This study reports the food consumption patterns of adults aged 18 to 59 years in the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) carried out between October 2002 and December 2003. A total of 6,742 subjects comprising 3,274 men and 3,468 women representing the northern, central , southern and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia as well as Sabah and Sarawak were interviewed. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which consisted of 126 food items was used to evaluate the food consumption pattern (habitual food intake) of the respondents during the previous one- year period. The results demonstrate that nasi putih (cooked rice) was consumed by 97% of the population twice daily (average 2½ plates per day). Other food items consumed daily were marine fish, (one medium fish per day), green leafy vegetables (one cup per day) and sweetened condensed milk (three teaspoons per day. The mean frequencies for daily intake of rice, leafy vegetables, marine fish, local kuih, anchovy (ikan bilis) and biscuits were significantly higher among the rural compared to the urban adults. In contrast, more urban dwellers consumed chicken and eggs more frequently than their rural counterparts. More men than women consumed chicken and eggs more frequently. Malaysian adults showed a satisfactory habit of drinking plain water, with 99% drinking at least six glasses of plain water daily. Other beverages such as tea (47%), coffee (28%), chocolate-based drinks (23%) and cordial syrup (11%) were also consumed on daily basis, however, in a smaller proportion of the population. There were differences in the prevalence of daily consumption of foods when comparing urban and rural population, and also between men and women. The prevalence of daily consumption of marine fish among rural and urban adults was 51% and 34% respectively. For sweetened condensed milk, men and women consumed 43% and 28% respectively; however, more women drank full cream milk than men. Between the age groups, 21% of adults below 20 years old consumed chicken at least once a day, while this pattern of intake was not shown in the older age groups. Our findings show that adults, aged 50 to 59 years old, had the highest prevalence of daily consumption of full cream milk with 24% while those aged 18 to 19 years old had the lowest prevalence of daily consumption at 15%. The food consumption pattern of Malaysian adults appears to be satisfactory. However, some changes in food habits are recommended especially in substituting the less wholesome sweetened condensed milk with the more nutritious full cream or skimmed milk.
Study name: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS-2003)
Nutrition surveys based on a representative sample of the Malaysian adult population have hitherto not been reported. In 2003, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, conducted the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS), the first and largest nutrition survey in the country which aimed to provide detailed quantitative information on nutritional status, food and nutrient intakes, and physical activity pattern on a nationwide representative sample of adult subjects between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The survey covered four zones in Peninsular Malaysia (Central, Southern, Northern and East Coast), Sabah and Sarawak. This paper presents the mean and selected percentiles of energy and nutrient intake of 6886 subjects by selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Energy contributions by macronutrients and dietary adequacy in relation to the Recommended Nutrient Intake for Malaysians are also described. Information on dietary intake was collected by trained nutritionists using a one day 24-hour diet recall. Dietary data were analysed using Nutritionist Pro, a diet analysis software and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS ver. 13.0. In most of the demographic and socioeconomic groups, males had higher mean energy (1776 kcal) and nutrient intake and percent achievement of RNI than females (1447 kcal). The proportions of calories derived from macronutrients were within the recommendations for a healthy diet. Intake of micronutrients such as iron, calcium and vitamin A was about 50% of RNI particularly in women. Sodium intake of Malaysians, not reported in earlier studies, is also made available. Under-reporting using the EI/BMR ratio was found in half of the population studied. The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Malaysian adult population. Regular nutrition surveys are needed at the national level to provide valuable information on trends in food and nutrient intake, particularly among age and ethnically diverse subgroups of the population.
Study name: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS-2003)
Household food insecurity in Malaysia: findings from Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey
Current nutrient intake among Malaysia Adult: Finding from MANS 2014
The prevalence of meal patterns among Malaysia Adults: Findings from MANS 2014
Malaysia health policy adaptation toward climate change
Health Security and Health Diplomacy: New Paradigms for Global Public Health
Current intake of food according to Food Group: Finding from MANS 2014
Prevalence of habits in relation to food consumption
Food label reading and understanding among Malaysian adult: findings from MANS 2014
Dietary supplement use among adults in Malaysia: finding from Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS 2014)
Food Consumption Patterns: Findings from the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) 2014
Study name: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS-2014)
Malnutrition is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century, with one in three people in the world malnourished, combined with poor diets being the leading cause of the global burden of disease. Fish is an under-recognised and undervalued source of micronutrients, which could play a more significant role in addressing this global challenge. With rising pressures on capture fisheries, demand is increasingly being met from aquaculture. However, aquaculture systems are designed to maximise productivity, with little consideration for nutritional quality of fish produced. A global shift away from diverse capture species towards consumption of few farmed species, has implications for diet quality that are yet to be fully explored. Bangladesh provides a useful case study of this transition, as fish is the most important animal-source food in diets, and is increasingly supplied from aquaculture. We conducted a temporal analysis of fish consumption and nutrient intakes from fish in Bangladesh, using nationally representative household expenditure surveys from 1991, 2000 and 2010 (n = 25,425 households), combined with detailed species-level nutrient composition data. Fish consumption increased by 30% from 1991-2010. Consumption of non-farmed species declined by 33% over this period, compensated (in terms of quantity) by large increases in consumption of farmed species. Despite increased total fish consumption, there were significant decreases in iron and calcium intakes from fish (P<0.01); and no significant change in intakes of zinc, vitamin A and vitamin B12 from fish, reflecting lower overall nutritional quality of fish available for consumption over time. Our results challenge the conventional narrative that increases in food supply lead to improvements in diet and nutrition. As aquaculture becomes an increasingly important food source, it must embrace a nutrition-sensitive approach, moving beyond maximising productivity to also consider nutritional quality. Doing so will optimise the complementary role that aquaculture and capture fisheries play in improving nutrition and health.
Citation and links
National Health and Morbidity Survey 2014: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS). Volume I: Methodology and General Findigns. Kuala Lumur: Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia; 2014
National Health and Morbidity Survey 2014: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS). Volume II: Survey Findigns. Kuala Lumur: Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia; 2014
National Health and Morbidity Survey 2014: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS). Volume III: Food Consumption Statistics of Malaysia. Kuala Lumur: Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia; 2014
Study name: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS-2014)
The high prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in many Asian countries is attributed to diabetes and hypertension. Health care expenditure in relation to per capita income and government share of this expenditure vary among Asian countries and are affected by large populations and the poverty factor. The impact of ESRD on nutritional management in Asia reveals the need for clinicians to balance the requirements for higher standards of dietetic practice as they implement optimal care algorithms with the goal of improving outcomes, against the backdrop of staffing limitations, limited expertise in renal nutrition practice, and cultural diversity among Asian people. This paper discusses current aspects of dietetic practice and the likelihood that a change in practice is required if dietitians are to play an active role in preventing or slowing down ESRD.
Background: Stroke is a major global health problem that contributes to a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. The association of several foods and nutrients with stroke has been well-established. However, the effect of the whole diet on stroke is poorly understood. In this work, we aimed to examine the association between the quality of whole diet, as measured using Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), and risk of stroke in Iranian adults. Methods: In this hospital-based case-control study, 193 stroke patients (diagnosed based on clinical and brain CT findings) and 193 controls with no history of cerebrovascular diseases or neurologic disorders were included. The participants' dietary intakes were examined using a validated 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. AHEI-2010 was constructed based on earlier studies. Participants were classified according to tertiles of AHEI-2010 scores and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between whole diet quality and risk of stroke. Results: Individuals with greater adherence to AHEI-2010 had a higher intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains and carbohydrate, and a lower intake of trans-fatty acids, sugar-sweetened beverages, total energy and fat (P diet and stroke.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease which is characterized by hyperglycemia. There is either disturbance in insulin secretion or defective insulin action or even a combination of both. Usually, there are few confounding factors like genetic, obesity, sedentary life style, atherosclerosis, and even faulty dietary habits which lead or aggravate DM. Usually, the individual does not care and often the complications resulting from hyperglycaemia are fatal. Complications in DM involve the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, renal and neurological systems in the body. Treatment of diabetic complications is not only costly but it is also a burden on the affected families. The present review discusses the challenges faced in DM with special concern on diet and food habits. Knowledge of proper food consumption may also help an individual combat complication in DM and reduce the mortality and morbidity.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; complications; food; habits; mortality; morbidity