Displaying all 14 publications

  1. Woon FC, Chin YS, Mohd Nasir MT
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2015 Jul-Aug;9(4):346-56.
    PMID: 25476772 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2014.10.218
    This paper investigates the association between behavioural factors and BMI-for-age among early adolescents (10-11 years old) in Hulu Langat district, Selangor.
  2. Cheong KC, Ghazali SM, Hock LK, Yusoff AF, Selvarajah S, Haniff J, et al.
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2014 Mar-Apr;8(2):e154-62.
    PMID: 24743011 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2013.03.004
    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have proposed the lower waist circumference (WC) cutoffs be used for defining abdominal obesity in Asian populations.
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal cut-offs of waist circumference (WC) in predicting cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in the multi-ethnic Malaysian population.
    METHODS: We analysed data from 32,703 respondents (14,980 men and 17,723 women) aged 18 years and above who participated in the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2006. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between WC and three CV risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia). The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the cut-off values of WC with optimum sensitivity and specificity for detecting these CV risk factors.
    RESULTS: The odds ratio for having diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, or at least one of these risks, increased significantly as the WC cut-off point increased. Optimal WC cut-off values for predicting the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and at least one of the three CV risk factors varied from 81.4 to 85.5 cm for men and 79.8 to 80.7 cm for women.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that WC cut-offs of 81 cm for men and 80 cm for women are appropriate for defining abdominal obesity and for recommendation to undergo cardiovascular risk screening and weight management in the Malaysian adult population.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2006)
  3. Firouzi S, Poh BK, Ismail MN, Sadeghilar A
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2014 Jan-Feb;8(1):e70-8.
    PMID: 24548579 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2012.12.001
    This study aimed to determine the association between sleep habits (including bedtime, wake up time, sleep duration, and sleep disorder score) and physical characteristics, physical activity level, and food pattern in overweight and obese versus normal weight children.
  4. Sanip Z, Ariffin FD, Al-Tahami BA, Sulaiman WA, Rasool AH
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2013 Jul-Aug;7(4):e315-20.
    PMID: 24306161 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2012.05.002
    Obese subjects had increased serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), decreased adiponectin levels, and impaired microvascular endothelial function compared to lean subjects. We investigated the relationships of serum hs-CRP, adiponectin and microvascular endothelial function with obesity indices and metabolic markers in overweight and obese female subjects. Anthropometric profile, body fat composition, biochemical analysis, serum hs-CRP and adiponectin levels, and microvascular endothelial function were measured in 91 female subjects. Microvascular endothelial function was determined using laser Doppler fluximetry and the process of iontophoresis. Mean age and body mass index (BMI) of subjects were 34.88 (7.87) years and 32.93 (4.82) kg/m(2). hs-CRP levels were positively correlated with weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat and visceral fat. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated with insulin sensitivity index (HOMA-%S), and inversely correlated with waist hip ratio, triglyceride, fasting insulin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). No relationship was seen between microvascular endothelial function and obesity indices, and metabolic markers. In overweight and obese female subjects, hs-CRP levels were correlated with obesity indices while adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with obesity indices and metabolic markers. No significant relationship was seen between microvascular endothelial function with obesity indices and metabolic markers including hs-CRP and adiponectin in female overweight and obese subjects.
  5. Lee CY
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2012 Jan-Mar;6(1):e1-e90.
    PMID: 24331176 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2011.05.002
    Quercetin and adenosine are natural antioxidants separately claimed to improve metabolic syndrome parameters. The effect of this combination (QA) was examined in high fat diet-fed mice. Results showed that growth and blood parameters, as observed for quercetin-treated mice, were not significantly different from the control. Adenosine alone caused hyperglycemia and reduced plasma adiponectin. QA feeding led to increased adiposity and circulatory insulin, and concomitantly down-regulated liver eNOS and LFABP expressions. This showed that interaction occurred between quercetin and adenosine, and combined ingestion may lead to insulin resistance, while adenosine does not prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.:
  6. Aziz HA, Peh KK, Tan YT
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2011 Oct-Dec;5(4):e267-360.
    PMID: 24331133 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2011.03.008
    Obesity is one of the most important problems worldwide. Khat (Catha edulis), an evergreen shrub, is thought to reduce body-weight. Its effect is more prominent when khat leaves are chewed. Thus, anti-obesity effects of khat and its associated side effects may depend on the release rate of its active constituents. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a selected low dose of dried-khat, extracted, formulated as controlled release delivery systems on the body weight (BW), food intake (FI), cholesterol (CS) and triglyceride (TG) levels in rats. Khat extract (KE) was microencapsulated (KE235) and formulated into a parenteral implant (InjKE235). The effects of KE, KE235 and InjKE235 on BW, FI, CS and TG in rats were investigated. The results showed that microcapsules sustained the khat alkaloid release with T50% 1.58 h for KE235 and 14.41 days for InjKE235. KE and KE235 caused maximum reduction in BW, FI, CS and TG during the first to third weeks but rebound gradually thereafter. On the contrary, InjKE235 exhibited a sustained reduction in BW, FI, CS and TG levels for 2 months. The T50% of KE, KE235 and InjKE235 correlated with the reduction in BW, CS and TG but not with FI. In conclusion, the subcutaneous injection and sustained release rate of khat extract play an important role in enhancing the anti-obesity effect in SD rats.:
  7. Yiew SK, Khor LY, Tan ML, Pang CL, Chai VY, Kanachamy SS, et al.
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2010 Oct-Dec;4(4):e247-342.
    PMID: 24345699 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2010.03.002
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are expressed in adipose tissue, where PPARs are nuclear receptors that function as transcription regulators of the expression of UCPs, mitochondria proteins which uncouple protons in exchange of heat released. The PPARα L162V; PPARγ2 C161T; UCP1 -3826A/G; UCP2 45 bp Ins/Del and -866G/A; and UCP3 -55C/T gene polymorphisms have been previously associated with obesity in different populations, but with inconclusive findings. This study was to investigate the prevalence of these gene polymorphisms and their possible association with obesity in a cohort of Malaysian university students in Kuala Lumpur. Random convenience sampling was performed with informed consents and anthropometric measurements were taken. Mouthwash samples were obtained for genomic DNA extraction and genotyping was performed using Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Out of the 256 subjects (140 males and 116 females), 170 were lean and 86 were overweight/obese. The mutated PPARα L162V; PPARγ2 C161T; UCP1 -3826A/G; UCP2 45 bp Ins/Del and -866G/A; and UCP3 -55C/T allele frequencies were 0.006, 0.36, 0.58, 0.12, 0.56 and 0.34, respectively. This study failed to find significant differences in the anthropometric indicators of obesity (Body Mass Index, Waist-Hip Ratio and Total Body Fat) between the genotypes of all the PPAR and UCP gene variants. Overall, the genotype and allele distributions were also not significantly different between genders and BMI status. In conclusion, overweight/obesity is not prevalent among the Malaysian university students and the PPAR and UCP gene polymorphisms are not associated with obesity.:
  8. Aziz HA, Tan YT, Peh KK, Yam MF
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2010 Oct-Dec;4(4):e247-342.
    PMID: 24345689 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2010.07.001
    Khat (Catha edulis) as well as garlic (Allium sativum) has a potential effect on reducing the lipid contents of blood. However, a mechanism by which garlic or khat reduces plasma lipids has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the direct action of khat and/or garlic (in vitro). The effects of extracted khat and/or garlic on human blood constituents (cholesterol and triglycerides) and on vegetable oil were investigated. The results showed that aqueous garlic extract was able to form an emulsion with oil but not khat extract. Even though, either khat or garlic extract has slight effect on reducing lipid contents of blood; a higher reduction was obtained when the extracts were added in combination. The mechanism of garlic on reducing lipids could be explained by its emulsifying property, while the mechanism of khat is by lipolysis. In conclusion, the synergistic effect of garlic and khat extracts opened an interesting area for further investigation on their roles in combating cardiovascular and obesity disorders.:
  9. Zalbahar N, Jan Mohamed HJ, Loy SL, Najman J, McIntyre HD, Mamun A
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2016 09;10 Suppl 1:S35-S47.
    PMID: 26321098 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2015.08.002
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parental body mass index (BMI) is strongly linked with the development of offspring overweight and obesity. However, there are a limited number of studies focusing on the association of parental body mass index before pregnancy on offspring growth and body composition in early life, particularly in developing countries.

    METHODS: Data from the University Sains Malaysia (USM) Pregnancy Cohort which consists of 153 mother-offspring pairs were used. Data were collected using interview-administered questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were also obtained. Multiple linear regression and generalised equation estimation (GEE) were used to examine the direction and impact of the association between parental BMI and child growth and body composition (weight for age, height for age, body mass index for age, weight for height and fat mass at age 2m, 6m, and 12m). Potential confounders, including validated measures of maternal diets and physical activity during pregnancy, were considered.

    RESULTS: Of 153 parents, one-quarter of the mothers and 42.2% of the fathers, respectively, were overweight or obese before pregnancy. A significant association was found between maternal BMI and child's weight for height z-score (WHZ) and body mass index for age z-score (BAZ).

    CONCLUSIONS: Having high pre-pregnancy BMI may increase BMI and WAZ of offspring in early life. Findings from this study emphasise the importance of monitoring maternal weight status, particularly before and during pregnancy and early life of offspring among Malaysians.

  10. Tajik E, Latiffah AL, Awang H, Siti Nur'Asyura A, Chin YS, Azrin Shah AB, et al.
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2016 Mar-Apr;10(2):114-23.
    PMID: 26204813 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2015.06.001
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Missing main meals and an unhealthy snacking pattern can lead to poor diet quality and consequently to the presence of chronic diseases among which mental disorder is no exception. Since there is little research on diet, skipping meals and psychological status in Asian countries, this study tries to determine eating behaviour and predicting symptoms of stress and depression of adolescents in Pasir Gudang, Malaysia.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Form 1 secondary school-going adolescents (n 1565, response rate: 90%) in southern Malaysia from April to May 2013. A self-administered structured and validated questionnaire (socio-demographic, eating behaviour questionnaire, and depression, anxiety and stress scales (DASS-21)) was used for data collection.

    RESULTS: Among respondents, 803 (51.3%) were female, 1125 were Malay (71.9%) with a mean age of 13.7 (SD=0.8) years. Logistic regression analysis indicated that students who were underweight (OR=3.07, 95% CI 1.21, 7.76), obese (OR=2.64, 95% CI 1.01, 6.87), used to eat out of home (OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.28, 2.13), eat dinner (>4 days/week) (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.04, 2.43) were more likely to have depression or stress symptoms. Moreover, participants with 4-7 days/week eating breakfast (OR=0.88, 95% CI 0.21, 0.89) were less likely to be at mild/moderate stress.

    CONCLUSIONS: Findings underscore the effect of unhealthy eating practices among adolescents on mental health. Targeted education should be implemented to improve psychological well-being.
  11. Robert SA, Rohana AG, Shah SA, Chinna K, Wan Mohamud WN, Kamaruddin NA
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2015 May-Jun;9(3):301-4.
    PMID: 25870084 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2015.03.005
    We examined the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue on appetite and plasma ghrelin in non-diabetic obese participants with subclinical binge eating (BE). Forty-four obese BE participants (mean age: 34±9 years, BMI: 35.9±4.2kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups for 12 weeks. All participants received standard advice for diet and exercise. Binge eating score, ghrelin levels and other anthropometric variables were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Participants who received liraglutide showed significant improvement in binge eating, accompanied by reduction in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol. Ghrelin levels were significantly increased which may potentially diminish the weight loss effects of liraglutide beyond the intervention.
  12. Fadzil F, Shamsuddin K, Wan Puteh SE, Mohd Tamil A, Ahmad S, Abdul Hayi NS, et al.
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2018 06 28;12(6):493-499.
    PMID: 29960869 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2018.06.003
    BACKGROUND: Women of childbearing age are predisposed to becoming overweight or obese. This study determines the mean, prevalence and factors associated with 6 months postpartum weight retention among urban Malaysian mothers.

    METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at baseline (after delivery), 2, 4 and 6 months postpartum. From 638 eligible mothers initially recruited, 420 completed until 6 months. Dependent variable was weight retention, defined as difference between weight at 6 months postpartum and pre-pregnancy weight, and weight retention ≥5kg was considered excessive. Independent variables included socio-demographic, history of pregnancy and delivery, lifestyle, practices and traditional postpartum practices.

    RESULTS: Average age was 29.61±4.71years, majority (83.3%) were Malays, 58.8% (low education), 70.0% (employed), 65.2% (middle income family), 33.8% (primiparous) and 66.7% (normal/instrumental delivery). Average gestational weight gain was 12.90±5.18kg. Mean postpartum weight retention was 3.12±4.76kg, 33.8% retaining ≥5kg. Bivariable analysis showed low income, primiparity, gestational weight gain ≥12kg, less active physically, higher energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat intake in diet, never using hot stone compression and not continuing breastfeeding were significantly associated with higher 6 months postpartum weight retention. From multivariable linear regression analysis, less active physically, higher energy intake in diet, gestational weight gain ≥12kg, not continuing breastfeeding 6 months postpartum and never using hot stone compression could explain 55.1% variation in 6 months postpartum weight retention.

    CONCLUSION: Women need to control gestational weight gain, remain physically active, reduce energy intake, breastfeed for at least 6 months and use hot stone compression to prevent high postpartum weight retention.

  13. Cheah YK, Azahadi M, Mohamad Nor NS, Phang SN, Abd Manaf NH
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2020 08 09;14(5):428-436.
    PMID: 32782176 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2020.07.008
    The objective of the present study is to examine sociodemographic factors associated with consumption of confectionery among obese and non-obese adults in Malaysia. Secondary analysis of the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) 2014 was performed. The survey was conducted in urban and rural areas in the 14 states of Malaysia, including the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. Adults aged 18 years and above (n = 2696) were interviewed. The dependent variable was the total servings of confectionery consumed per week. An ordered logistic regression model was used to examine the associated sociodemographic factors in the decision of people to consume 0, 1-2, 3-5 and ≥6 servings of confectionery. Marginal effects of sociodemographic variables on confectionery consumption were calculated. Analyses stratified by bodyweight group were conducted. The results showed that income, education, gender, ethnicity, and employment status were significantly associated with consumption of confectionery. In particular, income, education, gender, ethnicity and employment status affected confectionery consumption, but not the other way around. However, no relationship was evidenced between age, marital status, household location and confectionery consumption. In conclusion, sociodemographic factors were related to consumption of confectionery. Policies aimed at discouraging consumption of confectionery should focus primarily on high income earners, well-educated individuals and Bumiputera.
  14. Abduraman MA, Azizan NA, Teoh SH, Tan ML
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2020 12 25;15(1):10-18.
    PMID: 33371997 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2020.12.001
    Obesity is a serious chronic disease and a public health concern in both developing and developed countries. Managing obesity has been a great challenge for both health care professionals and patients alike. Among the various diet programs aimed at promoting weight loss, the ketogenic diet, a diet high in fat and low in carbohydrates, has been at the forefront recently and its mechanism in weight loss is much debated. Activation of Sirtuin 1 or SIRT1 is able to circumvent various diseases, including metabolic syndrome and obesity and is thought to be a potentially reliable treatment target for both of them. Augmentation of SIRT1 may be carried out using dietary means such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) supplementation and/or ketogenic diet. Although ketogenic diet may augment SIRT1 activation in people affected by obesity, recent studies have indicated that the relationship between SIRT1 and ketogenesis is unpredictable. The exact circumstances and mechanisms of SIRT1, NAD and ketogenesis in the clinical setting as an intervention tool in managing obesity remained uncertain. Although several recent literatures have documented significant weight-loss following ketogenic diet interventions, there were limitations with regards to duration of trial, choice and the number of trial subjects. Studies investigating the safety of ketogenic diet in the long term, beyond 46 weeks and related mechanism and pathways are still lacking and the sustainability of this diet remains to be determined. This review explores the recent progress on ketogenic diet and its relationships with SIRT1 as a tool in managing obesity and relevant clinical implications.
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