Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 341 in total

  1. Norlida Mat Daud, Nor Izati Fadzil, Lam, Kit Yan, Ika Aida Aprilini Makbul, Noor Fairuzi Suhana Yahya, Arnida Hani Teh, et al.
    Malays J Nutr, 2018;24(1):77-88.
    Introduction: Awareness of the importance of dietary fibre (DF) in health among adolescents is seldom reported in Malaysia. This study aimed to compare the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of DF intake between Malaysian rural and urban school-going adolescents. Pulau Pangkor in Perak and Damansara in Selangor were randomly selected as rural and urban schools, respectively. Methods: A total of 305 school adolescents with a mean age of 13.5±0.6 years were randomly selected from rural (72 Malay, 85 Chinese) and urban (86 Malay, 62 Chinese) schools completed socio-demographic, validated KAP on DF intake questionnaire, as well as a 24-hour dietary recall. Results: Adolescents from both areas have moderate knowledge (54.4±11.3%), positive attitude (78.7±13.1%) and good practice (65.8±19.9%) scores towards DF intake. Although rural adolescents had significantly (p=0.022) higher DF intake (7.8±3.5 g) compared to urban adolescents (6.9±3.5 g), their DF intake was still lower than the Malaysian recommendation of 20-30 g/day. The attitude of DF intake of rural (r=0.390) and urban (r=0.370) adolescents showed significant positive correlations with practice score of DF intake. While a significant correlation was found between the practice score and DF intake (r=0.191, p=0.017), no significant correlation was found between knowledge and attitude scores with DF intake. Conclusion: Public health authorities and schools should raise awareness on health benefit of consuming DF to promote an increase in DF consumption among school adolescents.
  2. Nurdiana, A., Ahmad Munir, C.M., Rabindarjeet, Singh, Brown, W.J., Clark, B.
    Malays J Nutr, 2016;22(3):363-374.
    Background: Population-based physical activity (PA) data are lacking in multicultural South East Asia. Malaysian elderly Malays, for example, are occupied daily with religious and community activities. Those living in rural areas also have a distinctively different lifestyle in terms of walking habits and leisure-time activities, compared to people from urban areas.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 146 community-dwelling Malay adults aged 60 to 85 years (mean (SD) = 67.6 (6.4) years) living in semi-rural areas in Seberang Perai Utara, Penang, Malaysia. Each participant was interviewed using a questionnaire for their socio-economic background and self-reported PA levels. Then, the participants were invited to wear an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X or GT3X+) during their waking hours for seven consecutive days.

    Results: Daily activity patterns of the participants were dominated by sedentary time (7.9 (SD 2.1) hours/day; 52% of wear time) and light intensity activity (7.0 (1.9) hours/day; 46% of wear time). The participants spent 24 (SD 30) minutes daily in ‘health enhancing’ (i.e. moderatevigorous intensity) activities. Men spent significantly more time in higher intensity acti-vities than women. Average daily step count was more than 10,000 (mean = 12,542 [4,857]) steps/day.

    Conclusion: Based on the accelerometer counts, these elderly Malay participants were assessed to be sedentary for most of the time during the day, though their daily step count exceeded 10,000 on average. Community-living older adults, especially women,should be encouraged to increase their physical activity levels.
  3. Mohd Khairuddin Noor Khalib, Zahara Abdul Manaf, Suzana Shahar, Arimi Fitri Mat Ludin
    Malays J Nutr, 2018;24(4):575-585.
    Introduction: Lack of healthy food choices at the worksite is associated with
    unhealthy eating habits and poor diet quality. This study aimed to conduct a two
    weeks pilot study to assess the diet quality of lunch-meals delivered to worksites.
    Methods: Using a crossover study design, a total of 50 adults were purposely
    recruited from among university and hospital staffs in Selangor. Participants were
    randomised into two groups, whereby in week one, Group A was provided with
    the study’s “healthy lunch-meals” (RD4U©) for 3 work days/week, while Group B
    consumed their usual lunch. In week two, the groups switched over with Group
    B receiving RD4U© lunch-meals for three days. Diet quality of the lunch meals
    was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index for Malaysian (HEI-M). Participant
    satisfaction for RD4U© service was determined using SERVQUAL. Results: Mean
    protein consumption was significantly higher (27±4 g/day) while fat consumption
    was significantly lower (18±5 g/day) for the RD4U© lunch-meals, compared to the
    respective levels (24±11 g/day; 22±12 g/day) for the usual lunch meals. Total HEI
    score of the RD4U© meals (61.9±9.2) was higher than that for the usual lunch
    meals (56.1±11.2). Nonetheless, the overall diet quality scores indicate that both
    RD4U© and usual lunch meals were in the “need improvement” category. Generally,
    participants were satisfied with the RD4U© lunch-meal service. Conclusion: The
    RD4U© lunch-meals showed potential in delivering healthy lunch to worksites, and
    feasibility studies to expand the RD4U© delivery service is recommended.
  4. Siti Farhana Mesbah, Norhasmah Sulaiman, Zalilah Mohd Shariff, Zuriati Ibrahim
    Malays J Nutr, 2018;24(3):349-357.
    Introduction: Older persons are vulnerable to food insecurity. This study
    aimed to determine the prevalence of food security and associated factors
    among free-living older persons in Petaling District, Selangor. Methods:
    A total of 220 free-living older persons aged 60-87 years were selected by
    using the cluster sampling method in this cross-sectional study. Faceto-face interviews were conducted to obtain information concerning the
    demographic and socioeconomic background, food security, oral health, and
    psychosocial status. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis
    were used to analyse the studied variables. Results: The median age of the
    respondents was 65.5 years, and 19.5% were found as food insecure. There
    were significant associations between marital status (χ2=6.818), education
    level (χ2=6.242), occupation status (χ2=7.540), monthly income (χ2=9.940,),
    and oral health status (χ2=9.627) with food security status. Those with a low
    monthly income (AOR=2.449, 95% CI: 1.046-5.732), poor oral health status
    (AOR: 3.306, 95% CI: 1.387-7.889) and living in rented accommodation
    (AOR=6.218, 95% CI: 1.458-26.518) were more likely to be food insecure.
    Conclusion: Respondents with an income lower than the poverty line
    income (PLI), living in rented accommodation and poor oral health status
    face increased risk of food insecurity. A nutrition assistance programme is
    suggested to improve the socioeconomic and food security status of older
    persons. Regular oral check-ups are recommended to improve the oral
    health status of the elderly.
  5. Bibi Nabihah, A.H., Suzana, S., Hasnah, H.
    Malays J Nutr, 2016;22(1):29-39.
    Introduction: This two-phase longitudinal study sought to determine the association between isoflavones intake on cognitive function and comorbidities among older adults from the state of Johor, Malaysia.
    Methods: Phase I involved baseline data collection to examine the association between isoflavones intake and cognitive function among 400 respondents aged 60-years and above, recruited through multistage random sampling. Phase 2 determined the association between isoflavones intake at the baseline and comorbidities at an 18-month follow-up. The baseline data collected included information on socio-demographics, health status, andunpometric measurements, and dietary intake using a dietary history questionnaire (DHQ). Each participant's cognitive function was evaluated using a mini mental state examination (MMSE), digit span, digit symbol, and geriatric depression scale (GDS).
    Results: The daily intake of total isoflavones, daidzein, and genistein were 19.1±19.7,11.7±12.3 and 7.6+8.1 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant association between isoflavones intake, and specific cognitive function including global, memory, executive functions, and depression. However, there was a significant association (p 0.05).
    Conclusion: This study found an association between isoflavones intake and memory function, but not with global cognitive, executive functions, depression, and comorbidities. There is a need to promote adequate isoflavones intake in view of its association with memory function.
  6. Chan, Yoke Mun, Ho, Lina Ling Ling
    Malays J Nutr, 2018;24(2):227-239.
    Introduction: Malnutrition is a common problem associated with increased risk of
    morbidity and mortality among haemodialysis (HD) patients.

    Methods: This study
    determined the correlation between anthropometric measurements, biochemical
    indicators, dietary intake and dialysis malnutrition score among HD patients in
    Sibu, Sarawak. A total of 55 patients were recruited by purposive sampling and
    their biochemical parameters were retrieved from dialysis records. Anthropometric
    measurements and dietary intake were determined using standardised protocols
    while Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS) was computed to determine patients’
    nutritional status.

    Results: Mean age of the patients was 53.0±12.2 years. Mean
    DMS was low, indicating low tendency of malnutrition among the patients.
    Approximately one-third of the patients had high interdialytic weight gain (IDWG),
    indicating a poor adherence on fluid recommendation. Mean intakes of dietary
    energy (DEI) and protein (DPI) were low, with only approximately 15% achieving
    the recommendations according to Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/
    DOQI). Increase in age (r=0.337, p=0.012) and dialysis vintage (r=0.403, p=0.002)
    were associated with poorer nutritional status while higher BMI, MUAC, and
    serum albumin were associated with better nutritional status.

    Conclusion: This
    study revealed a high proportion of the HD patients with poor adherence on fluid
    intake, and the prevalence of inadequate DEI and DPI, indicating the importance
    of regular dietary counselling for HD patients. In view of their non-invasive nature
    and close relationship with nutritional status, body mass index, mid-upper arm
    circumference, and serum albumin should be included as part of the comprehensive
    periodic nutrition assessment of HD patients.
  7. Bibi Nabihah Abdul Hakim, Hanis Mastura Yahya, Suzana Shahar, Zahara Abdul Manaf
    Malays J Nutr, 2018;24(4):567-574.
    Introduction: Adequacy of fruit intake contributes to an individual’s health
    including reducing the risk of non-communicable disease. This study aimed to
    assess consumption of fruits in various forms and to determine associated factors
    and barriers. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 300 adults aged
    20-39 years were purposely recruited from several urban locations in the Klang
    Valley. Consumption of fruits in the past 12 months was assessed using a selfadministered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), assisted with pictures of serving
    size of fruits. Anthropometric measurements were taken and body mass index
    and waist circumference computed. Results: Fruit intake among young adults
    was lower (1.6±1.0 servings/day) than the Malaysian Dietary Guideline 2010 of
    ≥ 2 servings/day. Only 32.3% consumed fruits as recommended, with women
    consuming significantly more fruits than men. Preferred fresh fruits were red apple,
    banana and papaya. Consumption of fruit juice was associated with increase in
    waist circumference (R2=0.261, p=0.027) after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity,
    education level and marital status. Fruit intake showed no significant association
    with other anthropometric measurements. Sensory appeal, perceived health benefit,
    easy to prepare and influence of family were the main determinants of fruit intake,
    whilst affordability and availability were the major barriers. Conclusion: Fruit
    consumption among young adults in this study was lower than the recommendation
    for daily fruit intake. Studies with larger sample size are suggested to verify the
    finding of significant association between fruit juice consumption and risk of
    abdominal obesity.
  8. Juliana Shamsudin, Shariza Abdul Razak, Marina Abdul Manaf, Sakinah Harith
    Malays J Nutr, 2018;24(2):281-286.
    Introduction: Goats milk provides health benefits due to its unique fatty acid composition that
    comprises relatively high amounts of short- and medium-chain fatty acids, which make goats
    milk easy to digest.

    Methods: A total of 20 powdered goats milk samples were selected based
    on ease of availability in shops in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Proximate composition and fatty
    acids, specifically C6:0, C8:0 and C10:0 were determined using AOAC methods (2000), and
    gas-chromatography, respectively.

    Results were compared with commercial pure goats milk
    (CBM®). Results: Wide variations in the proximate composition and fatty acid contents were
    found among the samples when compared with the CBM® sample. The mean range values for
    energy were 368 to 498 kcal/100 g, moisture: 2.46 to 4.28 g/100 g, ash: 2.04 to 6.61 g/100 g,
    protein: 2.80 to 26.24 g/100 g, fat: 1.68 to 25.90 g/100 g and carbohydrates: 44.81 to 87.64
    g/100 g. The total short and medium-chain fatty acids contents ranged from 3.22% to 12.97%.

    Conclusion: There is a need for standardisation of the proximate composition and fatty acids
    contents of goats milk available in Malaysia.
  9. Alfrecha, Feblinesia, Kar, Lin Nyam
    Malays J Nutr, 2018;24(4):597-605.
    Introduction: Sensitivity of red palm oil (RPO) towards oxidation is known to result
    in degradation of nutritional value and organoleptic properties. This study aimed
    to determine the stability of microencapsulated RPO during accelerated storage at
    65˚C for 24 days. Methods: Microencapsulated was undertaken by co-extrusion
    technology using sodium alginate with high methoxyl pectin, and calcium chloride
    solution enhanced with chitosan as cross-linking agent in the presence of Tween® 80
    as surfactant. The encapsulated beads were freeze dried and the physical properties,
    antioxidant activities and total carotenoid content of dried powder were determined.
    Microencapsulated red palm oil (MRPO) was then subjected to accelerated storage at
    65°C for 24 days. Results: Antioxidant activity of both RPO and MRPO measured by
    DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity was significantly
    decreased, with higher percentage loss in MRPO during accelerated storage.
    RPO and MRPO also experienced decreases in percentage inhibition with higher
    percentage of loss as measured by Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulpohnic
    acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Both RPO and MRPO showed decreasing
    trends in total carotenoid content, with higher content in MRPO than RPO at end
    of storage period. Antioxidant activities of RPO and MRPO correlated well with the
    carotenoid content, with best correlation coefficient in RPO between the ABTS assay
    and total carotenoid content measured by high performance liquid chromatography
    (r=0.952). Very strong association between DPPH and ABTS values (r=0.871) for
    the MRPO, and between DPPH and total carotenoid content (r=0.856) were noted.
    Conclusion: The study showed that microencapsulation effectively protected the
    carotenoid content in MRPO, but not its other natural antioxidants.
  10. Rasyidah Mohamad Basiran, Hanis Mastura Yahya, Suzana Shahar
    Malays J Nutr, 2018;24(3):441-453.
    Introduction: Nutrient profiling is the science of ranking food based on the nutrient
    content that enables an individual to make healthier food choice without exceeding
    the daily energy recommendation. This study was aimed at developing and validating
    a nutrient profiling model for Malaysian older population. Methods: A total of six
    nutrient profiling models comprising different combinations of nutrients were
    developed. Each model was tested by scoring 94 food items in terms of 100 kcal and
    100 g, and the Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysian (2017) as the reference
    value. The scores in each model were correlated with energy density per 100 g of
    food. The best model to correctly rank food according to nutrient density was chosen
    for validation. Validation was done by comparing the healthiness classification of
    174 food items as determined by Towards Useful Aging Food Nutrient Density Index
    (TUA FNDI) nutrient profiling model and the Malaysian Dietary Guidelines. Results:
    Models with sodium and total fat were better correlated with energy density. All
    six models were inversely correlated with energy density. TUA FNDI 9-2 model was
    chosen as the best model for validation. Overall, there was substantial agreement
    between TUA FNDI 9-2 model and the food-based dietary guidelines (κ=0.644,
    p=0.001). Conclusion: The inverse correlation between nutrient profiling models
    to energy density shows that foods with higher nutrient density contain lower
    energy. The validated TUA FNDI 9-2 model is recommended for older adults to make
    healthier food choices.
  11. Sharifah Zahhura Syed Abdullah, Rozieyati Mohamed Saleh
    Malays J Nutr, 2019;25(1):117-128.
    Introduction: The benefits of breastfeeding for both mothers and infants are
    widely recognised. Breastfeeding confirms a woman’s unique ability to care for her
    infant in the best way possible and promotes optimum infant and maternal health.
    Methods: A qualitative research method involving five focus group discussions
    (n=33) was chosen in this study to compare and contrast the breastfeeding practice
    in two different locations: the communities of Pos Pulat and the regroupment
    scheme settlement at Rancangan Pengumpulan Semula (RPS) Kuala Betis in
    Kelantan, Malaysia which represents different lifestyle experiences of indigenous
    Temiar population. Results: The benefits of breastfeeding to the infants reported
    by some Temiar women (42.4%) were for the infant’s health and growth. Responses
    from urban RPS Kuala Betis women include breast milk contains antibodies (3.0%),
    delays in the return of regular ovulation (6.1%), thus lengthening birth intervals
    and bonding between maternal-baby (6.1%). In general, respondents from Pos
    Pulat seemed to have little knowledge regarding this issue, except for a woman who
    mentioned that maternal milk contains vitamins. Based on the narrative analysis,
    knowledge gap was observed between these two communities. Conclusion: Although
    all the women interviewed had the experience of breastfeeding their infants, most
    of them lacked the knowledge regarding the benefits of the breastfeeding either
    to the infants or to the mothers. The findings from this study are crucial for the
    preservation of breastfeeding culture among the Temiar women and can be used to
    improve promotion of breastfeeding to other Orang Asli groups in Malaysia.
  12. Febrianingtyas, Yunita, Februhartanty, Judhiastuty, Hadihardjono, Dian Nurcahyati
    Malays J Nutr, 2019;25(1):129-142.
    Introduction: The primary reason that compels working mothers to decrease their
    ability to continue to breastfeeding successfully is their return to work. Attempts
    to continue breastfeeding at work encounters several difficulties. This study
    aims to provide an overview of the workplace environment and how facilities at
    the workplace affect breastfeeding in Indonesia. Methods: We used a qualitative
    approach to provide a detailed picture of the influence of workplace support for
    working mothers to perform breastfeeding. We enrolled working mothers (n=18)
    in Jakarta, as participants and obtained the following information from them:
    parity, type of family and type of work. Results: The findings provided the general
    overview of the workplace environment and identified three factors that affected
    breastfeeding: seeking information during pregnancy, expression of breast milk at
    office facilities and the problem faced by working mothers. Conclusion: Although
    the breastfeeding performance of most working mothers in this study comprised
    exclusive breastfeeding, some fed their infants with formula milk. This study
    suggests that working mothers who continue to breastfeed after returning to work
    need the support of their employers, co-workers and others in the workplace to
    ensure the provision of health facilities and the protection and dissemination the
    rights of breastfeeding working mothers that might lead them to discontinue their
    breastfeeding practice.
  13. Norsakira Jefrydin, Norazmir Md Nor, Ruzita Abd. Talib
    Malays J Nutr, 2019;25(1):143-153.
    Introduction: The consumption of processed food is increasing in developing
    countries. Nutrition labels on food packaging are important for the education of
    consumers, particularly adolescents, to help them make healthier food choices.
    However, there is evidence to suggest that adolescents generally do not use nutrition
    labels. This study aims to explore the personal factors that influence the practice of
    Malaysian adolescents in reading nutrition labels. Methods: The participants were
    adolescents, aged 13-16 years, from five public schools in Negeri Sembilan. Five
    semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted. The participants
    discussed their personal views, knowledge and perceptions regarding the use of
    nutrition labels and food selection. Data gathered from the FGDs were coded through
    thematic analysis using the NVivo software. Results: While the participants were
    familiar with nutrition labels, their usage was relatively low during food selection
    due to the lack of interest in nutrition information, past experiences, hunger and
    cravings, time constraints and the taste of the food. The main reasons for using
    nutrition labels were health consciousness and their curiosity about specific
    nutrition information provided on the labels. The majority of participants believed
    that information provided on the labels was accurate because it was provided by
    reliable institutions. There was also misperception among some participants, mixing
    up nutrition labels with list of ingredients and the expiry dates. A few participants
    were unconvinced by the labels and stated that the labels provided misleading
    information. Conclusion: Personal factors such as knowledge, misperception,
    awareness and trust significantly impact how adolescents read nutrition labels.
  14. Chua, Ee Yin, Zalilah Mohd Shariff, Norhasmah Sulaiman, Appannah, Geeta
    Malays J Nutr, 2019;25(3):199-207.
    Introduction: Obesity and excess weight gain in adults are linked to an increased
    risk of cardiometabolic abnormalities. The changing lifestyle experienced by the
    Orang Asli predisposes the population to the risk of obesity and non-communicable
    diseases. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity as
    well as body-weight change over a period of four years among Orang Asli adults.
    Methods: Data were collected from Orang Asli adults aged ≥18 years, who were
    enrolled in the 2011-2012 and 2015-2016 surveys, and who were residing within
    the Krau Wildlife Reserve. Weight and height of the adults (N2011-2012=828; N2015-
    2016=662) were measured at both time points. Follow-up data were available for 378
    adults (male:113; female:265). Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity
    were 18.8% and 7.4% in 2011-2012 and 26.1% and 9.5% in 2015-2016. In the
    follow-up group, significant differences in body weight and body mass index (BMI)
    were observed in men and women, respectively. More than one-third (35.5%) of the
    adults had weight gain of more than 5.0%. The increasing percentage of body weight
    change was associated with being female, younger age, more years of schooling and
    reduced household income. Conclusion: Obesity is a growing health problem in
    the Orang Asli adult population. Weight gain was associated with socioeconomic
    indicators and it was more prominent in women. Effective strategies are needed to
    address the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in this population to
    further reduce adverse health outcomes.
  15. Iswarawanti, Dwi Nastiti, Siti Muslimatun, Endang Basuki, Ahmad Hadi
    Malays J Nutr, 2019;25(1):99-115.
    Introduction: In Indonesia, most training modules for health paraprofessionals
    have been adapted from existing foreign modules without assessment. In addition,
    there have been few studies on training development for this group. We aimed to
    develop, using a systematic tool, implement and evaluate a training module to
    improve the competencies of voluntary health workers (cadres) in communicating
    safe complementary feeding practice to caregivers of young children in Indonesia.
    Methods: A mixed methods approach was used. A qualitative study employing
    in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, mini-workshops, documentary
    reviews and expert validation was used to develop the training module, following a
    systematic approach. The module’s effectiveness for improving the health workers’
    competencies was evaluated using a quantitative study with a non-equivalent
    pre-test and post-test control group design that included 70 (intervention group)
    and 68 (comparison group) voluntary health workers from a peri-urban district.
    Changes in the workers’ cognitive, affective and psychomotor competencies were
    tested before and after attending a 3-day training module (intervention group) or
    a half-day event (comparison group). Results: A 24-hour learning session module
    on communicating safe complementary feeding was developed and used to train
    voluntary health workers. After the training, a significantly higher proportion of
    workers in the intervention group than in the comparison group were assessed as
    competent in the psychomotor and composite domains (psychomotor: 67.1% vs.
    20.6%; composite: 74.3% vs. 36.8%; p
  16. Ahmad Ali Zainuddin, Norazmir Md. Nor, Safiah Md Yusof, Adriana Irawati Nur Ibrahim, Tahir Aris, Foo, Leng Huat
    Malays J Nutr, 2019;25(3):273-285.
    Introduction: Monitoring changes in energy and nutrient intakes of the population
    over the course of time is essential to help healthcare providers develop effective
    dietary policies. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the nutrient
    intake and Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) achievements by using the data
    obtained from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Surveys (MANS) that were carried out
    in 2003 and 2014. Mis-reporting of energy intake was taken into account. Methods:
    Dietary data were obtained from MANS 2003 and MANS 2014, which involved a
    combined total of 4,044 randomly selected respondents, aged 18-59 years, using
    a single 24-hour diet recall. Energy and nutrients calculations were based on the
    Malaysian Food Composition database using the Nutritionist Pro software. The
    results were compared against the RNI for Malaysia to assess dietary adequacy.
    Results: The proportions of calories derived from macronutrients were within the
    recommendations for a healthy diet. The consumption of protein, fat, calcium, iron
    and vitamin A was significantly higher in 2014 than in 2003. The consumption
    of protein, iron, vitamin C, and vitamin A was found to exceed the RNIs in 2014.
    However, carbohydrate and sodium intakes had significantly decreased. Despite the
    decrease, sodium intake still exceeded RNI recommendations. Conclusion: Signs
    of changing energy and nutrient intakes were found, including increases in protein
    and fat intakes since 2003, and decreased carbohydrates. This could be an alarming
    indicator of the tendency to eat energy dense food among the population.
  17. Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng, Norsham Juliana Nordin, Aisyah Suraya Muhammad Shah
    Malays J Nutr, 2019;25(3):227-236.
    Introduction: Data on water and sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) intake
    among young adults in Malaysia is sparse. This study aimed at measuring the
    intake of plain water and SSB among undergraduate students in a Malaysian
    university and examine its association with body mass index (BMI). Methods:
    A total of 376 undergraduate students aged 18-30 years were recruited. A selfadministered questionnaire was used to determine the SSB consumption pattern.
    The questionnaire consisted of five sections that included the background of the
    participants, knowledge about SSB, SSB preferences, frequency and portion size.
    Results: 23.9% of subjects in this study were overweight. Almost all of the subjects
    took outside food (93.1%) and drink (74.2%). The highest daily consumption was
    plain water (92.3%), with a majority drinking more than two cups at each intake.
    Caffeinated drinks (coffee or tea) were the most popular SSB among the students
    (18.4%). Most students (79.7%) did not consume SSB on a daily basis. A significant
    association was found between the proportion of plain water consumption and BMI
  18. Fatin Izzaty Mohd Shahrin, Noraida Omar, Zulfitri ‘Azuan Mat Daud, Nor Fadhlina Zakaria
    Malays J Nutr, 2019;25(3):185-198.
    Introduction: The aging population is a matter of global concern. Age-related
    physiological, pathological, psychosocial, economic, cultural and environmental
    changes are common and may greatly influence the quality of life of the elderly.
    The aim of this review was to explore the determinants and motivations that drive
    the elderly in making food choices. Methods: The search strategy of this literature
    review used the PRISMA protocol. Potential literature that was related to food
    choices was identified using two different combinations of keywords and two major
    electronic search engines, namely Pubmed and Science Direct. The articles that
    were selected for this review had to be in the English language, open-accessed and
    published between January 2007 and December 2017. Results: From a search of
    1398 articles, 15 articles (seven quantitative and eight qualitative) were identified
    that were related to food choices among the elderly. The key factor that determined
    food choices among the elderly population was identified to be health. Others
    included convenience, sensory appeal, price, early food experience and more. The
    limitations of these studies that were reported were the small sample size and the
    reliance on self-reporting. The conclusions that were drawn were for specific groups
    that were studied in this review should be extrapolated or generalised with caution.
    Conclusion: Strategies for intervention programmes should be undertaken in
    collaboration with health professionals, researchers, policymakers, and the food
    industry. Future research is needed in the elderly who have chronic diseases, are
    dependent or who have disabilities.
  19. Ahmad Ali Zainuddin, Norazmir Md. Nor, Safiah Md Yusof, Adriana Irawati Nur Ibrahim, Tahir Aris, Foo, Leng Huat
    Malays J Nutr, 2019;25(3):261-271.
    Introduction: Under-reporting of energy intake is a common cause of bias
    in nutritional studies. This study was aimed at examining the extent of underreporting of energy intake and its related characteristics among respondents in
    the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) 2003 and MANS 2014. Methods:
    The present study analysed energy intakes of 9,624 adults aged 18-59 years from
    the MANS in year 2014 (2,890 respondents) and 2003 (6,734 respondents) using
    a single 24-hour diet recall. Basal metabolic rates (BMR) were calculated from the
    age- and gender-specific equations of Schofield. Under-reporting was defined as an
    energy intake:BMR ratio of
  20. Nurul Fatin Malek Rivan, Suzana Shahar, Hasnah Haron, Rashidah Ambak, Fatimah Othman
    Malays J Nutr, 2018;24(3):381-393.
    Introduction: Intake of soy isoflavones has been shown to be beneficial in reducing
    blood pressure, a known cardiovascular risk factor. This study investigated the
    association between intake of soy isoflavones and blood pressure among multiethnic Malaysian adults. Methods: A total of 230 non-institutionalised Malaysians
    aged 18-81 years were recruited through multi-stage random sampling from urban
    and rural areas in four conveniently selected states. Participants were interviewed
    on socio-demographics, medical history, smoking status, and physical activity.
    Measurements of height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure
    (BP) were taken. Information on usual intake of soy foods was obtained using a
    validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results: The mean
    intake of soy protein of both urban (3.40g/day) and rural participants (3.01g/day)
    were lower than the USFDA recommended intake level of soy protein (25.00g/day).
    Urban participants had significantly higher intake of isoflavones (9.35±11.31mg/
    day) compared to the rural participants (7.88±14.30mg/day). Mean BP levels were
    significantly lower among urban (136/81mmHg) than rural adults (142/83mmHg).
    After adjusting for age, gender, educational level, household income, smoking status,
    physical activity, BMI and WC, soy protein intake was significantly associated with
    both SBP (R2=0.205, β=-0.136) and DBP (R2=0.110, β=-0.104), whilst soy isoflavones
    intake was significantly associated with SBP (β=-0.131). Intake of 1 mg of isoflavone
    is estimated to lower SBP by 7.97 mmHg. Conclusion: Higher consumption of
    isoflavones among the urban participants showed an association with lower levels
    of SBP. Use of biological markers for estimating isoflavones levels is recommended
    to investigate its protective effects on blood pressure.
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