• 1 Lincoln University College
  • 2 University of Mysore


Anomaly is a congenital disorder. It is a medical condition that is present since birth. But the word congenital neither applies nor excludes genetic disorder. Congenital anomalies due to environmental factors are called as Teratogens. Infections, deficiency in the diet and toxins are environmental causes. Maternal folic acid deficiency may cause spina bifida. Intake of alcohol, and certain prescribed drugs like phenytoin may cause congenital anomalies or defects. Apart from physical anomalies, other types of congenital disorders are inborn errors of metabolism (Kumar, Abbas and Fausto, 2005). About 15% to 25% of anomalies are due to chromosomal factors or single gene factors, 8% to 12% anomalies are said to be due to environmental factors, 25% are said to be due to multifactorial inheritance 40% to 60% of anomalies are of unknown origin (Stevenson, 1993 ; Nelson and Holmes, 1984). Congenital anomalies are present since birth with structural deformity found immediately after birth or their presence may be detected by signs and symptoms later on (Holland and Brew, 1991). Congenital Anomalies are seen in 2% of population as major abnormality. There are two types of abnormalities, namely malformations where growth disturbances occur during embryogenesis and the other is deformation. It is late change that appears in a structure which was normal earlier (Roizen and Patterson, 2003).