaysia, previously assigned to Limnonectes kuhlii, is assessed using genetic and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from sequences of the mitochondrial and nuclear genes revealed that the fanged frogs from the Peninsula form a monophyletic group and are clearly divergent from other species previously, or even now, assigned to L. kuhlii from Mainland Southeast Asia. In both mtDNA and nuDNA phylogeny, the Malay Peninsula clade diverges into two lineages, one from north (Larut Hill, Perak, and Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu) and another from south (Genting Highlands, Pahang, and Gombak, Selangor). These lineages are separated by large genetic distances, comparable with those observed between some other species of L. kuhlii-like frogs. Although the two lineages are very similar morphologically, they are distinguishable in several morphological traits and are considered heterospecific. We therefore describe them as L. utara sp. nov. and L. selatan sp. nov. These new species differ from all other species of kuhlii-like frogs from Mainland Southeast Asia by the surface of tibia, which is densely covered by large warts.
Two new species of Paraneseuthia are described from peninsular Malaysia: P. joeparkeri sp. n. from Bukit Larut (Maxwell Hill) and P. titiwangsana sp. n. from the Genting Highlands. The new species are morphologically allied to species known so far only from Sumatra; they all share emarginate apex of the aedeagus bordered at each side by a subtriangular projection and a pair of setae. This is the first record of this eutheiine genus from the Malay Peninsula and extends the known diversity of Paraneseuthia species within the historical Sundaland area.
To date, only the type species Lissonotocoris membranaceus Usinger & Matsuda 1959 is known and recorded from Vietnam and China, Hainan Island. Four new species of the previously monotypic genus Lissonotocoris are described and figured: loebli n.sp. (Thailand), glabronotus n.sp. (N.Vietnam), pachycerus n.sp. (Malaysia) and siamensis n.sp. (Thailand). A key for the identification of all 5 species is provided.
Simulium (Nevermannia) ledangense sp. nov. is described from females, males, pupae and mature larvae from Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is assigned to the Simulium feuerborni species-group of the subgenus Nevermannia, and is characterized by the pupa having a very long stalk of the ventral paired gill filaments, which is almost five times longer than the interspiracular trunk and female tergites of segments 2 and 5 to 7 shiny. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish this new species from three known species of the S. feuerborni species-group from Malaysia.
Based on material deposited in museum collections, twelve species within Mansonella sensu lato were examined and their descriptions amended. Based on additional morphological details, the erection of the new monotypic subgenus Filyamagutia Bain & Uni for M. (F.) akitensis (Uni, 1983), and the new combination M. (Pseudolitomosa) musasabi (Yamaguti, 1941) Bain & Uni are proposed. A new subspecies, M. (Tetrapetalonema) atelensis amazonae Bain & Guerrero is described and a key to the seven subgenera of Mansonella is provided. Furthermore, the elevation of Sandnema to full genus rank comprising the two species S. digitatum (Chandler, 1929) n. comb. and S. sunci (Sandground, 1933) n. comb., is proposed. Host and geographic records for the species of Mansonella and Sandnema are included.
The currently known diversity of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from India is only 17 species. We report here two female specimens found on two occasions on a terrace paddy field in Tsupo, Viswema, Kohima, Nagaland, India. Although found at the same location, both species differ in their cuticular structures. One is determined as Chordodes moutoni, a species known from China, Malaysia and India. The other specimen shows a new type of cuticular structure, the areoles, which combines characters of both simple areoles and tubercle areoles. This specimen is described as a new species, C. combiareolatus. Both specimens show arrangements on the cuticle, in which a circle of areoles surrounds a region of "naked" cuticle. We interpret these regions as artifacts caused by the breaking off of the central crowned areoles, leaving only the circumcluster areoles behind.
Nine species of Thripinae that inhabit bamboo are recorded from Malaysia. Clypeothrips idrisi sp.n. is described as a second species in the genus, and Trichromothrips bruncurrum Reyes is considered a syn.n. of Neocorynothrips asiaticus Ramakrishna & Margabandhu. Six species are newly recorded from Malaysia: N. asiaticus, Okajimaella tubercula, Simulothrips banpoti, Stenchaetothrips bambusicola, S. bambusae and S. spinalis. Seven species of Stenchaetothrips are now known from Malaysia. Illustrations and descriptions of each species are provided.
The discovery of an additional specimen of Sphenomorphus malayanus Doria, 1888 from Gunung Brinchang, Cameron Highlands, Pahang in Peninsular Malaysia reveals that it is not conspecific with the type specimen from Gunung Singgalan, West Sumatra, 600 km to the south. The new specimen and an additional specimen previously collected from Gunung Gerah, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, 56 km to the north, are described here as the new species S. senja sp. nov. and differ from S. malayanus by having a larger SVL (60.0-65 mm versus 53 mm); a deeply recessed as opposed to a shallow tympanum; 72 or 73 versus 76 paravertebral scales; eight or nine superciliary scales as opposed to 10; and the posteriormost superciliary scale being large as opposed to small. Cameron Highlands is unique among other upland areas in Peninsular Malaysia in that it harbors an unprecedented number of closely related ecological equivalents living in close sympatry or syntopy.
Trischidocera Villeneuve, 1915 includes two species, T. sauteri Villeneuve, 1915 (Taiwan and Malaysia) and T. yunnanensis Chao & Zhou, 1987 (China). The systematic placement of Trischidocera has been controversial. It was originally placed within the "Thryptoceratidae" (= "Actiidae"), then moved to Germariini, then considered an unplaced Tachinidae, and more recently placed in Ormiini. Here, the genus is revised, the type-species is redescribed and illustrated, and its systematic placement is discussed. The genus is removed from Ormiini and considered incertae sedis.
The previously known distribution area of the genus Grossander Slater, 1976 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Rhyparochromidae, Drymini) is broadened with the description of two new species: Grossander papuanus sp. nov. (New Guinea) and Grossander eylesi sp. nov. (Burma, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia). Grossander (Oculoander) subgen. nov. is created for these new taxa. Drawings of habitus and male genitalia are presented. Keys to the subgenera of Grossander, and to the species of the new subgenus are provided.