Proper management of chronic otitis media may reduce the incidence of otogenic brain abscess. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical profile, treatment and surgical outcome of patients presenting with otogenic brain abscess. The medical record of patients in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) with otogenic brain abscess were retrospectively analyzed from January 1997-January 2006. Within this eriod we had approximately 10,800 of follow up cases of chronic otitis media (COM) in our clinic. Ten patients (2 females, 8 males) with an average age of 42 (age range 11 to 69 years) were identified with otogenic brain abscess and included in this study. The mean follow-up period was 14 months. All patients had cholesteatoma. All patients had a history of chronic ear discharge, headache, otalgia and fever. Six of the 10 patients had cerebellar abscess and 4 had temporal lobe abscess. Cerebellar signs were present in 3 patients All the patients were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. In 5 patients, mastoid exploration was the primary surgical treatment and the brain abscesses were treated conservatively. In the other 5 patients, craniotomy and drainage were performed followed by mastoid exploration when their neurological conditions had stabilized. All our patients had uneventful recovery. There were no permanent cerebellar signs during the follow up and no mortality reported in our series. In this series we demonstrated that early diagnosis and proper treatment of otogenic abscess leads to good neurological outcome.
Placenta praevia is a known obstetric condition that causes complications to mother and fetus. This study was done to evaluate the knowledge of placenta praevia amongst the obstetric patients. A cross sectional study was carried out in Hospital Ipoh, Perak among 323 antenatal and postnatal patients. Socio-demographic parameters (ie age, race, parity, occupation, educational level) and history of placenta praevia were studied in relation to level of knowledge and attitude towards placenta praevia. Twenty (6.2%) from 323 women had current or past history of placenta praevia. Three had history of placenta praevia while 17 had current placenta praevia with prevalence of 5.3%. The mean score of knowledge achieved by patients was 11.8 which indicated overall poor knowledge. Occupation, level of education and history of placenta praevia were found to have a relationship with level of knowledge regarding placenta praevia in all obstetric patients. There was a significant relationship between attitude of patients with current and history of placenta praevia to level of knowledge regarding placenta praevia. (p=0.037,
Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major global health-care problem. HBV is an accepted factor in the elevated risks for liver disease such as cirrhosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. This problem is particularly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region which includes Malaysia. During infection, the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) is produced in the hosts. This antigen is an important serological marker for diagnosing chronic hepatitis B. Seroconversion to anti-body (anti-HBe) corresponds to the improvement of disease prognosis. However, certain mutations such as the core promoter dual mutations (A1762G1764→T1762A1764), the codon 15 variants (C1858/ T1858) and the precore stop codon mutations (TGG→TAG) can affect the HBeAg expression. This has diagnostic and clinical implications. Besides that, the HBV can be grouped into eight genotypes (A to H). Moreover, genotypic subtypes and recombinants have been observed as well. Studies have observed that these can differ in their affiliations with the mutations above as well as with disease prognosis.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an invasive diagnostic investigation that may result in high level of anxiety and “fear of the unknown” among cardiac patients. An increment in anxiety among PCI patients will augment the level of stress and this extreme stress level will then aggravate depression. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of anxiety and depression before and after PCI. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used. It measured two elements, namely, the anxiety and depression levels of patients before and after PCI. This study was conducted in the cardiology wards Anggerik and Dahlia, and Day Care of the National Heart Institute, from January to February 2006. A sample of 61 patients before and after PCI who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited in this study. Of these, 40 and 38 patients before and after PCI respectively, had low anxiety levels; while, 47 and 46 patients before and after PCI respectively, had low depression levels. Anxiety and depression levels before and after PCI were not significantly correlated to socio demographic status. However, a significant correlation (p
The working environment of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses is a constant source of stress. Researchers have described ICU as a stressful environment because of the complex nature of patients’ health problems requiring an extensive use of very sophisticated technology. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of stress among staff nurses working in ICU, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM), factors influencing stress and to explore the symptoms of stress experienced. This descriptive study was conducted on 67 staff nurses working in ICU, HUKM. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires included sections on socio-demographic data, factors influencing stress and symptoms of stress experienced. Data was analyzed using frequency and percentage. The Chi square test was used to examine the relationship between socio-demographic data and factors influencing stress. Findings indicated that stress symptoms were experienced by 100 per cent (n =67) of staff nurses Knowledge, working experience, critically ill patients, and environmental factors were one of the many factors contributing to the stress experienced by the ICU nurses in HUKM. Nurses working in ICU, HUKM are found to have a high level of stress. Recommendations like encouraging ICU nurses to take up post basic ICU courses and increasing the nurses quota can reduce the prevalence of stress among ICU nurses. Hospital management has an important role to play in reducing the stress levels of nurses working in ICU as stress has an effect on job performance and quality of nursing care.
The traditional physical and cosmetic-centered model without paying serious attention on the underlying psychosocial issues of care are ill suited to successful treatment outcome of obesity. The objective of this article is to report a case of a retired Malay army sergeant who presented with night eating syndrome (NES) with morbid obesity and dysthymia, and to discuss the psychobiological aspect of the case including to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination treatment of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavior therapy along with diet counseling. The diagnosis was made by using the Structured Clinical Interview Diagnosis (SCID) for DSM-III-R diagnosis and the severity of depression was assessed by Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale. The patient’s body mass index was 45, He was found to have dysthymia and the Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale score was 13. We found that the combination of pharmacotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy and nutritional education with the help of the physician proved to be effective in treating morbid obesity with NES and Dysthymia.
The aim of the study was to compare sexual functioning among Malaysian women in a primary care setting between those with a low and high frequency sexual intercourse. Across-sectional study on 230 married Malaysian women in a primary-care setting was conducted at the Bandar Tun Razak Clinic, Cheras. A validated Malay version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire (MVFSFI) was used to assess the sexual functioning profiles among women with low and high sexual activity. The percentage of women who had sexual intercourse 3-4 times a week, 1-2 times a week and < 1-2 times a month were 13.4%, 44.3 % and 42.4 % respectively. Women with a low frequency of sexual intercourse (Low SI) tended to suffer from more sexual dysfunction, (χ²=28.98, p < 0.001) compared to those with a high frequency of sexual intercourse (High SI) group. Women who were less sexually active (having low frequency intercourse, ie. ≤ 1 – 2 times per week) were found to be less sexually aroused (χ²= 25.9, p< 0.001), less orgasmic (χ²=19.8, p< 0.001), less lubricated during sexual activity (χ²=11.1, p< 0.001), complain of sexual pain (χ²=4.3, p = 0.033) and feels less satisfied sexually (χ²=12.6, p< 0.001).The problem of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in the Malaysian primary care population with low sexual activity needs to be addressed.
The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhoea, its associated factors and its effects on school activities among adolescent girls in a secondary school in a rural district of Selangor, Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in a public secondary school. A stratified random sampling of 300 female students (12 to 17 years old) from Form one to Form five classes were selected. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 20-items was used to collect sociodemographic and menstrual data. Pain intensity for dysmenorrhoea was measured by numerical rating scale. The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea was 62.3%. It was significantly higher in the middle adolescence (15 to 17 years old) age group (p=0.003), girls with regular menstrual cycle (p=0.007) and a positive family history (p
Parapharyngeal abscess is a serious medical condition that may lead to life-threatening complications. Its incidence has dramatically decreased since the advent of antibiotics. We report two cases of parapharyngeal abscesses in immunocompromised patients. We believe that early diagnosis, broad-spectrum antibiotics, surgery and pus drainage can prevent serious complications.
Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) typically presents as a benign slow growing, painless neoplasm of the parotid gland. PA arising from the submandibular gland in the paediatric age group is rare. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. A case of PA in an 8-year-old Malay girl is presented. Clinically she presented with a painless right submandibular mass measuring 2x2cm. A diagnosis of Pleomorphic adenoma was made on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC). She underwent submandibulectomy uneventfully. Postoperatively after two years follow up, she is asymptomatic.
Pregnancy is perceived by many pregnant mothers as a period of happiness in anticipation of motherhood. Not all pregnant mothers experience cheerfulness as some may experience a high anxiety and depression level for unknown reasons. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of anxiety and depression among high risk pregnant women and the factors that contribute to their level of anxiety and depression. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 38 high risk mothers whose stay in hospital exceeded more than three days in the obstetric ward of Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. A self assessment questionnaire “Hospital Anxiety Depression scale” was used to measure the level of anxiety and depression among high risk pregnant women. Of the 38 participants, 16 (42.1%) women experienced a mild level of anxiety and 22 (57.9%) experienced a severe level of anxiety. Seventeen (44.7%) women was classified as having mild depression and 21 (55.3%) severe depression. The factors contributing to the level of anxiety and depression, include those related with “lack of information on disease”, “family matters” and “finance”. High risk pregnant women in this study experienced a significant level of anxiety and depression during their stay in hospital. It is therefore important for nurses and doctors to be aware and sensitive to the influencing factors that cause anxiety and depression as to enable high risk pregnant mothers to enjoy their pregnancy and childbirth.
Cancers of the ovary and corpus uteri afflict 5% and 3.6% Malaysian women respectively. Ovarian cancer (OC) remained the deadliest gynaecological malignancy in perimenopausal women mainly due to the lack of symptoms until the disease had spread. Ultrasonography could provide a preliminary screening allowing the clinician to tailor subsequent management and counselling for these women. To support the basis for selective screening, a study on 517 urban disease free women aged 45 years and above, uterus-intact, non-users of HRT was undertaken. This study presented normograms of ovary, uterus and endometrium derived from entry ultrasound assessment. The sample comprised of 58.0% premenopaused and 42.0% postmenopaused women with an average age of 51.27±5.35 years old. Over two thirds were Chinese followed by Malays and Indians. The findings indicated that the average uterine size and endometrial thickness (ET) was 7.21±1.67x4.36±1.30cm and 6.36±3.73mm respectively. Premenopausal women had larger uterus compared to those postmenopaused (p
Thyroid nodules are common but thyroid malignancies are not. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a diagnostic tool used to screen patients with thyroid nodules who require surgery. We study the diagnostic accuracy of FNA as the initial diagnostic modality in the clinical assessment of thyroid nodules. Between January 1995 until December 2000, 2131 FNA of thyroid nodules were performed. Four hundred and forty-one (20.7%) of these were unsatisfactory and 1690 (79.3%) cases were satisfactory for cytological evaluation. Histopathological diagnosis were available for 361 cases. Cyto-histopathological correlation was carried out for these cases. Our results showed a diagnostic accuracy of 96.2% with sensitivity and specificity rates of 87.7% and 98.4% res- pectively. Our positive predictive value is 93.4% and our negative predictive value is 96.8%. From this study, we conclude that fine needle aspiration is an important initial screening diagnostic tool for the investigation of thyroid nodules.
Radiation retinopathy (RR) is a known complication after radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC). This study aims to relate the relationship of RR and radiation dose in patients with NPC through assessment with clinical
funduscopy and fundus fluorescein angiogram (FFA). A cross sectional study was conducted on patients with NPC who had completed radiotherapy treatment in the Oncology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Eighty two eyes of 42 patients were examined and the prevalence of RR was found to be 35.4%. The severity of RR is strongly associated with the dose of radiation to the retina (Spearman correlation value=0.48; p<0.001). The common features of RR assessed by FFA were telangiectatic vessels (26.2%) and capillary non-perfusion (14.3%). Retinal neovasularization occurred in 10.7% of eyes. The level of visual deterioration correlated with the severity of RR with 26% of eyes experiencing a visual acuity of 6/18 or worse. More than one third of patients developed RR, with radiation maculopathy being the commonest cause for significant visual loss. FFA is a useful tool in detecting early signs of radiation retinopathy and maculopathy.
Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, fluorescein fundus angiography, retinopathy, radiotherapy
Study site: Oncology Clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Globally, stroke is the commonest cause of long-term disability. The residual disabilities among post stroke patients affect their daily living activities. The aim of rehabilitation therapy is to help stroke survivors to gain back their functional ability. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between post stroke duration with functionality status of post-stroke survivals at a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. A cross-sectional study involved one hundred nine five post stroke patients who attended the Rehabilitation Clinic over a 4-month period. The data on post stroke duration was reveale from patient’s cleckship. Their functional status was assessed with Modified Barthel Index (MBI). Results showed the mean age of participants was 61 years (SD=13.86, range:22-87 years), with 118 males and 81 females having a median duration of 12 months post-stroke (range: 1-79 months). The prevalence 123 (63.1%) of stroke survivors are found to be dependent in their daily living activity. A Chi-square test for independence indicated there was significant relationship between post-stroke duration with levels of functioning, χ2 (2 , n=195) = 6.455, p<0.05,phi = 0.182. Patients in post-stroke duration of 13-24 months were independent (52.1) than ≤ 12 months and ≥ 24 months.
Keywords: functional status, post-stroke disability, mbi, activities of daily living, rehabilition therapy
Study site: rehabilitation clinic , Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
Jerawat merupakan masaalah kulit yang dapat menjejaskan penampilan peribadi dan mengugat kualiti hidup seseorang. Satu kajian keratan rentas di kalangan pelajar-pelajar perubatan di Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia telah dijalankan selama 12 bulan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenalpasti impak jerawat pada kualiti hidup, pengurusan diri dan cara-cara mengatasi masalah jerawat yang diamalkan oleh pelajar perubatan. Seramai 361 pelajar telah dipilih dengan menggunakan kaedah kluster berstrata persampelan rawak. Masalah jerawat telah digredkan dengan menggunakan Comprehensive Acne Severity Score (CASS), manakala impak jerawat pada kualiti hidup diukur dengan menggunakan Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI). Kaedah mengatasi masalah dan mendapatkan bantuan untuk masaalah jerawat diukur dengan menggunakan Acne Management Questionnaire. Purata markah CADI adalah 3.35 + 2.39, dengan impak yang rendah (83.8%, n=206) dan sederhana (14.6%, n=36) pada kualiti hidup. Pelajar perempuan dan pelajar dari kumpulan etnik bukan Melayu menunjukkan kadar impak kualiti hidup yang lebih tinggi (3.76 + 2.24, p=0.006 dan 3.79 + 2.59, p=0.018). Walaupun majoriti pelajar (87.4%, n=215) tahu bahawa jerawat boleh dirawat, mereka lebih gemar membincangkan masalah jerawat mereka dengan rakan-rakan (54.1%, n=133) daripada berunding dengan doktor (9.3%, n=23). Kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa pelajar memiliki jerawat gred yang rendah dan impak pada kualiti hidup adalah ringan. Walau bagaimanapun, usaha perlu ditingkatkan untuk menambahkan pengetahuan mereka mengenai pengurusan masalah jerawat dan membantu mengubah cara penelesaian masaalah kesihatan mereka. Langkah ini dapat membantu mengurangkan komplikasi akibat jerawat seperti parut, yang boleh menjejaskan kualiti hidup golongan bakal doktor ini.
This case report emphasizes the role of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) in managing a family with four members suffering from mental illness, mainly schizophrenia. We report a case of middle-aged lady who was diagnosed with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) living with two other family members with the same illness and their carer who developed major depression from shouldering the burden of caring for mentally ill family members. ACT, through its holistic approach, proved to have reduced hospitalizations and improve symptom control and quality of life in this family.
Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemistry are important markers in the management of patient with breast carcinoma. In this study, we determine the concordance rate of ER, PR and HER2 immunohistochemistry markers between core needle biopsy (CNB) and excisional biopsy (EB) of breast carcinoma in patients of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) from January 2002 until December 2012. A total of 93 female patients with CNB and subsequent EB were included in this retrospective descriptive study. Immunohistochemistry is used to determine ER, PR and HER2. ER and PR was graded using Allred score (0 to 8) while HER2 was scored from 0 to 3+. The markers between these two biopsies were compared to determine the concordance rate. In ER and PR, 93 samples were compared. ER was concordant in 80 cases (86.0%) and 13 cases (14.0%) was discordant. PR was concordant in 82 cases (88.2%) and discordant in 11 cases (11.8%). In HER2, 87 samples were compared and 62 cases (71.3%) were concordant while 25 cases (28.7%) were discordant. Concordance between CNB and EB was high for ER and PR. However, concordance rate for HER2 immunohistochemistry was less consistent. Overall, immunohistochemical analyses of CNB reflect the tumour marker status of the excised specimen.
Keywords: breast carcinoma, core needle biopsy, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder describing an immature vascularisation
of a developing retina in low birth weight preterm infants. This condition potentially
leads to blindness. ROP developed as a response of hypoxia of the eye due to
incomplete development of the retinal vessels. ROP is commonly reported as
bilateral disease,a small percentage of infants have asymmetrical changes. We
report a case of long-term outcome of a asymmetry ROP changes with peripheral
retinal ablation in a single eye. This particular case demonstrates the possible longterm
outcome of unilaterally treated ROP which could either be due to the severity
of the disease itself or the treatment she received. It is important to highlight the
possibility of unequal development of the eye in asymmetrical presentation of ROP.
The diagnosis of aortic dissection in a young adult in the absence of atherosclerosis or prior history of trauma is extremely rare. The presence of more than one arterial dissection site in such a patient is even more unheard of. We highlight a case of spontaneous multiple acute arterial dissections occurring in a 32-year-old male. Stanford B aortic dissection and a separate dissection extending from the bifurcation of the right common iliac artery to the right common femoral artery was noted on computed tomographic angiography (CTA). A small aneurysm of the right subclavian artery was also noted. A two-stage hybrid procedure involving a combination of open and endovascular surgery was employed. The rarity and lethality of this condition warrants a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis and prompt intervention.