Spousal death is one the most stressful life events that seriously affects the psychological well being of widowed. This study examined the mediating effects of social and personal religiosity on the psychological well being of widowed elderly people. The sample for this study was comprised of 1367 widowed and married elderly Muslims from Malaysia. Psychological well being, religiosity, and physical health were measured using WHO-5 Well being Index, Intrinsic Extrinsic religiosity scale, and a checklist of 16 physical health problems, respectively. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version-13). As expected, bivariate correlation analysis revealed that widowhood is statistically and negatively associated with psychological well being. Results of multiple hierarchical regression analyses and Sobel test showed that only the indirect effect of widowhood through personal religiosity was statistically significant (Sobel = -2.79, p < .01). Sobel test for social religiosity was not significant (Sobel = -1.54, p > .05). The results of this study confirmed earlier studies, which found that widowhood negatively affects psychological well being of elderly people. Overall, the findings show that the potential solace provided by religiosity can decrease the negative effects of widowhood on the psychological well being of widowed elderly people.
This study explored health-care workers' perception of patients' suicide intention and their understanding of factors leading to particular interpretations. Semistructured face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 health-care workers from a general hospital in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Interview data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the interpretative phenomenological analysis. The health-care workers were found to have four types of perceptions: to end life, not to end life, ambivalence about intention, and an evolving understanding of intention. Factors leading to their perceptions of patients' suicide intention were patient demographics, health status, severity of ideation/attempt, suicide method, history of treatment, moral character, communication of suicide intention, affective/cognitive status, availability of social support, and health-care workers' limited knowledge of patients' condition/situation. Insufficient knowledge and negative attitudes toward suicidal patients led to risk minimization and empathic failure, although most health-care workers used the correct parameters in determining suicide intention.
This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Death Anxiety Scale-Extended (DAS-E). A total of 507 patients with end-stage renal disease completed the DAS-E. The factor structure of the scale was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis with an oblique rotation and confirmatory factor analysis. The content and construct validity of the DAS-E were assessed. Average variance extracted, maximum shared squared variance, and average shared squared variance were estimated to assess discriminant and convergent validity. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α = .839 and .831), composite reliability (CR = .845 and .832), Theta (θ = .893 and .867), and McDonald Omega (Ω = .796 and .743). The analysis indicated a two-factor solution. Reliability and discriminant validity of the factors was established. Findings revealed that the present scale was a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in assessment of death anxiety in Iranian patients with end-stage renal disease.
The COVID-19 pandemic has put a hold on the Silent Mentor Programme (SMP); this pause has not only caused unprecedented challenges for the delivery of medical education but has forced changes in the programme ceremony sessions. We aimed to describe the psychological impact and experiences of family members of silent mentors during the COVID-19 pandemic using qualitative interviews. Many expressed feelings of remorse and unrest about the unprecedented delay of the SMP. The delay increased negative emotions particularly among some elderly family members; however, there was no prominent negative effect on their functional health and well-being. Several participants relayed the belief that the soul cannot rest until the body receives a proper burial while some worried about the deterioration of the physical condition of the mentors. In conclusion, findings provide insights into the importance of not overlooking the mental health implications of delaying the SMP in future outbreaks or crises.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between religious orientation, coping strategies and suicidal behaviour among secondary school adolescents and college students. A total of 196 participants (73 adolescents and 123 adults college students) completed the online survey consisting of the Religious-Orientation Scale-Revised, Brief COPE and Suicidal Behaviours Questionnaire-Revised. Adolescents in secondary school had higher odds of suicidal thoughts and behaviour than college students (OR 4.40, 95% CI: 1.133, 17.094, p = 0.032). Individuals who employed an avoidant coping strategy had higher odds of suicidal thoughts and behaviour after adjusting for other relevant variables, which indicated that when a person engages in avoidant coping strategy, it is most likely that they have a higher odds of suicidal thoughts and behaviour (OR 1.118, 95% CI: 1.050, 1.189, p
This review study fills an important gap by aiming to determine the age changes in attempted and completed suicide in Iran during the past decade. A systematic review of related articles in international and Iranian databases from January 2008 to January 2020 was first conducted and relevant studies were extracted based on established criteria. Results showed that the mean age of suicide in Iran is 29.8 (range 27.7 - 31.8) years old for men and 27.4 (range 25.8 - 28.9) for women (P
To palliate suffering, understanding the circumstances leading to suffering and its amelioration could be helpful. Our study aimed to explore contributing and relieving factors of suffering in palliative care. Adult palliative care stage III or IV cancer in-patients were recruited from University of Malaya Medical Centre. Participants recorded their overall suffering score from 0 to 10 three times daily, followed by descriptions of their contributing and relieving factors. Factors of suffering were thematically analysed with NVIVO. Descriptive data were analysed with SPSS. 108 patients participated. The most common contributing factor of suffering was health factor (96.3%), followed by healthcare factor (78.7%), psychological factor (63.0%) and community factor (20.4%). The most common relieving factor was health factor (88.9%), followed by psychological factor (78.7%), community factor (75.9%) and healthcare factor (70.4%). Self-reported assessment of suffering offers a rapid approach to detect bothering issues that require immediate attention and further in-depth exploration.
We examined whether burnout, depression, anxiety, stress, lifetime suicidal ideation, self-efficacy in preventing suicide and demographic factors predicted the understanding of and willingness to help suicidal patients among hospital healthcare workers. A total of 368 healthcare workers from the major surgical and medical departments in a general hospital setting were recruited. Participants responded to the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21, Self-efficacy in Suicide Prevention, and Understanding Suicide Attempt Patient Scale. Those from the psychiatric department, with higher suicide prevention self-efficacy, and lower personal accomplishment indicated more understanding and helpful attitudes; doctors, depressed and anxious healthcare workers reported less understanding and helpful attitudes. Suicide prevention efforts must be conducted in tandem with equipping and supporting the healthcare workers who manage suicidal patients.
This study assessed death anxiety (Death Anxiety Questionnaire, DAQ) and psychophysical- (psychological and physical) symptom experience following cadaveric dissection among the Silent Mentor Program (SMP) participants before thawing (T1), after the suturing, dressing and coffining session (T2), and one month post-program (T3). There was a significant decline in the total DAQ score comparing T1 and T2 (t = 7.69, p
Organ transplantation is considered an alternative treatment to save lives or to improve the quality of life and is a successful method for the treatment of patients with end-stage organ diseases. The main objective of the current study was to explore the determinants of the attitudes and willingness to communicate the posthumous organ donation decisions to the families. Questionnaires were used to test the hypothesized relationships. The results confirmed altruism, knowledge, empathy, and self-identity as the antecedents to attitude. We also found perceived behavioral control, moral norms, and attitude as significant antecedents to the willingness to donate organs after death. The results of the study also indicated that those who were willing to sign the donor card were also willing to communicate their decision to their families. Religiosity moderated the relationship between willingness to donate and signing the donor card, and it strengthened the relationship. The findings of this study would provide insight into the factors which can influence posthumous organ donation among university students in Pakistan.
Ensuring use of valid and reliable scales for evaluating death anxiety that are relevant to the cultural context where they are applied is essential. The purpose of the study was to conduct a systematic review of the psychometric properties of Templer's Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) across cultures. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, SID, and Magiran databases were systematically searched for studies published between 1970 and 2017 using Mesh terms. Two independent researchers used Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies and Checklist of Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy to evaluate study quality. Included studies were conducted in Iran, United States, Italy, China, Egypt, Spain, and Australia. Overall study quality was acceptable in 15 evaluated articles. However, findings demonstrated that two (one study), three (seven studies), four (four studies), and five factors (three studies) were extracted across the respective studies. Confirmatory concurrent validity was assessed in two studies. While Templer's DAS has stood the test of time as a commonly used index of capturing the conscious experience of death anxiety, there are psychometric inconsistencies in identified factor solutions across cultures. Findings emphasize the need for continued evaluation of how the DAS is translated in specific countries with assessment in relation to other death construct tools.
Suffering experiences are common phenomena in palliative care. In this study, we aim to explore the different patterns of suffering in palliative care. Adult palliative care patients were recruited from the University of Malaya Medical Centre. Suffering scores were charted 3 times a day for a week. The characteristics of the suffering charts were analyzed using SPSS. The patterns of suffering were analyzed using structural pattern recognition. A total of 53 patients participated. The overall trends of suffering were downward (64%), upward (19%), and stable (17%). Median minimum and maximum suffering scores were 2/10 and 6/10, with an average of 3.6/10. Nine patterns of suffering were recognized from categorizing two key characteristics of suffering (intensity and fluctuation)-named S1 to S9. Understanding the different patterns of suffering may lead to better suffering management.