The genus Cryptopsocus Li, 2002 is synonymized with Trichadenotecnum Enderlein, 1909. The type species of Crypto-psocus, T. cynostigmus (Li, 2002) n. comb., is considered to be a close relative of T. marginatum New & Thornton, 1976. These species cannot be assigned to any species group previously established in Trichadenotecnum so that the marginatum species group is here proposed for them. Three new species belonging to this species group are described: T. tigrinum and T. sharkeyi from Thailand and T. sabahense from Sabah, Malaysia. The phylogenetic position of the marginatum group is discussed using morphological data.
A new species of Larimichthys from Terengganu, east coast of Peninsular Malaysia is described from specimens collected from the fish landing port at Pulau Kambing, Kuala Terengganu. Larimichthys terengganui can be readily distinguished from other species of the genus by having an equally short pair of ventral limbs at the end of the gas bladder appendages, which do not extend lateral-ventrally to the lower half of the body wall, and fewer dorsal soft rays (29-32 vs. 31-36) and vertebrae (24 vs. 25-28). Larimichthys terengganui can be distinguished from L. polyactis and L. crocea by having a gill raker at the angle of first gill arch shorter than the gill filament. Furthermore, the second anal spine in L. terengganui is equal or slightly shorter than eye diameter (vs. shorter in L. polyactis); L. terengganui has 8-9 anal soft rays (vs. only 7 in L. pamoides). Snout length of L. terengganui is greater than eye diameter, whereas in L. crocea the snout is shorter than eye diameter. A key to species of Larimichthys is provided. All obtained specimens of the species were recorded from Terengganu waters, east coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were carried out in Thua Thien Hue Province of central Vietnam, and Lam Dong Province of southern Vietnam in 2014. A total of 26 species belonging to the genus Simulium were collected, consisting of eight known species, one newly recorded species, and 17 new species (of which three species of the subgenus Nevermannia were described in 2014). The remaining 14 new species (nine of the subgenus Gomphostilbia and five of the subgenus Simulium) are described here based on females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The total number of species of black flies in Vietnam is now 46. Keys to identify all 26 species recorded from the two provinces of Vietnam are given for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
Oxytelus species are widespread over all continents except Antarctica. Southeast Asia is one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world. In this paper, we review the Oxytelus species currently known from Southeast Asia. Seven species are described as new to science: O. castaneus sp. nov. (Vietnam), O. finitimus sp. nov. (Laos), O. grandiculus sp. nov. (Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand), O. insulanus sp. nov. (Malaysia and Indonesia), O. lompobatangensis sp. nov. and O. poecilopterus sp. nov. (Indonesia), and O. sublividus sp. nov. (Vietnam and Laos). Seven new synonymies are proposed: O. ruptus Fauvel = O. sublucidus Cameron, O. lucens Bernhauer = O. malaisei Scheerpeltz, O. puncticeps Kraatz = O. (Anotylus) micantoides Scheerpeltz, O. subferrugineus Cameron = O. kedirianus Cameron, O. megaceros Fauvel = O. kalisi Bernhauer, O. subincisus Cameron = O. fruhstorferi Cameron, O. antennalis Fauvel = O. cheesmani Bernhauer. Lectotypes are designated for the following names: O. armiger Fauvel, O. bellicosus Fauvel, O. discalis Cameron, O. gigantulus Fauvel, O. ginyuenensis Bernhauer, O. javanus Cameron, O. kalisi Bernhauer, O. kedirianus Cameron, O. lucens Bernhauer, O. lucidulus Cameron, O. mandibularis Cameron, O. megaceros Fauvel, O. nilgiriensis Cameron, O. subferrugineus Cameron, O. subincisus Cameron, O. sublucidus Cameron, O. subsculptus Cameron, O. antennalis Fauvel (New Caledonia, New Guinea and Australia), O. cheesmani Bernhauer (New Hebrides), O. cheesmanianus Cameron (Papua New Guinea), O. hingstoni Cameron (India), and O. tibetanus Bernhauer (China). The species O. (Anotylus) transversipennis Scheerpeltz is transferred to the genus Anotylus. Other than the new species, nine previously known species are redescribed, a key to 30 species and line drawings or color photographs of 42 species are provided. Thus, a total of 30 species are recorded from Southeast Asia.
The native distribution of the small labyrinth fish species Pseudosphromenus cupanus includes southern India and Sri Lanka. According to literature it has a range including also Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malaysia, and Indonesia (Sumatra) but there are no voucher specimens or reliable observations from those areas. The distribution record of P. cupanus was inflated partly by including P. dayi as a synonym. Pseudosphronemus dayi is native to the Western Ghats in India, but the origin of the aquarium importation in 1907 was reported as both Cochin (=Kochi) and Malacca (=Malaysia), the latter locality obviously in error. The basis for the Sumatra record is an obviously mislabeled sample of P. dayi from Pulau Weh close to Sumatra. The basis for reporting the species from Pakistan, Myanmar or Bangladesh could not be located. Misidentified museum specimens from Myanmar and Pakistan identified as P. cupanus were never published on. Pseudosphromenus cupanus has been considered recently to be extinct in Bangladesh, but in fact it never occurred there.
A new cavernicolous, arachnophilous thread-legged bug (Phasmatocoris labyrinthicus sp. nov.; Reduviidae: Emesini) is described from Kartchner Caverns, a limestone cavern in Kartchner Caverns State Park near Benson, Arizona, USA. Cavernicolous emesines are recorded from caves in many parts of the world and are distributed across several genera, but are generally uncommon. P. labyrinthicus shows no obvious troglomorphy but ecological evidence suggests it is, at minimum, a cave-limited troglophile. The species seems to be low-humidity intolerant, due to its occurrence in a cave within a desert region, effectively confines the population to the cave, and the species may thus actually be troglobitic by default. Arachnophily in emesines is more common, including in Phasmatocoris Breddin, but has been previously documented in only a single cavernicolous species, Bagauda cavernicola Paiva, reported from India, Malaysia and Sri Lanka. However, unlike P. labyrinthicus, B. cavernicola is apparently not morphologically adapted for its arachnophilous association. P. labyrinthicus is the only known troglophilic emesine that is also a morphologically adapted and behaviorally functional arachnophile. The only other known cavernicolous Phasmatocoris (P. xavieri Gil-Santana, Alves, Barrett and Costa) is recorded from a sandstone cave in Brazil. P. xavieri exhibits morphological features indicative of a potentially arachnophilous habit, but its ecology has not been studied. Adults of P. labyrinthicus share characteristics with the species Phasmatocoris praecellens Bergroth, P. minor McAtee and Malloch, P. xavieri, P. spectrum Breddin, and P. rapax McAtee and Malloch. Phasmatocoris is primarily a Neotropical genus and the discovery of P. labyrinthicus represents a significant range extension for the genus, being the first Nearctic species identified, with its geographically nearest relative an undescribed species from Mazatlan, Mexico, over 1,000 km to the south.
A new species of Philautus is described from western Sarawak. The new species was collected in lower montane forest in two national parks in Sarawak and recorded from another park. It differs from its congeners by a unique combination of morphological characters, including a long, acuminate snout, long legs, and comparatively extensive toe webbing. The advertisement call of the new species differs from all calls of other species that have been analyzed so far. Comparison of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequence corroborates its distinct specific status.
We describe a new species of Leptolalax from Gunung Mulu National Park in eastern Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. The new species had been assigned to Leptolalax dringi and Leptolalax gracilis in the past. It is shown to differ from both these species and from all other species of the genus by a unique combination of morphological characters including large body size, rounded snout, interorbital distance being smaller than width of upper eyelid, bipartite subgular vocal sac in males, basal toe webbing, shagreened skin with tiny tubercles on dorsum and dorsal side of head, angled supratympanic fold, small pectoral glands, absence of supraaxillary glands and ventrolateral glandular ridges, spotted venter, advertisement call consisting of long series of 8-289 notes, each composed of three or four pulses, and dominant frequency at 7225-9190 Hz, with prominent frequency modulation.
The genus Proinalactis Meyrick, 1908 is reviewed in Southeast Asia. Twenty-seven new species are described based on the specimens collected in Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei, Burma, Philippines. The new species include P. alveiformis sp. nov., P. angusta sp. nov., P. bruneiensis sp. nov., P. conicispinalis sp. nov., P. ellipsoidea sp. nov., P. exiliprocessa sp. nov., P. extumida sp. nov., P. fascisetacea sp. nov., P. flagellaris sp. nov., P. foraininulata sp. nov., P. fortijuxtalis sp. nov., P. lancea sp. nov., P. latuncata sp. nov., P. longisaccata sp. nov., P. lophacantha sp. nov., P. medispinata sp. nov., P. palmifolia sp. nov., P. pectinifera sp. nov., P.sectoralis sp. nov., P. semiovata sp. nov., P. sinualis sp. nov., P. spinosicostalis sp. nov., P. strena sp. nov., P. superimposita sp. nov., P. truncatapicalis sp. nov., P. undulata sp. nov. and P. vulvida sp. nov. Promalactis parasuzukiella Wang, 2006 and P. simniliflora Wang, 2006 are recorded from Southeast Asia for the first time. Three species described by Lvovsky are fully redescribed. Images of adults and genitalia are provided, along with a check list of 71 species from Southeast Asia.
Species of Apelaunothrips are fungus-feeders on dead leaves, particularly in leaf-litter, and they are recorded across the Old World tropics from Africa to northern Australia and southern Japan. All species in this genus have the maxillary stylets 4-6 microns in diameter, considerably broader than the 2-3 micron diameter that is typical among Phlaeothripinae. The species are largely uniform in structure, but in four species the larger males have fore femora enlarged with a conspicuous tubercle on the inner margin at the base. In one of these species, the males are dimorphic, with no intermediates between large and small individuals, in contrast to the continuous variation in structure found in many polymorphic Phlaeothripidae. A key is provided to the 37 recognised species of Apelaunothrips, including the following: A. desleyae sp.n. from northern Australia; A. bogor sp.n. from Java; A. gombak sp.n. from Peninsular Malaysia.
A new species of karst-adapted gekkonid lizard of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch is described from Gua Gunting and Gua Goyang in a karst region of Merapoh, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia whose unique limestone formations are in immediate danger of being quarried. The new species differs from all other species of Cnemaspis based on its unique suite of morphological and color pattern characters. Its discovery underscores the unique biodiversity endemic to karst regions and adds to a growing list of karst-adapted reptiles from Peninsular Malaysia. We posit that new karst-adapted species endemic to limestone forests will continue to be discovered and these regions will harbor a significant percentage of Peninsular Malaysia's biodiversity and thusly should be conserved rather than quarried.
Molecular and morphological analyses indicate that a new upland species of the Cyrtodactylus sworderi complex, C. tebuensis sp. nov. from Gunung Tebu, Terengganu, Malaysia is most closely related to C. sworderi and together they form the sister lineage to C. quadrivirgatus. Cyrtodactylus tebuensis sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species of Sundaland Cyrtodactylus on the basis of having the unique combination of large, conical, keeled body tubercles; tubercles present on top of head, occiput, nape, and limbs, and extending posteriorly beyond base of tail; 43-51 ventral scales; no transversely enlarged, median subcaudal scales; proximal, subdigital lamellae transversely expanded; 17-21 subdigital lamellae on fourth toe; an abrupt transition between posterior and ventral femoral scales; enlarged femoral scales; no femoral or precloacal pores; no precloacal groove; body bearing four wide, bold, dark brown stripes (lateral stripe on each flank and a pair of paravertebral stripes); and a pairwise sequence divergence of 13.0% from its closest relative C. sworderi based on the mitochondrial gene ND2. Cyrtodactylus tebuensis sp. nov. is the first endemic upland species of gekkonid from northeastern Peninsular Malaysia and underscores the necessity for additional field work in all upland systems.
Two new monotypic spittlebug genera and their type species in the family Machaerotidae, subfamily Enderleiniinae, are described and illustrated: Labramachaerota korupa gen. & sp. n. (with type locality in Cameroon) and Kyphomachaerota maaia gen. & sp. n. (with type locality in Sarawak, Malaysia).
Anew hydrophilid genus Chimaerocyon gen. nov. containing two species, C. shimadai sp. nov. (Malaysia: Pahang) and C. sumatranus sp. nov. (Indonesia: Sumatra), is described. Specimens of C. shimadai were collected from brood cells in anest of Pheidole singaporensis Özdikmen, 2010. The biology of C. sumatranus remains unknown. A molecular phylogeny based on four genes (cox1, cox2, 18S and 28S) supports the placement of the genus as deeply nested within the Cercyon-group of the tribe Megasternini. This position is supported by the subdistal position of the median spur in the hind wing (unique to Megasternini) and the presence of sucking disc on male maxilla (unique for Megastemini+Sphaeridiini). The remaining external morphology differs substantially from other representatives of Megasternini. The hypothesis that the aberrant morphology of Chimaerocyon gen. nov. is a consequence of myrmecophily is discussed.
The Oriental genus Stigmothrips Ananthakrishnan is synonymised with A draneothrips Hood, a genus in which most species have been described from the Neotropics. Problems with descriptions by T.N. Ananthakrishnan of species from India are discussed, but cannot be fully resolved without access to the holotypes. A key is provided to 23 species of Adraneothrips from Asia and Australia, including four new species: darwini sp. n. from Northern Territory, Australia; hani sp. n. from Taiwan, China; yunnanensis sp. n. from Yunnan, China as well as Java, Indonesia; and waui sp. n. from Papua New Guinea. One species from the Philippines, Adraneothrips makilingensis (Reyes) comb. n., is transferred from Apelaunothrips, and the male of Adraneothrips russatus (Haga) is described and illustrated for the first time, from Yunnan, China. Two species are newly recorded from Australia: coloratus (Mound) previously known only from the Solomon Islands, and russatus (Haga) previously known from southern Japan and southern China but with one female recorded here from Fiji. Further new records are, coloratus from Java, and chinensis (Zhang & Tong) from Malaysia. Colonies of species in this genus are commonly found living on dead leaves, as fungus-feeders, and many species are brightly coloured or bicoloured in patterns of yellow and brown.