Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 95 in total

  1. Ng BHK, Tang IP
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Oct;71(Suppl 1):731-733.
    PMID: 31742052 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-018-1523-0
    Adenoid cystic carcinomas are tumors that are more commonly seen in the salivary glands than in the nasopharynx. Nasopharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinomas are rare and cases that are reported in the literatures are few. Treatment is mainly by surgical resection. Here, we report 2 cases of nasopharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  2. Mohamed Daud A, Mat Baki M, Azman M, Kamaruzaman E, Mohamed AS
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Oct;71(Suppl 1):118-120.
    PMID: 31741945 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-017-1146-x
    Respiratory distress after thyroidectomy and thymectomy can be challenging. We encountered a 70-year-old lady with a long-standing goiter with concomitant thymoma. She underwent the surgery and developed respiratory distress upon extubation with loss of laryngeal sensation causing severe aspiration. She was diagnosed myasthenia gravis and symptoms resolved with MG treatments.
  3. Razali MN, Mat Baki M, Kew TY, Mohamad Yunus MR
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Oct;71(Suppl 1):93-95.
    PMID: 31741939 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-017-1116-3
    Basal cell adenocarcinoma (BCAC) is a rare tumour entity. Despite its tendency to be infiltrative and destructive tumour with propensity to recur, it rarely metastasizes and long-term outcome following surgery is favourable. This paper presents a 42-year-old male with residual BCAC of parotid gland that had extended into infratemporal fossa and intracranial. The important aspect of this case is the rarity occurrence of BCAC of parotid with intracranial extension and its surgical approaches to achieve tumour clearance.
  4. See GB, Mesran I
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Oct;71(Suppl 1):45-48.
    PMID: 31741928 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-016-0992-2
    Subglottic cysts (SGCs) are a rare cause of airway obstruction in children. Medical advances, higher survival rates for preterm infants, and improved diagnostic equipment have increased the number of reported cases of SGCs over the last three decades, the majority occurring in infants who had been extremely premature neonates and had suffered from respiratory distress, therefore having been intubated and managed in neonatal ICUs. Symptoms of laryngeal cysts depend on the size and the location of the cyst and include a change in the tone of voice, dysphonia, hoarseness, dysphagia, stridor, and dyspnea. This condition is often misdiagnosed as laryngomalacia, asthma, croup, or other diseases, due to the fact that it manifests as recurring respiratory infections, stridor, and wheezing. Death can occur in severe cases that are not treated. When present, it may account for severe inspiratory stridor that compromise the airway. The accepted gold standard treatment is direct laryngoscopy with marsupialization of the cyst to prevent recurrence. Two cases of subglottic cyst in our centre are described here. Although all cases presented differently, but in both of our cases, which have previous history of intubation with prematurity were initially diagnosed as laryngomalacia and croup.
  5. Sairin ME, Yahya N, Kuan CY, Yunus MRM, Abdullah MK
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Oct;71(Suppl 1):18-20.
    PMID: 31741921 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-015-0940-6
    Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC) of salivary glands is a rare malignant salivary gland tumour and demonstrates genetic and regional distribution. It commonly occurs in major salivary gland especially parotid gland. We report a case of LEC of submandibular gland occurring in a 70 year-old lady.
  6. Roy S, Kumarasamy G, Salim R
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Nov;71(Suppl 2):1599-1602.
    PMID: 31750223 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-019-01685-z
    Vestibular dehiscence or atelectasis is a rarity known to cause vertigo. This pathology poses many challenges especially in diagnosis and treatment simply due to the scarcity of reported cases. The etiologic factors, disease pathophysiology and complications remain unclear. We report a young adult female who presented with unsteadiness for 2 years associated with headache. Tullio's phenomenon was observed which led to a finding of bilateral vestibular dehiscence involving the medial walls on high resolution computed tomography.
  7. Goh BS, Tang CL, Tan GC
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Nov;71(Suppl 2):1023-1026.
    PMID: 31750119 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-015-0930-8
    Myeloid sarcoma is a rare malignant extramedullary neoplasm of myeloid precursor cells. This disorder may occur in concomitance with or precede development of acute or chronic myeloid leukemia. Sometimes, it is the initial manifestation of relapse in a previously treated acute myeloid leukemia. We report a case of 11 years old boy with acute myeloid leukemia in remission state, presented with short history of right otalgia associated with facial nerve palsy. Diagnosis of right acute mastoiditis with facial nerve palsy as complication of acute otitis media was made initially. Patient underwent simple cortical mastoidectomy but histopathology from soft tissue that was sent revealed diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. A leukemic relapse was confirmed by paediatric oncologist through bone marrow biopsy. Chemotherapy was commenced but patient responded poorly to the treatment.
  8. Vasiwala R, Mohamad I, Venkateswaran SP, Hamzah SZ
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Nov;71(Suppl 3):1986-1989.
    PMID: 31763280 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-018-1402-8
    Extra nodal nasal NK/T cell lymphoma is relatively a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Variable clinical presentation with rapidly progressive necrosis of the cartilaginous and bony wall of the nose and upper respiratory passages leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment. A 43-years-old patient presented with right nasal pain and furuncle-like swelling. The swelling progressed rapidly to cellulitis to the face up to the right eye. Within 2 months, it had advanced to necrosis of the lateral vestibular cartilage, medial maxillary wall, turbinate and nasal septal cartilage. Biopsy reported as non-Hodgkin diffuse T cell (angiocentric T cell) lymphoma.
  9. Zahedi FD, Asmi NH, Husain S, Gendeh BS
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Nov;71(Suppl 3):1837-1842.
    PMID: 31763256 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-017-1219-x
    Nasal irrigation is an effective and cheap method in managing post sinonasal surgery patients. It works by improving ciliary clearance and performing mechanical debridement of the thick crust, decreasing mucosal edema and reducing the inflammatory mediators. Presence of nasal irrigation bottle contamination and its effect on patients have been studied. The aim of this study is to prospectively identify the risk of contamination in the nasal irrigation bottle, fluid from the bottle and to correlate with endoscopic findings from the patients who had underwent sinonasal surgery. Swabs will be taken from the nasal irrigation bottle and patient's middle meatus before the surgery and at each post surgery visits (2 and 4 weeks). Patients will be advised to irrigate their nose three times per day post sinonasal surgery. During endoscopic examination of the patient's nasal cavity at 2 and 4 weeks, any evidence of infection will be noted and documented. Additionally, a swab of fluid irrigated from the nasal cavity collected during the clinic follow-ups will also be taken. The specimens will be sent to the Microbiology laboratory for standard culture and sensitivity test. A total of 27 patients completed the study and were divided into case (n = 15) and control (n = 12) groups. The CFU (colony-forming unit) value of the bacteria cultured from the nasal cavity and the nasal irrigation bottle was statistically significantly (P = 0.00) increased from the baseline to the second week follow-up in both groups but not from the second week to the fourth week follow-up. The majority of the swabs from the nasal cavity of the patients and the nasal irrigation bottles were positively cultured for Pseudomonas sp. group. Other groups of bacteria that were cultured were Enterobacter sp., Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CONS) and Klebsiella sp. Endoscopically, there was no clinical evidence of infection found in the nasal cavity of the patients. The nasal irrigation bottle that was used in the post sinonasal surgery treatment and for alleviation of symptoms of sinonasal diseases was found to have bacterial contamination from the swabs taken from the bottle. However, despite this finding there was not clinical evidence of infection noted from the nasal endoscopic examination. A simple and effective method of cleaning the bottle would be helpful to reduce the bacterial contamination for this useful treatment method.
  10. Abdullah B, Periasamy C, Ismail R
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Nov;71(Suppl 3):1718-1726.
    PMID: 31763232 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-017-1070-0
    Nasal irrigations have been used for centuries without any scientific data to determine its efficacy. Despite their widespread use, much confusion exist about the mechanism of action, preparation, indications and therapeutic advantage of nasal irrigations. Anecdotal evidence and poorly controlled studies add to the confusion. Recent evidence provides strong scientific justification of the benefits and advantages of using nasal irrigations in sinonasal symptoms relief. The present review of the evidence based literature highlights its efficacy and clinical applications.
  11. Zahedi FD, Husain S, Gendeh BS
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2016 Jun;68(2):218-23.
    PMID: 27340641 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-015-0899-3
    A prospective single blinded interventional study was held in Otorhinolaryngology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre in August 2010 until November 2012 to evaluate the functional outcome of septorhinoplasty objectively and subjectively. Objective assessment was done using rhinomanometry and subjective assessment using Nasal Obstruction Symptoms Evaluation (NOSE) scale and Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaires (HRQOL) in Rhino Surgery. All measurements were taken preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. A total of 29 patients were enrolled and completed the study. Septorhinoplasty was commonly performed in Malays and Indians and rare amongst Chinese, with age ranged from 18 to 54 years. Majority had no history of trauma. Twisted nose was the most common external nose abnormality followed by crooked and saddle nose. All patients had internal valve insufficiency. There were significant improvement of the total and of all the parameters in the NOSE scale post septorhinoplasty (p  0.05). Significant correlations were noted in the improvement between the two subjective assessments (NOSE scale and HRQOL score). However, there was no significant correlation in the improvement between the subjective (NOSE scale and HRQOL score) with objective (rhinomanometry score) assessments. Septorhinoplasty improves the nasal airflow and quality of life of patients with nasal obstruction.
    Study site: Otorhinolaryngology Clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  12. Hindi K, Alazzawi S, Raman R, Prepageran N, Rahmat K
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2014 Dec;66(4):429-36.
    PMID: 26396957 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-014-0745-z
    The aim of this study is to assess the pneumatization of the paranasal sinuses (PNS) and other parts of temporal bone such as mastoid air cells and to investigate if there was any association between the aeration of these structures among the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian) as this would be representative of Asia. A retrospective review of 150 computed tomography (CT) scans of PNS and temporal bones was done and analysed. The pneumatization of each area was obtained and compared using statistical analysis. Patients with a history of previous medical or surgical problems in the intended areas were excluded from the study. The pneumatization of the mastoid air cells and other temporal bone parts were noted to be symmetrical in more than 75 %. There was a positive correlation between the pneumatization of mastoid air cells and that of the sphenoid sinus. The prevalence of Agger nasi, Haller's and Onodi cells was observed to be significantly higher in the Chinese group. Preoperative assessment of the temporal bone and PNS with CT scan may be helpful in the evaluation of their anatomical landmark and decrease the possibility of surgical complications related to 3D structures.
  13. Liew YT, Yong DJ, Somasundran M, Lum CL
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2015 Mar;67(Suppl 1):129-33.
    PMID: 25621268 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-014-0801-8
    The aim of the study was to examine and analyze the epidemiology and outcome of treatment for paediatric acquired subglottic stenosis treated with endoscopic bougie dilatation and topical mitomycin C. There were 15 patients identified from 2008 until 2013. All of them had acquired subglottic stenosis due to history of intubation. Majority of the patients had grade III stenosis, with the total of seven. Three patients had grade IV; three were grade II and two were grade I. All of the patients with severe stenosis (grade III and IV) needed tracheostomy while only one in mild stenosis group (grade I and II) required it for prolonged ventilation rather than obstruction due to subglottic stenosis. All of them underwent direct laryngoscopy under general anesthesia followed by endoscopic dilatation with bougie and topical mitomycin C 0.4 mg/ml for 5 min. Aim of success in our study was decannulation of tracheostomy or absence of symptoms at exertion. We achieved 6 (60 %) successful decannulation out of 10 patients with tracheostomy (excluded the patient with tracheostomy in grade I stenosis due to prolonged ventilation). As for those without tracheostomy, 3 (75 %) out of 4 patients were asymptomatic even at exertion. Average number of dilatation was 3.1 times, with mean duration of 28 min. No complications were reported in our series. One patient with grade I stenosis passed away due to severe pneumonia unrelated to the stenosis or dilatation, and she did not have any dilatation before she passed away. Multiple related risk factors were identified such as intubation, prematurity, movement of endotracheal tube, respiratory infection, traumatic intubation and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Experience of open surgical method was very limited in our centre in Sabah in East Malaysia. Endoscopic technique plays an important role in treatment of subglottic stenosis with adjunct like mitomycin C possibly booster the successful rate.
  14. Velayutham P, Govindasamy GK, Raman R, Prepageran N, Ng KH
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2014 Jan;66(Suppl 1):169-72.
    PMID: 24533378 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-011-0406-4
    The objective of this study is to assess high frequency hearing (above 8 kHz) loss among prolonged mobile phone users is a tertiary Referral Center. Prospective single blinded study. This is the first study that used high-frequency audiometry. The wide usage of mobile phone is so profound that we were unable to find enough non-users as a control group. Therefore we compared the non-dominant ear to the dominant ear using audiometric measurements. The study was a blinded study wherein the audiologist did not know which was the dominant ear. A total of 100 subjects were studied. Of the subjects studied 53% were males and 47% females. Mean age was 27. The left ear was dominant in 63%, 22% were dominant in the right ear and 15% did not have a preference. This study showed that there is significant loss in the dominant ear compared to the non-dominant ear (P 
  15. Asma A, Abdul Fatah AW, Hamzaini AH, Mazita A
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2013 Dec;65(Suppl 3):526-31.
    PMID: 24427708 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-011-0438-9
    In managing patient with congenital congenital aural atresia (CAA), preoperative high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan and hearing assessment are important. A grading system based on HRCT findings was first introduced by Jahrsdoefer in order to select appropriate candidates for operation and to predict the postoperative hearing outcome in CAA patients. The score of eight and more was considered as a good prognostic factor for hearing reconstruction surgery. However previously in our center this score was not used as the criteria for surgical procedure. This study was conducted at Center A to evaluate the correlation between pre and postoperative hearing level with HRCT based on a Jahrsdoefer grading system in patients with CAA. All records and HRCT films with CAA from January 1997 until December 2007 at Center A were evaluated. The demographic data, operative records, pre and post operative hearing levels and HRCT findings were analyzed. Hearing level in this study was based on a pure tone average of air-bone gap at 500 Hz, 1 kHz and 2 kHz or hearing level obtained from auditory brainstem response eudiometry. This study was approved by Research Ethics Committee (code number, FF-197-2008). Thirty-two ears were retrospectively evaluated. The postoperative hearing level of 30 dB and less was considered as successful hearing result postoperatively. Of the six ears which underwent canalplasty, three had achieved successful hearing result. However, there was no significant correlation between preoperative hearing level (HL) with HRCT score and postoperative HL with HRCT score at 0.05 significant levels (correlation coefficient = -0.292, P = 0.105 and correlation coefficient = -0.127, P = 0.810) respectively. Hearing evaluation and HRCT temporal bone are two independent evaluations for the patients with CAA before going for hearing reconstructive surgery.
  16. Arvin B, Prepageran N, Raman R
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2013 Dec;65(Suppl 3):480-4.
    PMID: 24427701 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-011-0356-x
    The objective of this study is to determine whether presbycusis occurs much earlier than previously believed if the high frequency (above 8 kHz) are included. Tertiary referral center (a teaching University). This is a cross-sectional observational study. Healthy adults from 20 to 49 years of age who had essentially normal hearing were included into the study. They were subjected to high frequency pure tone audiometry (until 16 kHz). Participants were grouped based on age ranges of 10 years (e.g., 20-29, 30-39, and 40-49) and the presence of symmetrical high frequency sensor neural hearing loss were documented. There is a significant presence of symmetrical high frequency sensor neural hearing loss (not attributed to any known risk factors) as early as from the age group of 40 to 49 years. Seven of 43 participants (16%) from age group of 20 to 29 years and 12 of 24 participants (50%) from age group of 30 to 39 years had significant high frequency hearing loss. High frequency hearing loss (high frequency Presbycusis) may occur much earlier than previously believed.
  17. Asma A, Ubaidah MA, Hasan SS, Wan Fazlina WH, Lim BY, Saim L, et al.
    PMID: 24427576 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-013-0621-2
    Bone anchored hearing aid (Baha) implant is an option for patient with canal atresia, single sided deafness(SSD) and chronically discharging ears despite treatments. This retrospective study was conducted from 2001 to 2011 to evaluate the surgical outcome of Baha implant surgery. Thirty-three patients were identified during this study period. Their age at implantation ranged from 5 to 40 years. Of 33 patients, 29 (87.9 %) patients had bilateral microtia and canal atresia, 3 (9.1 %) patients had unilateral microtia and canal atresia and 1 (3.0 %) patients have SSD following labyrinthitis. One patient (3.2 %) had major complication which is lost of implant due to failure of osseointegration. Soft tissue reactions were seen 7 patients (21.1 %). Of these 7 patients, 4 patients required 3-4 procedures as day care operation for excision of the skin overgrowth surrounding the abutment. Recurrent antibiotic treatment was required in 3 patients (9.7 %). None of our patient had history of intraoperative or peri-operative complication following Baha surgery. The commonest complications are local infection and inflammation at the implant site. None of our patient had history of intraoperative or peri-operative complication following Baha implant surgery.
  18. Kasim KS, Abdullah AB
    PMID: 24294589 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-011-0250-6
    Temporal bone cancer, a relatively rare disease, accounting for less than 0.2% of all tumors of the head and neck and is associated with a poor outcome; often presents in a subtle manner, which may delay diagnosis. It should be suspected in any case of persistent otitis media or otitis externa that fails to improve with adequate treatment. Despite advances in operative technique and postoperative care, long-term survival remains poor). It includes cancers arising from pinna that spreads to the temporal bone, primary tumors of the external auditory canal (EAC), middle ear, mastoid, petrous apex, and metastatic lesions to the temporal bone. Here is a report on a case of temporal bone carcinoma presenting with right otalgia, otorrhea and facial paralysis. The patient was initially diagnosed as mastoiditis and later the clinical impression was revised to temporal bone carcinoma (undifferentiated type), based on the pathologic findings.
  19. Asma A, Azmi MN, Mazita A, Marina MB, Salina H, Norlaila M
    PMID: 22468245 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-011-0132-y
    Neuropathy is frequently a late complication of diabetes mellitus. Auditory neuropathy and microangiopathy of inner ear are the possible causes of hearing loss in diabetics. To study the correlation between glycaemic control and hearing threshold in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to determine the differences of hearing threshold between groups treated with different modality. This single blind randomized controlled study was performed at the Department of Medicine and Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) between 1st May 2003 and 31st September 2004. This study was approved by Research Ethics Committee (code number FF-137). Subjects were randomized into two groups. Group 1 were patients treated with conventional oral hypoglycemic agents. The patients in group 2 were those treated with insulin injection. The subjects were seen 4 weekly for 3 months. Audiometric test were performed in all subjects at each visit. Blood were taken for fasting blood glucose, Hb1Ac, and fructosamine at every visit to determine the glycaemic controls of the subject. They were 11 patients (22 ears) treated with oral hypoglycemic agents and 17 patients treated (34 ears) with subcutaneous insulin. There is no significant difference between mean pure tone threshold before and after treatment at all frequencies in both groups. There is also no significance different in fasting glucose level and fructosamine. However, there is significant difference HbA1c levels between the two groups after treatment (P 
  20. Prepageran N, Lingham OR
    PMID: 23120731 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-010-0090-9
    The advent of endoscopes has revolutionized rhinology and the traditional headlight based surgeries have largely been replaced by endoscopes. Septoplasty for deviated nasal septum or Sluder's neuralgia have been conventionally performed with the aid of headlight. This can be technically challenging as visualization of the nasal cavity, particularly the posterior portion is rather limited as the procedure is performed via the nostrils. In addition, with headlights for illumination, teaching this procedure can be difficult as only the surgeon who is wearing the headlights has direct vision of the surgical field.Endoscopic septoplasty is an accepted alternative to traditional headlight approach to septoplasty. This approach provides a direct-targeted route to the anatomic deformity, improved visualization, and magnification of the surgical field. Our experience in endoscopic septoplasty is highlighted in this paper, excluding septoplasties performed as part of exposure to the sinuses. We use the open book method that to best of our knowledge has not been described in literature before.
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