Hypertension is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is highly prevalent throughout the world. Even in regions liike South-East Asia (SEA) which has been perceived to be less prone to cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence of hypertension has been reported to be around 35% (1). Awareness and control of hypertension in SEA is also low, both being less than 50% each (2).Control of hypertension is an interplay between patients, doctors and system factors. One of the reasons for poor control of hypertension is resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension is defined as blood presure that remains above goal despite being on three concurrent anti-hypertensive medications preferbaly one of which is a diuretic (3).True resistant hypertension should be differiented from secondary hypertension and pseudo-resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension is almost always multi-factorial in aetiology. The exact prevalence of resistant hypertenion even in developed countries is not known It has been estimated that it is as high as 20-30% in clinical trial patients (4)Not many studies about resistant hypertension have been done in SEA but one done in an outpatient clinic in Thailand found it to be 7.82% Another study also done in a primary care clinc in Malaysia on 1217 patients with hypertension found the prevalence of resistant hypertension to be 8.8%. (6) Here it was found that the presence of chronic kidney disease was more likely to be associated with resistant hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56-5.35). Other factors like increasing age, female gender, presence of diabetes, obesity and left ventricular hypertrophyage which have been found to be predictors of resistant hypertension in other studies in the west were not seen in this study. There are various reasons for these findingsBut whatever the factors are that are associated with uncontrolled hypertension, the task is to sort out true resistant hypertension from pseudo-resistant hypertension and secondary casues of hypertension which may be treatable. A concerted effort is needed to reduce the BP in resistant hypertension. Failure to do so would mean a substantal increase in CV risk for the patient.
Three urban public primary schools in the district of Petaling, Selangor were surveyed for obesity amongst the schoolchildren and factors related to it. The prevalence of obesity amongst primary schoolchildren, with the mean age of 8.91 years was 9.5%. In addition, it was more prevalent among the boys (p
Pneumococcal disease, caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a major burden to global health. Although the World Health Organisation (WHO) strongly recommends the inclusion of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in national immunisation programmes (NIP's) worldwide, this has not occurred in many countries in the WHO South East Asia and Western Pacific regions - particularly longstanding middle-income countries. It is widely accepted that carriage of S. pneumoniae is a precursor to developing any pneumococcal disease. The reduction in pneumococcal disease from vaccine serotypes (VT) following widespread implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is believed to be through the direct immunogenic protective effect of immunised individuals as well as indirectly through herd immunity diminishing the incidence of disease in nonimmunised individuals. In Malaysia, pneumococcal disease is not included in national surveillance programmes and although PCVs have been licensed, they have not been included in the NIP. Hence, the vaccine is only available privately and the majority of the population is not able to afford it. There is an urgent need to develop surveillance programmes in Malaysia to include pneumococcal serotype data from carriage and invasive disease so that it may help guide national vaccine policy prior to a decision being taken on the inclusion of PCVs in the NIP.
Morquio A (MPS IVA) is a rare disease characterised by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6 sulfatase (GALNS) and presenting with short stature, abnormal gait, cervical spine instability and shortened lifespan.
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of HPV seropositivity among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy individuals and to correlate the association between HPV 16 seropositivity and risk of OSCC.
Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia.
Adolescent smoking is an emerging health concern in the developing countries. A cross-sectional study is conducted to determine the prevalence and smoking behaviour of adolescents in Sarawak. The prevalence of smoking is 32.8% with mean age of initiation at 12.8±1.9 years. Most (67.2%) adolescents are experimental smokers and the majority (67.9%) did not smoke on a daily basis. Branded cigarettes are preferred (83.1%) and the cigarettes are obtained either from friends (49.1%) or self purchased (43.6%). Students prefer to smoke at their friend's house (31.0%) or at school (25.3%). Smoking prevalence among adolescents in Sarawak is high and begins early. Early intervention on smoking prevention and risk awareness is perhaps more effective if initiated before the age of 12 years.
Self-injury is a significant predictor of future self-harm and suicide, and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. However, despite an
apparent increase in prevalence, very little research on this behaviour has been conducted within Malaysia. This paper reviews the definitional issues
pertinent to the study of self-injury including the need to adopt a consistent nomenclature for the behaviour, separate self-injury which occurs with and
without suicidal intent, and to address role of culture in defining self-injurious behaviour. A review and critique of research exploring the prevalence, function, aetiology, and correlates of self-injury across both clinical and community samples is provided. Finally, in light of the current international knowledge regarding self-injurious behaviour, recommendations to guide future research in Malaysia are proposed.
Being a student, especially postgraduate student, could expose to stress, and being international postgraduate student would exposed to more stress to the student. This study was conducted to assess stress level among international postgraduate students and its associated factors. A cross sectional study was conducted among international postgraduate students registered at UKMMC, Cheras campus, Kuala Lumpur. Questionnaires were distributed to 119 students,. Main international student are Arabs (52.4%). The stress prevalence is 54.8%. Younger age group are more stressful with mean age 33.94 (P=0.004), while shorter duration is associated with stress, P=0.035. Relationship with neighbour and relationship with local colleagues are shown to be associated with stress with P value 0.011 and 0.005 respectively. This study reveals the presence of significant prevalence of stress among international postgraduate students. The student socio-demographic character that has shown to be associated with stress in this study was age. The poor relationships with local colleagues as well as the poor relationships with the neighbours have shown to contribute to the stress among international students.
The sample size calculation for a prevalence only needs a simple formula. However, there are a number of practical issues in selecting values for the parameters required in the formula. Several practical issues are addressed and appropriate recommendations are given. The paper also suggests the application of a software calculator that checks the normal approximation assumption and incorporates finite population correction in the sample size calculation.
Most people with musculoskeletal problem suffer pain at multiple body sites. The most frequent form of multisite pain studied is chronic widespread pain (CWP). Focusing solely on CWP may exclude the commoner form of multisite pain which is less wide spread. Therefore, studies on multisite pain which do not consider the spatial distribution of pain can be beneficial to tackle the overall problem of musculoskeletal pain. Nevertheless, multisite pain has been defined differently in the studies among workers. The absence of uniformed definition will jeopardize the understanding of this musculoskeletal problem. A review was thus carried out to identify how multisite pain were defined, how they influenced the reported occurrence of multisite pain and whether the definition determined the physical work exposures assessed in previous studies among worker. A systematic review was initiated by the search of electronic databases for multisite pain. Articles were included and excluded based on the selection criteria. A final of nine full text articles were reviewed. It was found that the difference in the definitions lies mainly in the body sites considered and the pain characteristics. The characteristics of pain influenced the multisite pain prevalence more than the sites.It wasdifficult to conclude whether the definition used determined the physical work exposures since only five studies were involved and three of them had similar research team which may explained the usage of similar exposures. The findings from this review, however, could not be inferred due to the small number of studies involved.
We examined the prevalence of diabetes among inpatients in our hospital, the relationship of the diagnoses on admission to diabetes, and the frequency of testing for HbA1c as a marker of long-term glycaemic control, proteinuria, and hypercholesterolaemia. In addition, patients with raised laboratory plasma glucose without a know history of diabetes mellitus, were studied to see if these had been further evaluation. The overall prevalence of diabetes in our hospital was 25.% with the highest prevalence found (37.8%) on medical wards. 10.5% of admissions were due directly to diabetes and a further 58.9% of patients were admitted with illness which were significant related to diabetes. Overall testing rates for HbA31c, proteinuria, and hypercholesterolaemia were less than ideal (51.6, 73.4 and 45.% respectively). Less than 50% of patients without previously diagnosed diabetes but with high plasma glucose values had further evaluation for diabetes. In conclusion, this study has detected a high overall prevalence of diabetes among inpatients in an urban Malaysian hospital. Rates of testing for HbA51c, proteinuria, and hypercholesterolaemia, are disappointingly low, as is further evaluation of patients without known diabetes, but with elevated glucose values. More effective measures to improve the delivery of inpatient diabetes care are needed.
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune mediated, hyperproliferative skin disease that has substantial impact on the sexual functions. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in patients with psoriasis.
Traditional medicine which includes Islamic faith healing centre is still an important place to seek treatment whether for psychiatric reasons or others. This study aims to determine the prevalence of psychiatric illness among attenders of an Islamic spiritual healing centre and to understand patients’ illness attribution and their religiosity.
The aim of this study was to simulate the effects of tuberculosis (TB) treatment strategies interventions in an overcrowded and poorly ventilated prison with both high (5 months) and low (3 years) turnover of inmates against improved environmental conditions. We used a deterministic transmission model to simulate the effects of treatment of latent TB infection and active TB, or the combination of both treatment strategies. Without any intervention, the TB prevalence is estimated to increase to 8.8% for a prison with low turnover of inmates but modestly stabilize at 5.8% for high-turnover prisons in a 10-year period. Reducing overcrowding from 6 to 4 inmates per housing cell and increasing the ventilation rate from 2 to 12 air changes per hour combined with any treatment strategy would further reduce the TB prevalence to as low as 0.98% for a prison with low inmate turnover.
A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals was significantly higher than respective controls. Evidence regarding bone loss within first year of HIV infection or ART initiation was preliminary.
Non-syndromic tooth agenesis defined as developmental absence of more than one
tooth that appears as independent congenital oral trait. Its prevalence, pattern and distribution
rates vary by populations. The aim of this study was to identify the pattern and distribution of
tooth agenesis in permanent dentition among IIUM dental polyclinic patients. (Copied from article).
Adequate space is required in the interforaminal region for anterior mandibular
surgery, where the anterior loop is located within this region. The aim of this study is to evaluate
the prevalence of the anterior loop (AL) of the inferior alveolar nerve, and to measure its length
and position in patients attending Kulliyyah of Dentistry using cone beam computed tomography
(CBCT). (Copied from article).