Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus: the virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis infection. Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection appear to have an excellent chance of responding to 6 months of standard therapy with interferon (IFN) and frequently develop systemic iron overload, which exacerbates morbidity. The iron excess in hepatitis C may be due to hereditary hemochromatosis, hematologic diseases, multiple transfusions, porphyria cutanea tarda and chronic alcohol abuse. Different mechanisms proposed to explain the relation between HCV infection and hepatic iron overload. Some revealed that hepatic iron accumulation results from release of iron from damaged liver cells. Consumption of coffee, tea also reduces iron absorption and thereby decrease iron overload in Liver and thereby reduces the oxidative stress of iron overload in liver. The global scenario of this problem has been discussed in the article.
Globally, the spread of HIV/AIDS is a major public health challenge because of its pandemic magnitudes. Despite the fact that people of any age are susceptible to HIV, the younger population is more susceptible to be infected because of their lifestyle choices. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of HIV/AIDS knowledge level among health science undergraduate university students as they play a primary role within the health care system of a country. A cross-sectional study was conducted by using a semi structured, self-administered, especially design questionnaire. Out of total one hundred fifty undergraduate university students, there were 96 males (64%) and 54 females (36%) with the age ranging from 19-25 years. All the students were able to write the acronym of HIV (100%) and AIDS (100%). Common routes of transmission and prevention measure were known by majority of the students. Students stated correctly regarding HIV/AIDS transmission from mother to child through pregnancy (18.02%), delivery (15.31%) and breast feeding (11.30%) which was very low level of knowledge. Most of the medical, dental and physiotherapy students had correct knowledge on high risk populace for HIV/AIDS; like singles, intravenous drug user, multiple sex partners and commercial sexual partner. Regarding the preventive measure as hand washing, use of facial mask and sexual abstinent was correctly mentioned by only 31.34%, 34.02% and 28.01% total students respectively. However other safety measure like condom use, effectiveness of condom use, screening of blood was widely known by the students. However, regarding the knowledge on treatment issue of HIV/AIDS, majority of the students (85.30%) correctly knew that HIV/AIDS was not curable, whereas only 15.31% and 20.01% correctly knew that the treatment was very expensive and available respectively. So, this study focus the educational endeavors that could be broadened to emphasis on its general knowledge on HIV/AIDS.
Anomaly is a congenital disorder. It is a medical condition that is present since birth. But the word congenital neither applies nor excludes genetic disorder. Congenital anomalies due to environmental factors are called as Teratogens. Infections, deficiency in the diet and toxins are environmental causes. Maternal folic acid deficiency may cause spina bifida. Intake of alcohol, and certain prescribed drugs like phenytoin may cause congenital anomalies or defects. Apart from physical anomalies, other types of congenital disorders are inborn errors of metabolism (Kumar, Abbas and Fausto, 2005). About 15% to 25% of anomalies are due to chromosomal factors or single gene factors, 8% to 12% anomalies are said to be due to environmental factors, 25% are said to be due to multifactorial inheritance 40% to 60% of anomalies are of unknown origin (Stevenson, 1993 ; Nelson and Holmes, 1984). Congenital anomalies are present since birth with structural deformity found immediately after birth or their presence may be detected by signs and symptoms later on (Holland and Brew, 1991). Congenital Anomalies are seen in 2% of population as major abnormality. There are two types of abnormalities, namely malformations where growth disturbances occur during embryogenesis and the other is deformation. It is late change that appears in a structure which was normal earlier (Roizen and Patterson, 2003).
The major component in nursing education is attachmnet at clinical practices to give the students experience,
responsibility and understanding in care of the patient. Nurse educators and the clinical nurse instructors are
responsible for coordinating the education of nursing students in clinical area. Currently practice using nursing
processes is more familiar to compare than concept mapping care plan among the nurses and nursing students.
Nursing care plan or nursing process has been utilized at the clinical setting to assess the actual and potential
health problems of the patients. However, the format of nursing care plans makes challenging to the students,
especially for new students in semester one to gather the information based on patients problems. In addition,
this nursing process evaluation is one of examination tools for them in running assessments. Therefore, the
development of concept mapping care plan at clinical practices was used to evalaute the students academic
achievement in clinical pratices. Concept mapping care plan was found to enhance the knowledge and
understanding of the nursing students and also improving the quality of clinical education. Nursing students
who have good skills will perform certain procedures better than students having fewer skills. This affects the
quality of work in the future as either a higher quality or of poor quality.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinicopathological syndrome strongly associated with
hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance and obesity. The objective of this study is to evaluate the
potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata fruit in preventing liver damage due to hypercholesterolemia.
Twenty-five healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to five groups for 90 days diet and
intervention plan. While four groups (atherogenic groups) were fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL
of B. angulata juice kg/per day, the fifth group (negative control) was fed with commercial rabbit pellet only.
After overnight fasting and sacrifice, the thoracic cavity was opened and the liver was carefully removed,
specifically observing for any presence of a gross lesion and then immediately fixing in 4% paraformaldehyde for
at least 48 hours for histopathological analysis. The hepatoprotective effect of B. angulata fruit juice was evident
in the histological examination of liver tissues. The results indicate the potential health benefits of the antioxidantrich
B. angulata fruit juice as a functional food with a therapeutic effect against hypercholesterolemia-induced
This study investigated the effects of 6 weeks combined circuit training programme and honey
supplementation on bone metabolism markers in young males. Forty male participants were divided into four
groups (n=10 per group): sedentary without honey supplementation control (C), sedentary with honey
supplementation (H), circuit training without honey supplementation (Ex), circuit training with honey
supplementation (HEx) groups. Circuit training was carried out one hour/session, 3 times/week. Participants in
H and HEx consumed 300 mLof honey drink containing 20g of Tualang honey for 7 days/week. Immediately
before and after six weeks of experimental period, blood samples were taken for measuring concentrations of
serum total calcium, serum alkaline phosphatase as bone formation marker and serum C-terminal telopeptide
of type 1 collagen (1CTP) as bone resorption marker. There was significantly (p
The purpose of this article is to discuss the strengths and limitations of two teaching strategies currently utilized
in Diploma in Nursing, in Malaysia. The diploma was started in 1994 with a 3 years duration of study. It also
requires certificates of qualification from the Malaysian Quality Agency (MQA) and the Malaysian Board of
Teaching strategies of individual teachers differ according to their teaching styles and generalized lesson plans,
which include structures, instructional objectives, outlines of teaching and learning tactics, and other
accessories needed to implement the strategies. A strategy does not necessarily follow a single track all the
time, but changes according to the demands of the situations such as the age, level, needs, interests and abilities
of the students. Thus, strategy is a method that is more comprehensive. It is directional in nature and refers to
the goal oriented activities of the teacher. Hence, it resembles science rather than arts.
Lecture and simulation methods are the best teaching strategies for nursing students in Malaysia. The lecture
method allows clarification on difficult concepts, organizes thinking, and promotes problem solving attitudes,
whereas simulation provides students with the opportunity for proper social, emotional and intellectual
development. Moreover, students are highly motivated by educational simulation, for they enjoy the learning
process while participating in it.
This study identied factors that contributed to the effectiveness of antihypertensive drugs and investigated the
most effective antihypertensive drug in controlling blood pressure. The purposive sampling technique was
used in this quasi-experimental design to enroll study participants. Of the 120 hypertensive patients following
consultations at a district hospital of Oluvil, only 100 complied with the experiment. Following medical checkup,
it was investigated that hypertension were controlled within 3 months affected by age, and gender. Gender,
more probable were women, was primarily identied as a factor (p=0.002657); and age bracket of 30-40 years
old was also identied as a factor to had helped control blood pressure (p=0.002107). Hypertensive drugs such
as Calcium Channel Blockers (p=0.0008712), Angiotensin Receptor Antagonist (p=0.03983), and
Angiotensin Converting Enzymes Inhibitors (p=0.04719) at normal dosages controlled blood pressures
among Sri Lankan hypertensive patients.
Meta-analysis is a subset of systematic review; a technique for systematically combining pertinent qualitative
and quantitative study data from numerous selected studies to broaden a single conclusion that has more
statistical power. This inference is statistically stronger than the analysis of any single study, due to increase
numbers of topics, greater variety amongst subjects, or collected effects and outcomes. The aim of this review
article is to highlight the definition, history, purpose, characteristics, use, advantage, disadvantage, validity,
and steps in conducting meta-analysis.
Blood donation is important for lives saving and the need is unceasing. However, the shortage of blood supply
is a common issue. While the public is the main source of blood donation, it is unknown whether they are
aware about it. This study was carried out to determine the public's knowledge, perceptions and barriers
towards blood donation. Atotal of 384 male and female respondents were conveniently selected to participate
in this study. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS software
version 22.0. Most of the respondents (60.9%) had never donated blood but their knowledge towards blood
donation was high (79.9%). Some misconceptions were indicated among respondents. Afraid of the needle
prick, pain or discomfort were the top barriers among non-donors respondents (45.3%). The majority of the
respondents believed that blood donation is a practice or selfless concern for the well-being of others (98.7%).
A significant relationship was indicated between age and level of education with status of blood donation
Background:The challenge of recognizing ward-based patients at risk of deterioration is discussed
frequently within the relevant literature. Nurses in particular hold the prime position to identify problems at
an early stage using systematic patient assessment. However, general ward nurses' perceived knowledge,
attitudes, and practice related to assessment of the risk of deterioration are not well understood. Failures to
recognize or act upon the deterioration of general ward patients has sometimes resulted in the implementation
of early warning scoring systems and Critical Care Outreach teams.
Aim: The study aim to explore general ward nurses' perceived knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) in
assessing patients at risk of deteriorating in general wards.
Method: ACross-sectional study design with Modified Early Warning Score questionnaire for general ward
nurses was done in one tertiary hospital in Malaysia in 2013 and 2014.
Results: General ward nurses perceived that they struggled with knowledge and attitude, but they feel they
performed good practice in assessing patients at risk for deterioration. Nevertheless, the study finding shows
otherwise. Only one respondent achieved 'grade B' (85%) and the remainder scored in the band 'grade F'
(very poor). The respondents' attitude was measured by their perception of their levels of confidence and
concern. The mean confidence level was greater than six out of 10 for all categories. The attitudes mean score
± SD was set at 42.02 ±7.76. The data showed that 51% (N=50) scored below mean core of 42.02. However,
participants' overall mean score ±SD for perceptions of practice (risk of deterioration assessment) was 90.27
± 21.87 (6.94+/-1.683). The majority of participants awarded themselves a score between eight and nine,
which is in the 'good' range for the scale (0-2 weak; 3-5 moderate; 6-8 good; 9-10 excellent). Those who
scored above it were classified as having a good attitude.
Conclusion: A need exists for general ward nurses to gain a knowledge foundation in detecting abnormality
to address lack of confidence, poor attitude and alertness, and concern.
Dengue is endemic in Kolkata, India. Outbreaks of dengue cases often occur regularly at short intervals. This
retrospective seroepidemiological surveillance was conducted longitudinally. Dengue cases were diagnosed
in the laboratories from suspected patients by dengue specific IgG, IgM antibodies and NS1 antigen, from
suspected persons to investigate, analyze and categorize the cases who were actually suffering from dengue to
diagnose a dengue patient in the laboratory practice along with the status of the patient related to the detection
of disease and duration of primary and secondary infection for effective monitoring of the patient. Age and
Sex of the dengue patients were determined. Detection of dengue in unsuspected fever cases in unfavorable
transmission season was evaluated. The transmission of dengue infection in the non-transmission season is
not remarkable and often remains submerged. Proper measure at this stage may prevent the epidemic
outbreak in the transmission season. This sort of experience will help to enrich the effective control and case
management of the menace.
Background: Technological diversity management in the manufacturing of advanced medical devices is
essential. The manufacturing industries of medical devices should act in accordance with the technical
guidelines and regulations in order to ensure best practices with the use of devices in hospitals
Aim: To explore safety hazards, cost implications, and social and ethical standards to be considered during
the manufacturing of advanced medical devices
Subject and Methods: Aqualitative descriptive study was used. There was no targeted sample in the current
study whereby secondary data were used to explore the research topic. Secondary sources were obtained
from databases including EBSCOHOST, PubMed, ProQuest, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Peerreviewed
articles, journals, books, conference proceedings, and other web publications were used to gather
Results: The current study indicated that the technological diversity management of advanced medical
devices is associated with safety hazards like security threats, integrity problems, and medical errors. The
study also showed that high cost of standardizations, supply, and purchase of advanced medical devices is a
huge burden faced by the manufacturers andusers. The study showed that the regulation of the medical
devices, certification, and post-market surveillanceare essential social and ethical considerations during the
manufacturing process of the new medical devices.
Conclusion: The current study explored the technological diversity of advanced medical devices. It is
evident in the current study that technology diversity of medical devices is associated with safety hazards
and cost implications. The study disclosed that taking into account social and ethical issues aid in
manufacturing safe and high quality medical devices.
Introduction: The teacher centered approach is a teaching and learning strategy has been practiced
traditionally for long in the classroom. Through this strategy the teacher plays an important role, while the
students only act as spectators, the interaction between students and teachers is only one way. In this study, the
concept mapping notes was added in teaching and learning methods during classroom teaching. Concept
mapping is one method of teaching that encourages students to becomes independent learner, critical thinking
and competent in their work.
Methodology: This study was carried out in Kolej Kejururawatan Kubang Kerian (Kelantan), and Kolej
Kejururawatan Pulau Pinang. The respondents were selected using simple random sampling. There were 109
respondents. The respondents were given 40 minutes to develop the concept mapping notes.
Results: The activity of the students in the teaching is certainly a positive sign towards achieving their
learning. The example of variety concept maps construct done by the students are highly creative and
Conclusion: Students should take responsibility for their own learning. However, that is a role of a educator
to choose the best teaching method to makes the learning become meaningful and effective toward the student
cognitive structure that will help them to understand the topic those were taught.
Non-citizen labors in the country have been found to face difficulties in accessing healthcare services. The study seeks to investigate the existence of barriers in accessing primary healthcare services by non-citizen labors in Malaysia. This study was conducted on 323 non-citizen labors residing in the urban areas of Malaysia, particularly of Johor Bahru and Klang Valley from May to September 2017. Relevant information regarding the personal barriers (language, preference for physician's gender, difficulty taking leave from work), structural barriers (availability of public clinic in residential area, travel time to the public clinic,physician's knowledge and skill) and financial barriers (insurance coverage, fear of losing daily income,transportation costs) on using primary healthcare services at public clinics were obtained. The result of the analysis revealed that the barriers cited by non-citizens to seek primary healthcare in Malaysia were lack of medical insurance protection (75.1%), non-availability of a public clinic in the residential area (38.7%), not receiving the needed or wanted services (21.3%), long travel time to the nearest public clinic (17.3%), language (10.2% of respondents), negative perception about the doctors' knowledge and skills (9.9%), difficulty taking leave (7.8%), fear of losing daily income (7.7%), high transportation cost (3.7%) and different doctor gender preference (2.5%). Therefore, barriers to access healthcare services among noncitizens exist in Malaysia.
Background: In Africa high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found in regions of East Africa (0.3%),
West Africa (0.7%), Central Africa (0.2%), South Africa (3.8%), and North Africa (12.5%).
Aims: This meta-analysis aimed to analyze the prevalence of obesity among young adults, aged 18-25 years
from five African countries.
Methods: The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were applied to
search published studies. of the 100 studies published as found in scientific databases from 2010 to 2017, only
five were selected. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)
checklist was used to eliminate other studies.
Outcomes: A total of 22,320 obese young adults were analyzed to be prevalent. The obesity among adults in
SouthAfrica was found to be correlated with less physical activities. In Uganda, the prevalence of obesity is
683 which relates with their sedentary lifestyle and socio-demography. Among 371 young adults in Nigeria, the
prevalence of obesity was 5.1% among male and 10% among female related to diet and other consumptions.
Among 646 adults in Ghana, the prevalence of general obesity was observed to be related to genetics.
Conclusion: Prevalence of the male gender was 9,509 having a p=0.284 (at 95% C.I.±4,440.87845-
8,788.87845) with a mean score of 1,251, and a SD= 61,066. While the prevalence of obesity on females was
10,874 having a p= 0.00019, (at 95% C.I.±3,592.07-6,094.07) with a mean score of 2,174, and SD= 3,375.
Viability of cultured mammalian cells is evaluated by a variety of techniques. In this study, experimental results
of fast cell viability assays were compared to reveal the most suitable method for determination of
hyperthermia effect on viability of human breast cancer Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cell line. The
cells were exposed to heat at 42˚C for 2 hours to estimate the percentage of cell viability using four assays
(trypan blue, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and crystal violet, (CV). There was a mild decrease in percentage
of cell viability as the duration of heat exposure increased. Of the three counting techniques, the crystal violet
nuclei showed consistent and significantly higher value (70.58±1.97) than trypan blue and LDH assay
(81.07±20.12 and 77.06±11.84 respectively) (p< 0.05). This study reveals that CVwas the most sensitive assay
for adherent cell. It is also very effective; simple; and permits many samples to be analyzed rapidly and
Introduction:Every pregnant mother wants their baby to be born in normal and healthy condition. Therefore, it would become a stressful event that might cause psychological distress or even emotional crisis in mother, when their infants are premature and low birth weight born.
Methodology:A cross-sectional study to investigate the psychological well being of mothers with low birth weight infants admitted to the SCN. It was conducted on one hundred and thirty (n=130) of mothers who delivered their babies at labor room, HRPZ II, Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) score were used. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square tests. Statistically significant with p-value < 0.05.
Results:There was statistically significantly association between maternal age and anxiety (χ²=22.106, p=0.036) and maternal age and stress (χ²=17.509, p=0.041) by using chi square test. There was no significant association between maternal age and depression (χ²=10.37, p=0.321). The results showed that there was no statisticalsignificancebetween maternal education, maternal occupation and family income with depression, anxiety and stress of mothers (p>0.05).
Conclusion:Based on the finding in this study, most of the respondents have anxiety compared to depression and stress. Therefore, a nurse must have knowledge and skills, especially in terms of psychology, in handling cases related to the mother who have given birth to a low birth weight (LBW) child because of parting with their children due to the relatively long hospitalization.
Diabetic wounds (DW) are a chronic, non-healing wound on the feet of diabetic patients that pose a serious challenge to world health. Around 84% of diabetic patients undergo lower leg amputations. Though numerous topical and systemic drugs have been used to heal the DW, these drugs have led to the emergence and subsequent rapid overgrowth of resistant bacterial strains, side effects and toxicity. Many herbal plants have very important role in wound healing because they promote the natural repair mechanisms. Moringa oleifera (MO) is an important medicinal plant which has an impressive range of medicinal uses including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant and anticancer activities.Recently few researchers reported that MO extracts have effective wound healing property due to the presence of rich flavonoids and vicenin-2. The objective of the present study was to develop hydrogel formulations loaded with Moringa oleifera leaves extract. The prepared hydrogels were evaluated for physical appearance, rheological behavior, skin irritation and wound-healing power in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male wistar albino rats. Results showed that all hydrogel formulations exhibited good and acceptable physical properties. All the animals tolerated the applied gels and no signs of irritations were noticed during the skin irritation study. The in-vivo wound healing studies showed a time dependent increase in percentage of wound, a contraction which is higher than that produced by the control groups. These contractions were statistically significant (P
Currently, the development of information technology and the increase in the number of nursing students occur drastically. Based on this premise, the purpose of this article is to shed light into the future development of curriculum for the nursing field. Philosophy is considered one of the most important components of both education system and curriculum, because the educational philosophies reflect the social, economic and political aspects of a society, in which they are applied. As an educator, understanding the philosophy to be adapted in the curriculum and learning process is important, to provide a framework for the best performance of both the teacher and the student. In conclusion, it is important to implement the philosophy of curriculum in the education program as each philosophy aids in the principles and guidelines of the learning process. Globally, most programs are usually based on the philosophy related to that program. Therefore, as an educator, we must know the philosophical development of the curriculum of education, so that we are able to analyse and choose which is appropriate.