The aim of the study was to examine and analyze the epidemiology and outcome of treatment for paediatric acquired subglottic stenosis treated with endoscopic bougie dilatation and topical mitomycin C. There were 15 patients identified from 2008 until 2013. All of them had acquired subglottic stenosis due to history of intubation. Majority of the patients had grade III stenosis, with the total of seven. Three patients had grade IV; three were grade II and two were grade I. All of the patients with severe stenosis (grade III and IV) needed tracheostomy while only one in mild stenosis group (grade I and II) required it for prolonged ventilation rather than obstruction due to subglottic stenosis. All of them underwent direct laryngoscopy under general anesthesia followed by endoscopic dilatation with bougie and topical mitomycin C 0.4 mg/ml for 5 min. Aim of success in our study was decannulation of tracheostomy or absence of symptoms at exertion. We achieved 6 (60 %) successful decannulation out of 10 patients with tracheostomy (excluded the patient with tracheostomy in grade I stenosis due to prolonged ventilation). As for those without tracheostomy, 3 (75 %) out of 4 patients were asymptomatic even at exertion. Average number of dilatation was 3.1 times, with mean duration of 28 min. No complications were reported in our series. One patient with grade I stenosis passed away due to severe pneumonia unrelated to the stenosis or dilatation, and she did not have any dilatation before she passed away. Multiple related risk factors were identified such as intubation, prematurity, movement of endotracheal tube, respiratory infection, traumatic intubation and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Experience of open surgical method was very limited in our centre in Sabah in East Malaysia. Endoscopic technique plays an important role in treatment of subglottic stenosis with adjunct like mitomycin C possibly booster the successful rate.
The objective of this study is to assess high frequency hearing (above 8 kHz) loss among prolonged mobile phone users is a tertiary Referral Center. Prospective single blinded study. This is the first study that used high-frequency audiometry. The wide usage of mobile phone is so profound that we were unable to find enough non-users as a control group. Therefore we compared the non-dominant ear to the dominant ear using audiometric measurements. The study was a blinded study wherein the audiologist did not know which was the dominant ear. A total of 100 subjects were studied. Of the subjects studied 53% were males and 47% females. Mean age was 27. The left ear was dominant in 63%, 22% were dominant in the right ear and 15% did not have a preference. This study showed that there is significant loss in the dominant ear compared to the non-dominant ear (P
Bone anchored hearing aid (Baha) implant is an option for patient with canal atresia, single sided deafness(SSD) and chronically discharging ears despite treatments. This retrospective study was conducted from 2001 to 2011 to evaluate the surgical outcome of Baha implant surgery. Thirty-three patients were identified during this study period. Their age at implantation ranged from 5 to 40 years. Of 33 patients, 29 (87.9 %) patients had bilateral microtia and canal atresia, 3 (9.1 %) patients had unilateral microtia and canal atresia and 1 (3.0 %) patients have SSD following labyrinthitis. One patient (3.2 %) had major complication which is lost of implant due to failure of osseointegration. Soft tissue reactions were seen 7 patients (21.1 %). Of these 7 patients, 4 patients required 3-4 procedures as day care operation for excision of the skin overgrowth surrounding the abutment. Recurrent antibiotic treatment was required in 3 patients (9.7 %). None of our patient had history of intraoperative or peri-operative complication following Baha surgery. The commonest complications are local infection and inflammation at the implant site. None of our patient had history of intraoperative or peri-operative complication following Baha implant surgery.
In managing patient with congenital congenital aural atresia (CAA), preoperative high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan and hearing assessment are important. A grading system based on HRCT findings was first introduced by Jahrsdoefer in order to select appropriate candidates for operation and to predict the postoperative hearing outcome in CAA patients. The score of eight and more was considered as a good prognostic factor for hearing reconstruction surgery. However previously in our center this score was not used as the criteria for surgical procedure. This study was conducted at Center A to evaluate the correlation between pre and postoperative hearing level with HRCT based on a Jahrsdoefer grading system in patients with CAA. All records and HRCT films with CAA from January 1997 until December 2007 at Center A were evaluated. The demographic data, operative records, pre and post operative hearing levels and HRCT findings were analyzed. Hearing level in this study was based on a pure tone average of air-bone gap at 500 Hz, 1 kHz and 2 kHz or hearing level obtained from auditory brainstem response eudiometry. This study was approved by Research Ethics Committee (code number, FF-197-2008). Thirty-two ears were retrospectively evaluated. The postoperative hearing level of 30 dB and less was considered as successful hearing result postoperatively. Of the six ears which underwent canalplasty, three had achieved successful hearing result. However, there was no significant correlation between preoperative hearing level (HL) with HRCT score and postoperative HL with HRCT score at 0.05 significant levels (correlation coefficient = -0.292, P = 0.105 and correlation coefficient = -0.127, P = 0.810) respectively. Hearing evaluation and HRCT temporal bone are two independent evaluations for the patients with CAA before going for hearing reconstructive surgery.
The objective of this study is to determine whether presbycusis occurs much earlier than previously believed if the high frequency (above 8 kHz) are included. Tertiary referral center (a teaching University). This is a cross-sectional observational study. Healthy adults from 20 to 49 years of age who had essentially normal hearing were included into the study. They were subjected to high frequency pure tone audiometry (until 16 kHz). Participants were grouped based on age ranges of 10 years (e.g., 20-29, 30-39, and 40-49) and the presence of symmetrical high frequency sensor neural hearing loss were documented. There is a significant presence of symmetrical high frequency sensor neural hearing loss (not attributed to any known risk factors) as early as from the age group of 40 to 49 years. Seven of 43 participants (16%) from age group of 20 to 29 years and 12 of 24 participants (50%) from age group of 30 to 39 years had significant high frequency hearing loss. High frequency hearing loss (high frequency Presbycusis) may occur much earlier than previously believed.
Temporal bone cancer, a relatively rare disease, accounting for less than 0.2% of all tumors of the head and neck and is associated with a poor outcome; often presents in a subtle manner, which may delay diagnosis. It should be suspected in any case of persistent otitis media or otitis externa that fails to improve with adequate treatment. Despite advances in operative technique and postoperative care, long-term survival remains poor). It includes cancers arising from pinna that spreads to the temporal bone, primary tumors of the external auditory canal (EAC), middle ear, mastoid, petrous apex, and metastatic lesions to the temporal bone. Here is a report on a case of temporal bone carcinoma presenting with right otalgia, otorrhea and facial paralysis. The patient was initially diagnosed as mastoiditis and later the clinical impression was revised to temporal bone carcinoma (undifferentiated type), based on the pathologic findings.
A prospective single blinded interventional study was held in Otorhinolaryngology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre in August 2010 until November 2012 to evaluate the functional outcome of septorhinoplasty objectively and subjectively. Objective assessment was done using rhinomanometry and subjective assessment using Nasal Obstruction Symptoms Evaluation (NOSE) scale and Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaires (HRQOL) in Rhino Surgery. All measurements were taken preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. A total of 29 patients were enrolled and completed the study. Septorhinoplasty was commonly performed in Malays and Indians and rare amongst Chinese, with age ranged from 18 to 54 years. Majority had no history of trauma. Twisted nose was the most common external nose abnormality followed by crooked and saddle nose. All patients had internal valve insufficiency. There were significant improvement of the total and of all the parameters in the NOSE scale post septorhinoplasty (p 0.05). Significant correlations were noted in the improvement between the two subjective assessments (NOSE scale and HRQOL score). However, there was no significant correlation in the improvement between the subjective (NOSE scale and HRQOL score) with objective (rhinomanometry score) assessments. Septorhinoplasty improves the nasal airflow and quality of life of patients with nasal obstruction.
Study site: Otorhinolaryngology Clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The aim of this study is to assess the pneumatization of the paranasal sinuses (PNS) and other parts of temporal bone such as mastoid air cells and to investigate if there was any association between the aeration of these structures among the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian) as this would be representative of Asia. A retrospective review of 150 computed tomography (CT) scans of PNS and temporal bones was done and analysed. The pneumatization of each area was obtained and compared using statistical analysis. Patients with a history of previous medical or surgical problems in the intended areas were excluded from the study. The pneumatization of the mastoid air cells and other temporal bone parts were noted to be symmetrical in more than 75 %. There was a positive correlation between the pneumatization of mastoid air cells and that of the sphenoid sinus. The prevalence of Agger nasi, Haller's and Onodi cells was observed to be significantly higher in the Chinese group. Preoperative assessment of the temporal bone and PNS with CT scan may be helpful in the evaluation of their anatomical landmark and decrease the possibility of surgical complications related to 3D structures.
To assess if sensation of nasal mucosa affect the subjective sensation of nasal patency. This is a case control study with 50 patients, using 2% lignocaine as the active drug and normal saline as the placebo (2 groups of 25 patients each). Each subject had 2 ml of solution sprayed into the test nose. These subjects had no prior nasal symptoms, allergy or surgery. They were evaluated subjectively using Likert scale and objectively by acoustic rhinometry before and after lignocaine or normal saline. The patients in both normal saline and lignocaine groups demonstrated no significant change based upon Likert scale. The study also demonstrated the mean cross sectional area 1 (CSA1), mean cross sectional area 2 (CSA2), with mean Volume 1 and mean Volume 2, these results did not vary significantly in both groups with Acoustic Rhinometry. The analysis thus shows that the use of topical anesthetic spray on nasal mucosa produces no objective effect on nasal resistance or subjective sensation of altered nasal patency. Thus the study concludes that, tactile sensation of nasal mucosa does not play a role in the sensation of nasal obstruction.
Neuropathy is frequently a late complication of diabetes mellitus. Auditory neuropathy and microangiopathy of inner ear are the possible causes of hearing loss in diabetics. To study the correlation between glycaemic control and hearing threshold in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to determine the differences of hearing threshold between groups treated with different modality. This single blind randomized controlled study was performed at the Department of Medicine and Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) between 1st May 2003 and 31st September 2004. This study was approved by Research Ethics Committee (code number FF-137). Subjects were randomized into two groups. Group 1 were patients treated with conventional oral hypoglycemic agents. The patients in group 2 were those treated with insulin injection. The subjects were seen 4 weekly for 3 months. Audiometric test were performed in all subjects at each visit. Blood were taken for fasting blood glucose, Hb1Ac, and fructosamine at every visit to determine the glycaemic controls of the subject. They were 11 patients (22 ears) treated with oral hypoglycemic agents and 17 patients treated (34 ears) with subcutaneous insulin. There is no significant difference between mean pure tone threshold before and after treatment at all frequencies in both groups. There is also no significance different in fasting glucose level and fructosamine. However, there is significant difference HbA1c levels between the two groups after treatment (P
The advent of endoscopes has revolutionized rhinology and the traditional headlight based surgeries have largely been replaced by endoscopes. Septoplasty for deviated nasal septum or Sluder's neuralgia have been conventionally performed with the aid of headlight. This can be technically challenging as visualization of the nasal cavity, particularly the posterior portion is rather limited as the procedure is performed via the nostrils. In addition, with headlights for illumination, teaching this procedure can be difficult as only the surgeon who is wearing the headlights has direct vision of the surgical field.Endoscopic septoplasty is an accepted alternative to traditional headlight approach to septoplasty. This approach provides a direct-targeted route to the anatomic deformity, improved visualization, and magnification of the surgical field. Our experience in endoscopic septoplasty is highlighted in this paper, excluding septoplasties performed as part of exposure to the sinuses. We use the open book method that to best of our knowledge has not been described in literature before.
Sinus surgery has the potential of allowing ENT surgeons to encroach the boundaries of our colleagues in ophthalmology and neurosurgery. The advent of nasal endoscope and lately powered instrumentation and computer-assisted navigational systems has avoided the use of the conventional and more radical approaches by the ENT surgeon for the treatment of inflammatory pathology or tumors of the orbit and skull base. As rhinologists have gained more experience in endoscopic surgery, more areas related to the orbit and the anterior skull base are accessible and surgery is safer.
To determine if visual analog scale (VAS) that has been used to measure magnitude of internal states such as pain, mood and various functional capabilities can be applied for patients with hearing loss.
Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of oflactory neuroepithelium and usually located at the olfactory cleft at superior nasal cavity. Ectopic localization of esthesioneuroblastoma is even rarer and usually posed with a diagnostic dilemma and delay in the diagnosis and management, We report a rare case of ectopic esthesioneuroblastoma of the sphenoclivus with the presentation of intermittent unilateral epistaxis, intermittent intractable headache without anosmia. Nasal endoscopy findings showed a pulsatile mass at the anterior face of the sphenoid sinus with extension posteriorly towards the clivus region and occupying the floor of the sphenoid sinus. Endonasal transclival endoscopic excision of tumour was performed which involved otorhinolaryngology surgeon and neurosurgeon with intraoperative navigation imaging and frozen section. The histopathological findings was esthesioneuroblastoma. Due to its rarity and unusual presentation, the diagnosis of ectopic esthesioneuroblastoma is difficult and can be misdiagnosed with the other type of malignancy. Therefore, the histopathological result is important in confirming the type of tumour and can lead to the next step of management.
Osteoradionecrosis is one of the most serious complications of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We report three cases of osteoradionecrosis in temporal lobe who presented differently few years after completion of radiotherapy. Cranial magnetic resonance image showed lesions in temporal lobe either unilateral or bilateral with mass effect. One of the cases even showed disease progression few years after the initial diagnosis of osteoradionecrosis. Diagnosis of osteoradionecrosis for all three patients was confirmed by biopsy.
Keratosis obturans appears to be an obscure and relatively uncommon entity, even in literature search of journals and reference texts, so much so that there is not even any prevalence or incidence statistics available. However, the condition did not appear to be as uncommon based on our clinical observations. We have managed to obtain 64 patients representing 67 ears with keratosis obturans in our study period of about 18 months with a pattern of occurrence during this period. Humid weather seemed to play a role in the frequency of its appearance during certain period in our observation. There also appears to be a correlation between the severity of symptoms (predominantly pain and hearing loss) and the presenting appearance of the condition, i.e., presence or absence of granulation tissue, as well as that the degree of difficulty in exenteration of the keratosis obturans (matrix and content) depending on the expansion of the bony canal. Our figures showed the majority of the patients are females and young individuals, the majority of them occur unilaterally. The condition also appear to stop short of involving the tympanic membrane with only the bony canal being expanded with the surrounding oedema creating an apparent "canal stenosis".