The nutrient composition of 50 commonly consumed Jordanian food dishes was determined to support the development of a novel nutrition management system designed to assist with dietary intake assessment and diet management. Composite dishes were selected by interviewing households located in the northern region of Jordan. For each dish, five different recipes were collected from experienced chefs and the typical recipe was formulated based on the average weights of ingredients and net weight of the dish. Proximate composition as well as vitamin and mineral contents were determined and related to ingredient composition and cooking conditions. The newly created food composition database was used to develop a user-centric nutrition management software tailored to reflect the characteristics of the Jordanian diet with representative items from this diet. This novel nutrition management system is customizable, enabling users to build daily meal plans in accordance with personalized dietary needs and goals.
Tabiat langkau waktu makan adalah kaedah lazim untuk mengawal diet. Namun, amalan kaedah permakanan ini oleh pesakit diabetes melllitus (T2DM) masih belum diketahui berikutan kekangan kajian. Matlamat utama kajian ini adalah untuk mengenal pasti selazim mana pesakit T2DM melangkau waktu makan. Kaitannya dengan faktor sosiodemografi dan klinikal, HbA1c, makan di luar rumah dan kecelaruan gaya pemakanan turut dikaji. Kajian keratan lintang ini telah dijalankan pada tahun 2015 dalam kalangan 203 pesakit di klinik kesihatan awam di Kuala Lumpur. Borang soal selidik yang diisi sendiri oleh subjek termasuk borang Skala Kecelaruan Gaya Pemakanan dalam Bahasa Melayu. Seramai 41.4% subjek kerap melangkau waktu makan dan 61.6% subjek sering makan di luar. Hanya 2% sahaja yang mempunyai masalah kecelaruan gaya pemakanan. Regresi logistik berbilang menunjukkan subjek berbangsa Cina mempunyai kaitan yang kuat dengan tabiat melangkau waktu makan berbanding dengan subjek berbangsa Melayu (nisbah ganjil selaras: 0.36; 95% sela keyakinan: 0.16-0.77; nilai p: 0.009) setelah mengambil kira faktor usia, status pekerjaan, tahap pendidikan, HbA1c, komplikasi, jenis rawatan, makan di luar dan kecelaruan gaya pemakanan. Kesimpulannya, tabiat melangkau waktu makan merupakan satu amalan lazim begitu juga dengan makan di luar rumah. Namun, kecelaruan gaya pemakanan jarang dijumpai. Tabiat melangkau waktu makan tiada kaitan dengan amalan pemakanan ini dan juga kawalan gula dalam darah. Faktor budaya dan keagamaan berkemungkinan mempengaruhi amalan pemakanan individu. Kajian lanjut perlu dijalankan bagi mengenal pasti tahap keselamatan dan penerimaan berkaitan dengan amalan ini. Walau bagaimanapun, kesannya daripada sudut klinikal perlu diperiksa dengan teliti untuk mengelakkan komplikasi kesihatan.
Household food insecurity in Malaysia: findings from Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey
Current nutrient intake among Malaysia Adult: Finding from MANS 2014
The prevalence of meal patterns among Malaysia Adults: Findings from MANS 2014
Malaysia health policy adaptation toward climate change
Health Security and Health Diplomacy: New Paradigms for Global Public Health
Current intake of food according to Food Group: Finding from MANS 2014
Prevalence of habits in relation to food consumption
Food label reading and understanding among Malaysian adult: findings from MANS 2014
Dietary supplement use among adults in Malaysia: finding from Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS 2014)
Food Consumption Patterns: Findings from the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) 2014
Study name: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS-2014)
Malnutrition is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century, with one in three people in the world malnourished, combined with poor diets being the leading cause of the global burden of disease. Fish is an under-recognised and undervalued source of micronutrients, which could play a more significant role in addressing this global challenge. With rising pressures on capture fisheries, demand is increasingly being met from aquaculture. However, aquaculture systems are designed to maximise productivity, with little consideration for nutritional quality of fish produced. A global shift away from diverse capture species towards consumption of few farmed species, has implications for diet quality that are yet to be fully explored. Bangladesh provides a useful case study of this transition, as fish is the most important animal-source food in diets, and is increasingly supplied from aquaculture. We conducted a temporal analysis of fish consumption and nutrient intakes from fish in Bangladesh, using nationally representative household expenditure surveys from 1991, 2000 and 2010 (n = 25,425 households), combined with detailed species-level nutrient composition data. Fish consumption increased by 30% from 1991-2010. Consumption of non-farmed species declined by 33% over this period, compensated (in terms of quantity) by large increases in consumption of farmed species. Despite increased total fish consumption, there were significant decreases in iron and calcium intakes from fish (P<0.01); and no significant change in intakes of zinc, vitamin A and vitamin B12 from fish, reflecting lower overall nutritional quality of fish available for consumption over time. Our results challenge the conventional narrative that increases in food supply lead to improvements in diet and nutrition. As aquaculture becomes an increasingly important food source, it must embrace a nutrition-sensitive approach, moving beyond maximising productivity to also consider nutritional quality. Doing so will optimise the complementary role that aquaculture and capture fisheries play in improving nutrition and health.
Citation and links
National Health and Morbidity Survey 2014: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS). Volume I: Methodology and General Findigns. Kuala Lumur: Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia; 2014
National Health and Morbidity Survey 2014: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS). Volume II: Survey Findigns. Kuala Lumur: Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia; 2014
National Health and Morbidity Survey 2014: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS). Volume III: Food Consumption Statistics of Malaysia. Kuala Lumur: Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia; 2014
Study name: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS-2014)
This study reports the food consumption patterns of adults aged 18 to 59 years in the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) carried out between October 2002 and December 2003. A total of 6,742 subjects comprising 3,274 men and 3,468 women representing the northern, central , southern and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia as well as Sabah and Sarawak were interviewed. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which consisted of 126 food items was used to evaluate the food consumption pattern (habitual food intake) of the respondents during the previous one- year period. The results demonstrate that nasi putih (cooked rice) was consumed by 97% of the population twice daily (average 2½ plates per day). Other food items consumed daily were marine fish, (one medium fish per day), green leafy vegetables (one cup per day) and sweetened condensed milk (three teaspoons per day. The mean frequencies for daily intake of rice, leafy vegetables, marine fish, local kuih, anchovy (ikan bilis) and biscuits were significantly higher among the rural compared to the urban adults. In contrast, more urban dwellers consumed chicken and eggs more frequently than their rural counterparts. More men than women consumed chicken and eggs more frequently. Malaysian adults showed a satisfactory habit of drinking plain water, with 99% drinking at least six glasses of plain water daily. Other beverages such as tea (47%), coffee (28%), chocolate-based drinks (23%) and cordial syrup (11%) were also consumed on daily basis, however, in a smaller proportion of the population. There were differences in the prevalence of daily consumption of foods when comparing urban and rural population, and also between men and women. The prevalence of daily consumption of marine fish among rural and urban adults was 51% and 34% respectively. For sweetened condensed milk, men and women consumed 43% and 28% respectively; however, more women drank full cream milk than men. Between the age groups, 21% of adults below 20 years old consumed chicken at least once a day, while this pattern of intake was not shown in the older age groups. Our findings show that adults, aged 50 to 59 years old, had the highest prevalence of daily consumption of full cream milk with 24% while those aged 18 to 19 years old had the lowest prevalence of daily consumption at 15%. The food consumption pattern of Malaysian adults appears to be satisfactory. However, some changes in food habits are recommended especially in substituting the less wholesome sweetened condensed milk with the more nutritious full cream or skimmed milk.
Study name: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS-2003)
Nutrition surveys based on a representative sample of the Malaysian adult population have hitherto not been reported. In 2003, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, conducted the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS), the first and largest nutrition survey in the country which aimed to provide detailed quantitative information on nutritional status, food and nutrient intakes, and physical activity pattern on a nationwide representative sample of adult subjects between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The survey covered four zones in Peninsular Malaysia (Central, Southern, Northern and East Coast), Sabah and Sarawak. This paper presents the mean and selected percentiles of energy and nutrient intake of 6886 subjects by selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Energy contributions by macronutrients and dietary adequacy in relation to the Recommended Nutrient Intake for Malaysians are also described. Information on dietary intake was collected by trained nutritionists using a one day 24-hour diet recall. Dietary data were analysed using Nutritionist Pro, a diet analysis software and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS ver. 13.0. In most of the demographic and socioeconomic groups, males had higher mean energy (1776 kcal) and nutrient intake and percent achievement of RNI than females (1447 kcal). The proportions of calories derived from macronutrients were within the recommendations for a healthy diet. Intake of micronutrients such as iron, calcium and vitamin A was about 50% of RNI particularly in women. Sodium intake of Malaysians, not reported in earlier studies, is also made available. Under-reporting using the EI/BMR ratio was found in half of the population studied. The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Malaysian adult population. Regular nutrition surveys are needed at the national level to provide valuable information on trends in food and nutrient intake, particularly among age and ethnically diverse subgroups of the population.
Study name: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS-2003)
Obesity is a serious chronic disease and a public health concern in both developing and developed countries. Managing obesity has been a great challenge for both health care professionals and patients alike. Among the various diet programs aimed at promoting weight loss, the ketogenic diet, a diet high in fat and low in carbohydrates, has been at the forefront recently and its mechanism in weight loss is much debated. Activation of Sirtuin 1 or SIRT1 is able to circumvent various diseases, including metabolic syndrome and obesity and is thought to be a potentially reliable treatment target for both of them. Augmentation of SIRT1 may be carried out using dietary means such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) supplementation and/or ketogenic diet. Although ketogenic diet may augment SIRT1 activation in people affected by obesity, recent studies have indicated that the relationship between SIRT1 and ketogenesis is unpredictable. The exact circumstances and mechanisms of SIRT1, NAD and ketogenesis in the clinical setting as an intervention tool in managing obesity remained uncertain. Although several recent literatures have documented significant weight-loss following ketogenic diet interventions, there were limitations with regards to duration of trial, choice and the number of trial subjects. Studies investigating the safety of ketogenic diet in the long term, beyond 46 weeks and related mechanism and pathways are still lacking and the sustainability of this diet remains to be determined. This review explores the recent progress on ketogenic diet and its relationships with SIRT1 as a tool in managing obesity and relevant clinical implications.