Flourishing is a relatively new concept in positive psychology that considers hedonic and eudaimonic aspects of well-being. The current study aims to identify the prevalence and socio-demographic and health factors associated with flourishing among older Malaysians.
Norway has achieved a noteworthy reduction in smoking prevalence over the past forty years. In 2015, 13% of Norwegians aged 13-74 smoked daily and a further 9% smoked occasionally. One of the objectives of the Norwegian 2013-16 national strategy for tobacco control is to achieve a reduction in the daily smoking prevalence to < 10% by 2016. This paper aims to estimate how long it will take for Norway to achieve the 10% smoking prevalence.
Hypertension is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is highly prevalent throughout the world. Even in regions liike South-East Asia (SEA) which has been perceived to be less prone to cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence of hypertension has been reported to be around 35% (1). Awareness and control of hypertension in SEA is also low, both being less than 50% each (2).Control of hypertension is an interplay between patients, doctors and system factors. One of the reasons for poor control of hypertension is resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension is defined as blood presure that remains above goal despite being on three concurrent anti-hypertensive medications preferbaly one of which is a diuretic (3).True resistant hypertension should be differiented from secondary hypertension and pseudo-resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension is almost always multi-factorial in aetiology. The exact prevalence of resistant hypertenion even in developed countries is not known It has been estimated that it is as high as 20-30% in clinical trial patients (4)Not many studies about resistant hypertension have been done in SEA but one done in an outpatient clinic in Thailand found it to be 7.82% Another study also done in a primary care clinc in Malaysia on 1217 patients with hypertension found the prevalence of resistant hypertension to be 8.8%. (6) Here it was found that the presence of chronic kidney disease was more likely to be associated with resistant hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56-5.35). Other factors like increasing age, female gender, presence of diabetes, obesity and left ventricular hypertrophyage which have been found to be predictors of resistant hypertension in other studies in the west were not seen in this study. There are various reasons for these findingsBut whatever the factors are that are associated with uncontrolled hypertension, the task is to sort out true resistant hypertension from pseudo-resistant hypertension and secondary casues of hypertension which may be treatable. A concerted effort is needed to reduce the BP in resistant hypertension. Failure to do so would mean a substantal increase in CV risk for the patient.
In the context of global increases in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases, the objective of the present study is to investigate the factors affecting individuals' decisions to use health-promoting goods and services.
In light of the fact that chronic diseases were becoming more prevalent recently, the primary objective of the study was to examine the socio-demographic, health, and lifestyle determinants of the use of preventive medical care in Penang, Malaysia.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM) in Malaysian dental patients.
METHODS: Thousand five hundred and thirty-two dental patients were examined for the presence of oral tori at the Faculty of Dentistry outpatient clinic, AIMST University. Factors such as race, age, sex, size, and shape of tori were studied.
RESULTS: The prevalence rates were 12% for TP and 2.8% for TM. A variation in the presence of tori among the three races in Malaysia-Chinese, Malays, and Indians-was noted, where the Chinese significantly had a higher prevalence of TP (17.9%) and TM (4.6%). Predominantly, tori were observed >40 years and older age group, and further both TP and TM were seen more commonly in women. Most TP were of smooth type (52.2%) and >2 cm (67.4%), while all TM were bilateral and nodular, plus most were <2 cm (67.4%).
CONCLUSION: Presence of tori (TP and TM) was detected in 12.5% of the participants. The variations noted in the prevalence and clinical characteristics of tori among people of different races living in the same country reflect its multifactorial etiology. Both genetic and environmental factors are responsible for its occurrence, and particular races are more prone genetically where its expression is enhanced by environmental factors.
KEYWORDS: Tori; torus mandibularis; torus palatinus
Study site: Dental clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, AIMST University
Three urban public primary schools in the district of Petaling, Selangor were surveyed for obesity amongst the schoolchildren and factors related to it. The prevalence of obesity amongst primary schoolchildren, with the mean age of 8.91 years was 9.5%. In addition, it was more prevalent among the boys (p
Pneumococcal disease, caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a major burden to global health. Although the World Health Organisation (WHO) strongly recommends the inclusion of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in national immunisation programmes (NIP's) worldwide, this has not occurred in many countries in the WHO South East Asia and Western Pacific regions - particularly longstanding middle-income countries. It is widely accepted that carriage of S. pneumoniae is a precursor to developing any pneumococcal disease. The reduction in pneumococcal disease from vaccine serotypes (VT) following widespread implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is believed to be through the direct immunogenic protective effect of immunised individuals as well as indirectly through herd immunity diminishing the incidence of disease in nonimmunised individuals. In Malaysia, pneumococcal disease is not included in national surveillance programmes and although PCVs have been licensed, they have not been included in the NIP. Hence, the vaccine is only available privately and the majority of the population is not able to afford it. There is an urgent need to develop surveillance programmes in Malaysia to include pneumococcal serotype data from carriage and invasive disease so that it may help guide national vaccine policy prior to a decision being taken on the inclusion of PCVs in the NIP.
The problem of diabetes is large unknown due to lack of good epidemiological studies. The author's own studies showed a prevalence rate, in the Malays, of less than 1.0% in remote rural areas, 3.9% in a village close to Kuala Lumpur, and 3.0% for Malays working in a railway yard in Kuala Lumpur. The prevalence rate for the Chinese was 4.9% in the same survey, and for the Indian it was 16.0%. A survey in GHKL showed that 17.9% of the patients admitted for a month period in 1986 were due to diabetes and its complications. Majority of diabetes in Malaysia are non-insulin-dependent type.
Backache is a common health problem associated with non ergonomic working environment. A cross sectional study amongst the rubber tappers was conducted to determine the prevalence of low back pain and ergonomic factors related to it. The respondents were 116 male rubber tappers from Felda scheme in the state of Pahang who were selected by random sampling. The result showed prevalence of low back pain was 60.3% and has significant association with history of backache (p<0.05). Rubber tappers were 6 times more higher to develop low back pain if they had history of backache (Odd Ratio =6.24, 95% CI). There were no significant association between socio-demographic factors and low back pain. Ergonomic factors such as bending during tapping, respondents’ height and duration of the tapping showed no significant association with low back pain. Further study should be done in ergonomic aspect to explore the problem.
Key words: Low back pain, rubber tapper, Felda, ergonomic.
The uses of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among patients with chronic diseases are becoming increasingly popular. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 45 government health clinics across Negeri Sembilan. Respondents at diabetes clinics were selected via systematic random sampling and interviewed using structured questionnaire. CAM usage was divided into three groups; CAM use for diabetes (CAM-DM), CAM use for general health (CAM-G) and Non CAM user. The prevalent use of CAM among type II diabetes mellitus patients in Negeri Sembilan was 58.5% (CAM-DM: 40.6% and CAM-G: 17.9%). For CAM-DM group, bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) was the most popular CAM consumed to help control diabetes, while supplement milk was the most popular choice for the CAM-G group. In conclusion, the use of CAM among type II diabetes mellitus patients in Negeri Sembilan was common. Natural products are the main choice of CAM modality used to help with the management of diabetes. Majority of CAM users never informed their healthcare providers about their CAM use.
The National Health Morbidity Survey 1996 showed only 34.2% of women aged 20 years and above had done breast self examination (BSE). This data showed the practice of BSE is still low despite of various awareness programmes and activities carried out. A cross sectional study through Systematic Random Sampling was done at Out Patient Department, Kuantan Health Office to know the knowledge and practice of BSE among women aged 20~60 years. The results showed 94.9% respondents had received information about BSE, however only 31.6% knew the appropriate time to do BSE, 14.7% knew the purpose of doing at that time and only 29.9% knew how frequent they should do BSE. 74% of respondents did BSE, however 70.2% of them did not do monthly and 67.2% did not do at the suggested time. There was an association between the practice of BSE with the knowledge and sociodemographic characteristics i.e. educational level, income, ethnic group and marital status.
Key word: Breast self-examination, breast cancer, Kuantan.
Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
This study aimed to examine the association between second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and psychological distress amongst non-smoking pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was used to obtain a representative sample of non-smoking pregnant women attending health clinics (n = 661) across six states in Malaysia. The duration of SHS exposure inside and outside the house was recorded from the participants. Psychological distress was assessed via General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12). The analyses were conducted using a logistic regression adjusted for demographic variables and other variables. Amongst non-smoking pregnant women, the prevalence of global SHS exposure and psychological distress was 80.4% and 64.2%, respectively. In the multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) models for psychological distress and the duration of SHS exposures, there was an OR of 1.04 (95% CI: 0.61-1.77) for individuals with SHS exposure of 1-4 hours/week, 0.44 (95% CI: 0.23-0.81) for SHS exposure of 5-14 hours/week and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.32-2.22) for exposures of >15 hours/week compared to those with no SHS exposure outside the home. Meanwhile, SHS exposure outside the house with the duration of 5-14 hours might have temporary calming effects against psychological distress. Nonetheless, more research is needed to ascertain this.
Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and osteoporosis are both chronic conditions and the relationship between them is complex.
Objective: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of Low Bone Mineral density (LBMD, i.e., osteopenia and osteoporosis), as well as, the difference and associations between Quantitative Ultrasound Scan (QUS) parameters with socio-demographic data and clinical related data among T2DM in Penang, Malaysia.
Method: An observational, cross-sectional study with a convenient sample of 450 T2DM patients were recruited from the outpatient diabetes clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang (HPP) to measure Bone Mineral Density (BMD) at the heel bone using QUS. In addition, a self-reported structured questionnaire about the socio-demographic data and osteoporosis risk factors were collected. Moreover, the study included the retrospective collection of clinical data from patients' medical records.
Results: The mean value of T-score for normal BMD, osteopenic and osteoporotic patients' were (-0.41±0.44), (-1.65±0.39) and (-2.76±0.27), respectively. According to QUS measurements, more than three quarters of T2DM patients (82%) were at high risk of abnormal BMD. The results showed that QUS scores were significantly associated with age, gender, menopausal duration, educational level and diabetic related data. Moreover, the QUS parameters and T-scores demonstrated significant negative correlation with age, menopausal duration, diabetic duration and glycaemic control, as well as, a positive correlation with body mass index and waist to hip ratio. The current study revealed that none of the cardiovascular disease risk factors appear to influence the prevalence of low BMD among T2DM Malaysian patients.
Conclusion: The study findings revealed that the assessment of T2DM patients' bone health and related factor are essential and future educational programs are crucial to improve osteoporosis management.
Study site: outpatient diabetes clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang
Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the most frequent sub-cortical degenerative disease, characterized by universal progressive disorder of the
nervous system that affects movement. This cross sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of PD among elderly attending the neurology clinic in Serdang Hospital.
Methods A total of 150 records of patients attended the clinic from January to December 2016 were randomly selected. Data was collected using a proforma form seeking information related to age, gender, race, locality, and presence of comorbidity particularly diabetes mellitus. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (IBM SPSS) version 22.0.
Results The prevalence of PD among the elderly involved in the study was 34%. Majority of the respondents were aged 60 to 70 years old (54.7%), male (53.3%), Chinese (56.7%), from urban locality (93.0%) and were not diabetic (69.3%). The inferential statistics showed no significant association between all the factors with PD. However, the associations between age and diabetes mellitus with PD were almost significant with p values of 0.07 and 0.08 respectively.
Conclusions Overall, the prevalence of PD among elderly who attended the neurology clinic in year 2016 was less than half with none of the factors under study were significantly associated with PD. However with bigger sample size, possible significant association may be obtained between age and diabetes mellitus.
INTRODUCTION: Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality and has major clinical implications. However, few studies of hyponatraemia in the primary care setting has been published to date.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, potential causes and management of hyponatraemia and to identify factors associated with severity of hyponatraemia among older persons in a primary care setting.
METHODS: Electronic records were searched to identify all cases aged ≥60 years with a serum sodium <135mmol/l, attending outpatient clinic in 2014. Patients' medical records with the available blood test results of glucose, potassium, urea and creatinine were reviewed.
RESULTS: Of the 21,544 elderly, 5873 patients (27.3%) had electrolyte profile tests. 403 (6.9%) had hyponatraemia in at least one blood test. Medical records were available for 253, mean age 72.9±7.3 years, 178 (70.4%) had mild hyponatraemia, 75 (29.6%) had moderate to severe hyponatraemia. Potential causes were documented in 101 (40%). Patients with moderate to severe hyponatraemia were five times more likely to have a cause of hyponatraemia documented (p<0.01). Medications were the commonest documented cause of hyponatraemia (31.7%). Hydrochlorothiazide use was attributed in 25 (78.1%) of 32 with medication-associated hyponatraemia. Repeat renal profile (89%) was the commonest management of hypotonic hyponatraemia.
CONCLUSION: Whilst hyponatraemia was common in the clinic setting, many cases were not acknowledged and had no clear management strategies. In view of mild hyponatraemia has deleterious consequences, future studies should determine whether appropriate management of mild hyponatraemia will lead to clinical improvement.
Study site: Primary care clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
This detailed review analyzed the previously published studies related to the prevalence of psychotropic substances use, associated factors, and the misuse of the psychotropics among students. A comprehensive literature search covering six databases was performed. References from published articles and reports were extracted. This helped in identifying the available information on the use of psychotropic drugs. A total of 16 articles were included in this review. There is an upsurge of using psychotropics with the preceding years. More students are exposed to the risk of using psychotropic substances due to the multiple factors like stress, increased academic workload, etc. The misuse is found to be common with prescribed psychotropic substances. Students need to be aware of the bad outcomes of using psychotropic substances. Participation of every stakeholder to curb this menace needs to be emphasized. More extensive studies are required to know about the increasing prevalence, factors, and misuse of psychotropics.
Primary dysmenorrhea is a womanhood problem around the world and negatively affects quality of life. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea and to determine the factors associated with its intensity. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 311 undergraduate female students aged 18 to 27 years in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Socio-demographic characteristics and menstrual factors were obtained through interviews with the help of a pretested questionnaire. The prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea was 89.1%. Residing at home, younger age, lower number of years of formal education for the mother, positive family history of dysmenorrhea, higher severity of bleeding, and shorter menstrual period intervals were significantly associated with the higher intensity of primary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is a common health concern among young women. Being aware of the factors that are associated with its intensity makes it possible for health professionals to organize better focused programs to reduce the adverse effects of dysmenorrhea.
Morquio A (MPS IVA) is a rare disease characterised by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6 sulfatase (GALNS) and presenting with short stature, abnormal gait, cervical spine instability and shortened lifespan.