A new species of the genus Sabellaria Lamarck, 1818 (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sabellariidae) is described from the intertidal zone of Jeram, Selangor, Malaysia. Sabellaria jeramae n. sp. is a gregarious species that constructs large reefs several hundreds of meters long and 50-200 m wide. The new species is distinguished from other congeners by the character combination of the presence of a single kind of middle paleae with conspicuous morphology, and outer paleae with long frayed teeth. Morphological features of the species are described and compared to those of all congeneric species. We also compare the reef structure and geographical distribution of the new species to those of the members of the family Sabellariidae around the world, demonstrating the ecological traits of the reefs.
The taxonomy of poorly known Mesagraecia Ingrisch, 1998 is reviewed. A new species of Mesagraecia spine-headed katydid (Conocephalinae: Agraeciini) is described from Bukit Larut, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia: Mesagraecia larutensis sp. n. A key to species is also presented.
The following nine elongate unpatterned muraenid species of the subfamily Muraeninae, including one new species, are recognized from Taiwan and adjacent waters: Gymnothorax albimarginatus (Temminck & Schlegel), G. dorsalis Seale, G. melanosomatus Loh, Shao & Chen, G. phasmatodes (Smith), G. prolatus Sasaki & Amaoka, G. sagmacephalus Böhlke, Pseudechidna brummeri (Bleeker), Strophidon sathete (Hamilton) and G. pseudomelanosomatus new species, described from two specimens. This new moray eel is distinguished from its similar species, G. melanosomatus, by the following features: grey brown body (vs. black), snout length 20.5% (vs. 17.8%) of head length, smaller eye diameter 8.2% (vs. 10.0%) of head length; preanal length 49.5% (vs. 58.5%) total length, and preanal vertebrae 89-89 (vs. 105-109). Phylogenetic relationships of the nine species were examined using nucleotide sequence data from partial sequences of mitochondrial ND5 gene (600 bp), and seven species form COI (600 bp). The genetic analyses suggest that G. pseudomelanosomatus is distinct from G. melanosomatus and the other six species of Gymnothorax. Morphological features and mitogenetic affinities strongly suggest that "G." dorsalis should be placed in Strophidon rather than in Gymnothorax. The results also suggest that employment of ND5 and COI gene sequences are rather useful for identification of species and for obtaining reasonable insights into the phylogeny of the muraenid species.
An annotated checklist of eels, orders Anguilliformes and Saccopharyngiformes, occurring in Taiwanese waters is presented. The checklist is the result of a series of systematic studies conducted by the authors in the past few years. The eel fauna of Taiwan is one of the richest in the world with a total of 206 species in 74 genera and 13 families in Anguilliformes and a single species in Saccopharyngiformes. The most species-rich families are the Muraenidae with 71 species, followed by the Ophichthidae with 60 species, the Congridae with 29 species, and the Synaphobranchidae with 17 species. Moreover, three genera and 42 species have been described based on at least one type specimen collected from Taiwan. Of these, 36 species are recognized as valid and 23 species are known only from Taiwanese waters at present. Historical records of all Taiwanese eel species are reviewed by examining the original descriptions and figures, vouchers, as well as the recently collected specimens, where available. This represents the first detailed checklist of eels from Taiwanese waters.
A new ophichthid worm-eel, Neenchelys gracilis sp. nov., is described from a specimen collected from southwestern Taiwan. It differs from its congeners by having: a minute pectoral fin, many filamentous cirri on the anterior nostril rim; a very slender body; a very small gill opening; and a vertebral formula of 30-78-200.
Fauna of Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Sabah state of Malaysia, Borneo Island, was evaluated for the first time. Samples from 40 locations were studied, and 31 species of Cladocera were revealed, including three species of Sididae, one species of Daphnidae, one species of Moinidae, four species of Macrothricidae, two species of Ilyocryptidae, and 20 species of Chydoridae. One species of Ilyocryptidae, Ilyocryptus yooni Jeong, Kotov and Lee, 2012, is recorded for Malaysia for the first time, and one more, Anthalona sp., is probably new for science. Of 31 species recorded for Sabah, only three are true planktonic species and 28 are substrate-associated species. Absence of large natural lakes, habitats with most rich cladoceran fauna, can be an important factor limiting diversity of Cladocera in Sabah.
Species of Devadatta from Borneo are studied using both morphological and molecular methods. As well as D. podolestoides Laidlaw, four new species are recognised from the island: D. aran spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Pulong Tau National Park, Miri division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. clavicauda spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Bukit Mina, Bukit Mina Wildlife Corridor, Sarawak Planted Forest Project, Bintulu division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. somoh spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from the Sungai Kahei area, Ulu Balui, Kapit division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH) and D. tanduk spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Poring Hot Springs, Kinabalu National Park, West Coast division, Sabah, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH). The Philippine taxon D. basilanensis Laidlaw is considered a good species rather than a subspecies of D. podolestoides. The Bornean species plus D. basilanensis are provisionally considered to form a species group, the podolestoides-group, within Devadatta. The species of the podolestoides-group are so similar in morphology and colouration that they are close to truly cryptic species. Two species appear to exhibit character displacement where their ranges overlap with other Devadatta species. A molecular analysis using four markers (COI, 16S, ITS and 28S) is presented. This analysis includes specimens of all species from the podolestoides-group and two Devadatta species from mainland Asia.
A new species of Sesiidae, tribe Osminiini from Peninsular Malaysia, Heterosphecia pahangensis Skowron, displaying numerous bee-mimicking features, is described. DNA barcodes showed significant differences with related taxa. However, the paucity of Sesiidae barcodes from Southeast Asia prevents meaningful taxonomic comparisons. The closest match out of published data on Sesiidae barcodes is Heterosphecia bantanakai, Arita & Gorbunov (2000a) from the tribe Osminiini, which has 9.98% sequence divergence from Heterosphecia pahangensis. Photographs of the moth in its natural habitat are shown. Behavioural aspects, such as mud-puddling and mode of flight, are described and presented in a video.
The Scirtothrips genus-group is here considered to comprise 11 genera, and an identification key to these is presented. These genera are Ajothrips Bhatti, Anascirtothrips Bhatti, Biltothrips Bhatti, Cercyothrips Morgan, Drepanothrips Uzel, Ephedrothrips zur Strassen, Kenyattathrips Mound, Parascirtothrips Masumoto & Okajima, Scirtidothrips Hood, Scirtothrips Shull and Siamothrips Okajima. One genus, Sericopsothrips Hood, is considered a new synonym of Scirtothrips, with the only species now referred to as Scirtothrips palloris (Hood) comb.n. A second species in the genus Siamothrips is described from Malaysia as Siamothrips initium sp.n.
We describe Cyrtodactylus psarops sp. nov. and C. semicinctus sp. nov., two new species of bent-toed geckos from montane forests in the southern Bukit Barisan Range of Sumatra, Indonesia. The new species are closely related to one another and to C. semenanjungensis, a lowland species currently known only from Peninsular Malaysia. Three characters of the new species immediately distinguish them from most congeners in the Sunda Region: they lack transversely enlarged subcaudals, have a precloacal depression, and have a greatly enlarged scale positioned at the apex of a continuous series of femoral and precloacal pore-bearing scales. They differ from one another in cephalic pattern, tuberculation of the brachium, and in numbers of cloacal tubercles, dorsal bands, and ventrals in a transverse row. The greatly enlarged scale at the apex of the precloacal pores appears to be a rare apomorphy of these two species and C. agamensis.
We consider the genus Janohyphella Selvakumar, Sivaramakrishnan & Jacobus, 2014 (Ephemeroptera:Teloganodidae) to be a new junior synonym of Teloganella Ulmer, 1939 [=Janohyphella, syn. n.] based on comparative examination of new and previously studied materials from Malaysia and India. Thus, we propose the following new combination, Teloganella indica, comb. n., and provide new or modified diagnoses for this species, T. umbrata Ulmer, 1939 and the genus Teloganella Ulmer, 1939.
Six species in the genus Busonia Distant are described and illustrated, including five new species from Thailand and Malaysia: Busonia curvata, B. fusca, B. lactata, B. micrata, B. serrata, spp. nov., and one newly recorded species from China: Busonia albilateralis Maldonado-Capriles. A redescription of this genus is provided together with a key to species for separation of males.
All life stages (adult female and male, first-instar nymph, second-instar male and female nymphs, and prepupa and pupa) of a new species of Asterolecaniidae, Bambusaspis transversa Lagowska & Martin sp. n., from bamboo in Malaysia, are described and illustrated. The adult female and first-instar nymphs are compared with those Bambusaspis species considered to be closest to the new species.
A new species of semiterrestrial gecarcinucid freshwater crab, Terrathelphusa secula, is described from Danum Valley in Sabah, East Malaysia, eastern Borneo. In the form of its carapace, third maxilliped, and male second gonopod, it most closely resembles T. ovis Ng, 1997, and T. telur Ng, 1997, from eastern Sarawak and Brunei, respectively. It differs markedly from these and other congeners in its proportionately much wider carapace, and a male first gonopod that is strongly curved and sickle-shaped.
Five new species of the family Rotundabaloghiidae are described from Indonesia and Malaysia. Angulobaloghia pedunculata sp. nov. differs from the other Angulobaloghia Hirschmann, 1979 species in the shape of the genital shield of the female. Rotundabaloghia (Rotundabaloghia) wangi sp. nov. has one pair of short and pilose setae (V8) on the ventral idiosoma, which is unique in the subgenus Rotundabaloghia (Rotundabaloghia) Hirschmann, 1975. Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) javaensis sp. nov. has a small triangular anterior process on genital shield of female, which has not been detected previously in South-East Asian members of this subgenus. The long and thick ventral seta (V4) in Depressorotunda (Depressorotunda) robusta sp. nov. is a character state so far unknown in the subgenus Depressorotunda (Depressorotunda) Kontschán, 2010. Depressorotunda (Depressorotunda) hirca sp. nov. has two apically serrate anterior branches on the margin of the female genital shield.
Amalothrips noorazlani sp. n. is described from Malaysia based on both sexes, and a key is provided to the species of this genus. This is the first record of Amalothrips species outside India, and the first description of a male Amalothrips. The male has a pair of drepanae, the tergal posteromargin bears a toothed craspedum, but there are no sternal pore plates.
The genus Procoryphaeus Mazur, 1984 is revised herein. It contains three species: Procoryphaeus violaceus (Lewis, 1905) from Thailand: Tenasserim Mountains; Malaysia: Borneo: Sabah; Indonesia: Java, Sumatra and Papua, Procoryphaeus pilosus (Lewis, 1893) from Tanimbar Island, Indonesia and Procoryphaeus wallacei (Marseul, 1864) from Indonesia: Papua. All type specimens are figured, and male genitalia of P. violaceus are drawn. Lectotypes of Pachycraerus (Coryphaeus) wallacei Marseul, 1864, Coryphaeus violaceus Lewis, 1905 and Coryphaeus pilosus Lewis, 1893 are designated. The exact identities of P. violaceus and P. wallacei species remain unclear since they are morphologically very similar and both respective type specimens are females. A key to species is given.
The final stadium larva of Onychargia atrocyana Selys, 1865, is described and illustrated based on two female specimens collected at Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, East Malaysia. The larvae were identified by matching the mitochondrial marker COI with that of known adult specimens from Gunung Mulu, Bintulu and Kuching in Sarawak and from Pahang state in West Malaysia. The specimens presented close matches with all adults in this gene. As O. atrocyana is a taxonomically isolated species with no close congeners in Borneo the determination is beyond doubt. O. atrocyana is the only member of the Onychargiinae for which the larva is known. It is compared with the known larvae of other platycnemidid subfamilies, and the possible significance of larval morphology in higher classification of the group is discussed.
The generic assignment of the draconine lizard Gonocephalus robinsonii from the highlands of West-Malaysia has been uncertain since the original description. Here we present a study based on morphology, previously published karyotype data and molecular phylogenetics using 16S rRNA sequences to evaluate the systematic status of G. robinsonii. As a result we describe Malayodracon gen. nov. to accommodate the species.
Species of the Simulium (Simulium) melanopus species-group in Sabah are taxonomically revised by examining type specimens of S. (S.) crassimanum S. (S.) laterale, and S. (S.) nigripilosum, all described from females by Edwards in 1933, and newly collected samples from the vicinity of Mt. Kinabalu. The females of these three species are redescribed, and their males and pupae are described for the first time based on adults reared from pupae. Simulium (S.) liewi Takaoka, 2007 and S. (S.) kinabaluense Smart & Clifford, 1969 are synonymized with S. (S.) crassimanum and S. (S.) laterale, respectively. Simulium (S.) cheedhangi Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Ya'cob, 2015 is newly recorded from Sabah. Two new related species, S. (S.) lardizabalae and S. (S.) timpohonense, are described from males reared from pupae. Keys to identify eight species of the S. melanopus species-group in Sabah are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.