METHODS: A systematic electronic literature search (Scopus, MEDLINE, ProQuest, CINAHL, Cochrane and a grey literature specific site through Google Scholar) was undertaken between March and May 2018 (search updated in June 2019). Studies were selected based on predetermined criteria. Data relating to the contents and parameters of the SMEP were extracted and collated.
RESULTS: A total of 11 experimental studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall quality of the selected studies was good. The contents used for SMEP in older adults with KOA were information and management of KOA, healthy lifestyle and additional management strategies for KOA. The parameters used were face-to-face sessions led by health professionals and were chiefly group-based.
CONCLUSION: This review comprehensively summarises the structure of multifaceted SMEP for people with KOA, which could be used to inform clinical practice and future research.
CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report on a middleaged male who presented with left-sided spontaneous epistaxis and aural fullness with no neck node which turned out to be basaloid cell carcinoma of nasopharynx.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We highlight high clinical suspicion of rare variant of nasopharyngeal carcinoma although no palpable node was evident upon presentation.