Child birth is associated with severely painful experience for the parturient, and often exceeds one’s expectations. Even though, severe pain is non life-threatening condition in healthy parturient women, it may lead to undesired neuropsychological consequences. When no analgesia was used, postnatal depression may be more common, and this labour pain leads to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Epidural analgesia is now considered gold standard for effective pain relief during labour. We here report a case of a 37-year-old G1 P0 patient at term gestation who successfully used epidural analgesia for labour pain management.
The present study aimed to determine the factors associated with CKD stage 3b among type 2 diabetics attending primary care follow-up, specifically the role of angiotensin blockade dosage. This was a pilot unmatched case-control study conducted in a teaching primary care centre. Clinical data of 25 cases of diabetic patients with CKD stage 3b (GFR 30-45ml/min/1.73m2) in 2012 were selected for this study, as well as 103 controls who were diabetic patients with GFR more than 45ml/min/1.73m2 in 2012. Systematic random sampling was employed. Data was obtained from patients’ diabetic records, computerised clinical medical information system and medical case notes. Univariate analysis was done using Chi-square, t-test, Fisher’s exact test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the associated factors for development of CKD stage 3b. Cases and controls were different in terms of age, duration of diabetes, use and dosage of angiotensin blockade medications, systolic blood pressure and baseline GFR. Multiple logistic regression revealed that systolic blood pressure (Adjusted OR= 1.08, 95% CI= 1.02-1.14, p=0.013) and baseline GFR (Adjusted OR= 0.90, 95% CI= 0.85-0.95, p
A 17-year-old male student of Indonesian parentage presented with two weeks history of progressive painless bilateral visual deterioration. There was no contact with tuberculosis (TB)-infected patients and parents claimed that all immunization including BCG was completed. However, BCG scar was not apparent. Visual acuity was 6/36 and 6/60 in the right and left eyes respectively. The anterior and vitreous chambers were quiet. Funduscopic examination revealed retinal vasculitis with perivascular exudates, branch vein occlusion, neovascularization and macular oedema. Fluorescein angiography confirmed large areas of capillary non-perfusion and leaking new vessels. Mantoux test was positive and full regime anti-TB therapy was instituted. HIV screening was negative. Three days later, an immunosuppressive dose of oral steroid was started. Both eyes received intensive laser photocoagulation.Interestingly, there was no development of vitritis throughout.
Ascariasis is a common helminthic infestation in Malaysia, particularly in rural settings. Ascariasis lumbricoides normally lives in the upper small bowel without causing symptoms. Complications arise when these worms migrate into the bile duct (biliary ascariasis). A case of biliary ascariasis presenting as biliary colic is described. Patient presented with 2 days duration of right upper quandrant pain at the district hospital. Initial investigations were suggestive of acute cholecystitis and patient was treated with empirical antibiotics. However, due to worsening symptoms, she was transferred to the nearest tertiary setting. The diagnosis of helminthic biliary infestation was established using both ultrasound of the hepato-biliary system (HBS), CT-Scan abdomen and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). Endoscopic removal of the worm led to rapid resolution of symptoms and patient was discharged home well.
This study aims to determine the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and level of awareness among male outpatients in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). A questionnaire consisting of demographic data, questions related to knowledge, attitude and practice on BPH and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was used for this study. Uroflowmetry and bladder scan were used to evaluate the function of the urinary tract and severity of BPH. Urine dipstick was done for glycosuria, proteinuria and haematuria. A total of 220 respondents were surveyed. The prevalence of moderately and severely symptomatic LUTS was 42.7%. The most commonly reported LUTS were nocturia (78.2%), frequency (58.2%) and incomplete emptying (44.6%). The prevalence of glycosuria, proteinuria and haematuria were 23.6%, 11.4% and 1.8% respectively. There was a significant association between increasing age with the severity of LUTS (p=0.005). Out of 102 respondents with voided urine volume greater than 150 mL, there was a significant decrease in maximum (Qmax) (p=0.039) and average (Qave) urine flow rates with every 10 years increase of age (p=0.001). The majority of respondents (59.5%) have heard of BPH before. Over 78.2% of the respondents would seek medical attention if they have LUTS with 15.9% saying they would seek traditional treatment. In conclusion, the prevalence of LUTS was high and the level of awareness was satisfactory.
Study site: surgical and medical clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
Central corneal thickness plays a major role in the management of many types of glaucoma. Therefore, our aim is to determine the relationship between the severity of glaucoma measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and central corneal thickness (CCT) among normal tension and high tension glaucoma patients. This is an observational cross sectional study on 190 patients carried out in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Three groups of patients were identified; 60 normal tension glaucoma (NTG), 61 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and 69 control. Patients were identified based on the glaucomatous visual field changes and previous record of intraocular pressure before treatment. Visual acuity and intraocular pressure measurements were recorded. Specular microscope was used to measure the CCT and the severity of glaucoma was evaluated objectively based on the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness using optical coherence tomography. Results showed NTG patients had significantly thinner cornea, 503.07±32.27µm compared to the control group, 517.45±31.74 µm (p=0.012).
However, there was no significant difference between the CCT of POAG and NTG groups (p=0.386).Retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness was significantly different between the glaucoma and the control groups (p
Acute mastoid abscess is common in daily practice. In children, it is usually caused by unsuccessful treatment or partially treated acute otitis media (AOM). Some authors had reported that chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) can be the source of infection but it is usually associated with the presence of cholesteatoma. A case of an acute mastoid abscess in a 7 year old girl is presented. She had a history of severe otalgia with left post auricular swelling for 3 days. Clinically she was febrile, the left otoscopy showed diffuse post auricular swelling and sagging of the posterior wall of the external canal. She underwent an emergency cortical mastoidectomy for the left mastoid abscess and had an uneventful recovery. In conclusion, this patient was partially treated with antibiotics which increased the risk for ‘masked mastoiditis’, and she later developed a mastoid abscess. Therefore we advocate that all AOM patients should be treated with antibiotics at least for a duration of one week.
Patient’s belief towards pain management may affect pain management outcomes and quality of life. The main aim of the present study was to determine the impact of a pre-operative pain education package towards pain belief among patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery in a tertiary hospital. A one-group pre-test post-test design study was conducted on orthopaedic surgery patients. Thirty respondents were recruited and pre-operative pain education was administered individually before surgery. Pre-operative and post-operative pain belief, management scores and side effects were measured using the Barrier Questionnaire (BQ-13). The results reported significant differences between pre-test scores (Mean = 41.87, Standard Deviation = 11.467) and post-test scores (Mean=34.80, Standard Deviation=13.026) of pain belief (t = 2.84, p = 0.004). There were also significant differences between pre-test scores (Mean = 37.10, Standard Deviation = 10.610) and post-test scores (Mean=30.80, Standard Deviation = 11.424) of pain management (t = 3.856, p = 0.0005). Respondent’s gender (t = -2.403, p = 0.023) and ethnicity (F = 5.038, p=0.014) reported significant differences with p value < 0.05, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between educational level, ethnicity, prior surgical history with pain belief (p> 0.05). There was positive impact of the pain education package towards pain belief and painmanagement among respondents who underwent orthopaedics surgery in a tertiary hospital. Reinforcement of pain educational program is pivotal in order to achieve optimal post-operative pain management.
Keywords: pain, education, orthopaedics, patient, surgery
Pain is an unpleasant sensation that can cause physical and psychological problems for the patient. Despite the pharmacological intervention for reducing pain, it remains as an issue after surgery. Music therapy as non-pharmacological intervention can effect post-operative pain and patients’ requirement of analgesics. The purpose of this study was to determine effect of music therapy on pain after elective total knee replacement (TKR) surgery. This study compared analgesics consumption by patients post-operatively for five days. A Quasi-experimental design with convenience sample of patient with a mean of 64.35 (49-76) who underwent TKR in UKM Medical Centre from May to December 2012 was used. Forty patients were randomly assigned in one of the two groups using a sealed-envelope technique. The experimental group listened to music for five days post-operatively and were on analgesics and control group were treated with pharmacological intervention only. Pain was measured by McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form (MPQ-SF) for patient on bed rest on day one, day three and day five post-operatively. Statistical (Mann- Whitney) findings between groups showed the experimental group significantly had less pain on day one and day five rather than the control group at 0.05 level using Pain Rating Intensity (PRI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Present Pain Intensity (PPI). Statistical (Friedman) tests within group showed that the patient had significantly decreased pain over time at level 0.05 using PRI, VAS and PPI. Statistical (Mann- Whitney) tests revealed that there was no significant difference when using analgesics between the two groups in five days post-operatively at milligram but comparing median showed experimental group used less analgesic than control group. Music therapy is simple, available, save and cheap effective intervention for pain management post-operatively. Pain management is one of the key roles of nursing and nurses can use music therapy as a simple intervention to reduce pain.
Globally, stroke is the commonest cause of long-term disability. The residual disabilities among post stroke patients affect their daily living activities. The aim of rehabilitation therapy is to help stroke survivors to gain back their functional ability. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between post stroke duration with functionality status of post-stroke survivals at a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. A cross-sectional study involved one hundred nine five post stroke patients who attended the Rehabilitation Clinic over a 4-month period. The data on post stroke duration was reveale from patient’s cleckship. Their functional status was assessed with Modified Barthel Index (MBI). Results showed the mean age of participants was 61 years (SD=13.86, range:22-87 years), with 118 males and 81 females having a median duration of 12 months post-stroke (range: 1-79 months). The prevalence 123 (63.1%) of stroke survivors are found to be dependent in their daily living activity. A Chi-square test for independence indicated there was significant relationship between post-stroke duration with levels of functioning, χ2 (2 , n=195) = 6.455, p<0.05,phi = 0.182. Patients in post-stroke duration of 13-24 months were independent (52.1) than ≤ 12 months and ≥ 24 months.
Keywords: functional status, post-stroke disability, mbi, activities of daily living, rehabilition therapy
Study site: rehabilitation clinic , Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
Kebelakangan ini, tanda-tanda kemurungan dalam kalangan remaja semakin meningkat. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk menentukan prevalens kemurungan dan faktor-faktor ramalan. Satu kajian keratan rentas telah dijalankan 191 remaja yang terpilih secara rawak dan terdiri daripada pelajar tingkatan empat dari lima buah sekolah menengah di negeri Selangor, Malaysia. Satu soal selidik yang terdiri daripada enam bahagian (A) demografi, (B) tahap kemurungan, (C) hubungan keluarga, (D) tahap sokongan rakan sebaya, (E) harga diri, dan (F) pencapaian akademik telah diedarkan. Prevalen kemurungan adalah 50.3%. Analisis regresi logistik mendapati, remaja yang mempunyai masalah dengan rakan-rakan adalah lebih cenderung untuk mengalami kemurungan berbanding dengan mereka yang tidak mempunyai masalah dengan rakan-rakan mereka (aOR 2.84, 95% CI 1.50, 5.36). Kajian selanjutnya perlu meneliti faktor-faktor lain seperti tekanan daripada guru-guru untuk mengukuhkan pemahaman kita mengenai kemurungan di kalangan remaja. Diharapkan hasil kajian ini berguna kepada pelbagai pihak yang mengambil berat tentang masalah ini.
Stroke is frequently associated with long-term disability. Stroke leads to high risk of physical and neuropsychological consequences. Residual disabilities among post-stroke survivors can lead them to depression. This study aimed to determine the relationship between clinical characteristics and the levels of depression among post-stroke survivors at a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. This cross-sectional study recruited 195 post-stroke survivors who attended follow-up Rehabilitation Clinic of a teaching hospital over a study period of 4 months. Information collected included socio-demographic, clinical characteristics (post stroke duration, stroke types and stroke severities) and level of depression. Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess the level of depression. The mean age of participants was 61 years (SD=13.86, range: 22-87 years), with 118 male and 81 female survivors having a median duration of post-stroke of 12 months (range: 1-79 months). This study showed post stroke survivors 116 (59.5%) with depression. A Chi-square test for level of stroke severity was significantly associated with depression, χ2 (2,n=195) = 28.724, p
The popularity of ultrasound for acute diagnosis of fractures in the Emergency Department (ED) has increased over the recent years. This present study aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound use for detection of fractures in a different environment, which is at the triage area of the ED. We compared the results of bedside ultrasound in detecting non-critical fractures to the current gold standard of X-rays in the triage area. The design was a single centered crosssectional study. From August 2014 till November 2014, a total of 46 patients were recruited, creating 75 image pairs. Following consent, a bedside ultrasound was performed and subsequently compared with X-ray reporting regarding the presence or absence of fractures. SPSS analysis was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in diagnosing fracture as compared to X-rays. Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 72% (95% CI, 50.6% - 87.9%) and a specificity of 80% (95%CI: 66.3 - 90%) when compared to X-rays in fracture diagnosis. The kappa analyses showed moderate inter observer agreement (0.5) between ultrasound and X-rays in diagnosing fractures. This study suggests that the use of ultrasound as a triage tool yet has unacceptable sensitivity and needs further evaluation and consideration.
Fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) may occur following a sensitizing event, during pregnancy or at delivery. In cases of rhesus (Rh) incompatibility between mother and the fetus, it can thus subject to the haemolytic disease of the newborn. The Kleihauer test for quantification of FMH lacks standardization and results are less accurate. Furthermore, it cannot differentiate the foetal cell from the adult HbF. Flowcytometry analysis using monoclonal antibodies, is a new technique for the quantification of FMH and it allows larger number of cells to be analysed. It is also able to differentiate the foetal cell from maternal HbF, and thus is more sensitive and accurate. The objective of our study was to determine the FMH using the flowcytometric analysis of anti-HbF antibody and to correlate the FMH using flow cytometry and the standard Kleihauer test. Ninety eight peripheral blood samples from pregnant women at more than 20 weeks of pregnancy and post delivery were analyzed by both methods. The percentage of the foetal cells were recorded and the FMH were calculated. We found a fair correlation between the two methods with the correlation coefficient r = 0.633 (p
Low Grade Papillary Nasopharyngeal Adenocarcinoma (LGPAC) is a very rare tumour of mucosal origin compared to a higher incidence of well differentiated keratinized/non-keratinized nasopharyngeal carcinoma. It is an epithelial tumour with glandular differentiation. Its papillary figure seen histologically, is also seen in metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. This has caused a significant challenge to the Pathologist to differentiate primary papillary nasopharyngeal adenocarcinoma and metastatic tumour. Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 (TTF-1) is also expressed in subsets of papillary nasopharyngeal adenocarcinoma, which is valuable as a diagnostic tool. LGPAC is a benign-like malignant neoplasm. An early diagnosis with a complete tumour removal via conventional excision or endoscopic approach has offered a good prognosis with low risk of recurrence.
Cardiac concussion is a sudden, direct blunt trauma cause to the chest which led to death. However, there are patients who did not completely fulfil this definition. We report two cases which did not fit into the definition domain. Two male patients presented to Emergency Department with moderate anterior chest pain after motor vehicle crash showed transient anterior ST segment elevation at chest lead V2 and V3 with raised creatine kinase and normal troponin T. The electrocardiogram changes fully resolved after 24 hours. Both patients were discharged uneventfully after 24 hours monitoring in Emergency Department short-stay ward. Conventional definition of cardiac concussion (commotion cordis) and cardiac contusion may be unsuitable to describe these cases. Therefore, we propose the diagnosis of focal
cardiac concussion. We also highlighted the ability of Emergency Department to manage these patients in short-stay ward.
Keywords: commotio cordis, chest pain, nonpenetrating, electrocardiography
Madu adalah bahan semulajadi yang dihasilkan oleh lebah madu, Apis mellifera, berpunca daripada madu yang diambil dari bunga yang berkembang atau cecair dari pokok dan tumbuhan yang dikenali sebagai madu nektar dan madu serangga masing-masing. Ia adalah larutan tepu gula, yang kaya dengan protein, mineral, vitamin, asid organik dan polifenol. Madu mempunyai pelbagai khasiat, sifat penyembuhan dan profilaktik disebabkan oleh komponen-komponen yang terkandung di dalamnya. Madu mempunyai beberapa khasiat kesihatan seperti penyembuhan luka, antimikrob, antioksidan dan potensi anti-radang. Ulasan ini adalah berkaitan komposisi nutrien, antioksidan dan kesan terapeutik madu dengan penekanan kepada madu di Malaysia.
Crab meat is a valuable source of proteins and functional lipids and it is widely consumed worldwide. However, the prevalence of crab allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to understand crab allergy better, it is necessary to identify crab allergens. The aim of the present study was to compare the IgE-binding proteins of raw and cooked extracts of mud crab (Scylla serrata). Raw and cooked extracts of the mud crab were prepared. Protein profiles and IgE reactivity patterns were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by immunoblotting using sera from 21 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. In SDS-PAGE, 20 protein bands (12 to 250 kDa) were observed in the raw extract while the cooked extract demonstrated fewer bands. Protein bands between 40 to 250 kDa were sensitive to heat denaturation and no longer observed in the cooked extract. In immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 4 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with molecular weights of between 23 and 250 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein, corresponding to crab tropomyosin was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 41 kDa heat-sensitive protein believed to be arginine kinase was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. Other minor allergens were also observed at various molecular weights.
The presence of thrombus within the inferior vena cava (IVC) is often a sign of advance hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Various treatment methods have been described with variable and inconclusive results. Now, the advancement of endovascular approach offers new possibility as a potential treatment modality. We discuss the removal of tumour thrombus with catheter directed mechanical thrombectomy. IVC tumour secondary HCC was removed by AngioJet® rheolytic system (Possis Medical, Minneapolis, MN, USA) with good result. Further work should be encouraged to explore the prospect of this technique with other treatment modalities.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency worldwide including Malaysia. Screening of cord blood for partial G6PD deficiency is important as they are also prone to develop acute haemolysis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of partial G6PD deficient in paediatric population aged 1 month-12 years and normal term female neonates using OSMMR-D kit with haemoglobin (Hb) normalization and compare it with florescence spot test (FST). A total of 236 children, aged between between 1 month-12 years and 614 normal term female neonates were recruited for this study. Determination of normal means for G6PD activity and; cut-off points for partial and severe deficiency were determined according to WHO Working Group (1989). Determination of prevalence for partial deficiency for both groups (female patient) was done using this enzyme assay kit and findings were compared with FST. In this study, 15.7% (18/115) female children were classified as partial G6PD deficient by quantitative enzyme method (G6PD activity: 4.23-5.26U/gHb). However, FST only detected 0.9% (1/115) with minimal G6PD activity. The prevalence of partial G6PD deficiency in female neonate group was 3.42% (21/614) by enzyme assay versus 0.49% (3/614) by FST. This study concluded that our routine screening method using FST was unable to diagnose female heterozygotes. We recommend using this quantitative enzyme assay method by OSMMR-D kit since it was more sensitive in detecting G6PD deficiency in female neonates compared to FST.