Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 74 in total

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  1. Harapan H, Rajamoorthy Y, Utomo PS, Anwar S, Setiawan AM, Alleta A, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2019 Aug 06;19(1):693.
    PMID: 31387537 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4297-4
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards pregnancy-related issues of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection among general practitioners (GPs), a frontline healthcare worker group, in Indonesia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional, online survey assessing knowledge and attitudes towards ZIKV infection on multiple-item scales was sent to GPs in the Sumatra and Java islands of Indonesia. The associations between independent factors and either knowledge or attitude were assessed with logistic regressions. The correlation and association between knowledge and attitude were estimated.

    RESULTS: We included 457 (53.7%) out of 850 responses in the analysis. Among these, 304 (66.5%) and 111 (24.2%) respondents had a good knowledge and attitude, respectively. No demographic, workplace, professional development, or experiential characteristics related to ZIKV infection were associated with knowledge. In the multivariate analysis, only contact experience was associated with attitude. There was a significant, positive correlation between knowledge and attitude scores.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although knowledge of pregnancy-related complications of ZIKV infection is relatively high among GPs in Indonesia, more than 75% of them had a poor attitude towards pregnancy-related issues of Zika. Strategies for enhancing the capacity of GPs to develop positive attitudes and respond to ZIKV infection are needed.

  2. Hazlina Y, Marlindawati MA, Shamsuddin K
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2016 Dec 08;16(1):740.
    PMID: 27931192
    BACKGROUND: Malaysia still faces challenges optimizing resources to effectively eliminate measles through high immunization and herd immunity, with sporadic outbreaks of measles as evidence. The objective of this study is to determine the age-specific positive measles antibodies seroprevalence used for assessing the establishment of herd immunity against measles in different age groups. This is useful for identifying vulnerable age groups requiring supplementary immunization.

    METHODS: A seroprevalence study was conducted among respondents aged 6-9 years, 15-24 years and 45-54 years attending government health clinics in Seremban between September 2014 and January 2015. A total of 1541 measles IgG antibody status were determined using ELISA technique (NovaTec Immundiagnostica GMBH) and assessment of establishment of herd immunity was based on indicators developed by Plans. Data on socio-demographic background as well as medical and medication history were also gathered.

    RESULTS: Seropositive rate for all respondents were 87% (95% CI 85-89), while the rest had either indeterminate [6% (95% CI 5-7)] or negative titre [7% (95% CI 6-8)]. None of the factors analyzed except for age were significant predictors of positive measles antibodies. Seropositive rate differed by age with the highest rate seen in adults (94%; CI 92-96), followed by children (90%; 95% CI 87-94) and adolescents, and young adults (74%; 95% CI 70-78). Based on Plans' indicators, herd immunity was established in adults and children, but not in adolescents and young adults.

    CONCLUSIONS: To tackle the most susceptible group in the present study, it is advisable to give booster vaccination to secondary school students and freshmen who enter colleges and universities in Malaysia.
  3. Khan AH, Sulaiman SAS, Laghari M, Hassali MA, Muttalif AR, Bhatti Z, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2019 Aug 05;19(1):691.
    PMID: 31382889 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4312-9
    BACKGROUND: Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) represents about 14% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB) in Malaysia. The aims of the study include evaluation of socio-demographic factors, clinical manifestations, co-morbidities among patients with EPTB and their treatment outcomes.

    METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to recognize the epidemiology facts of EPTB. Individual data for EPTB patients were collected from TB registers, laboratory TB registers, treatment cards and TB medical personal files into a standardized study questionnaire. Crude (COR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined to assess the risk factors for EPTB and unsuccessful treatment outcomes.

    RESULTS: There were 1222 EPTB patients presenting 13.1% of all TB cases during 2006-2008. Pleural effusion and lymph node TB were the most frequent types and accounted for 45.1% of all EPTB cases among study participants. Treatment success rate was 67.6%. The best treatment completion rates were found in children ≤15 years (0.478 [0.231-1.028]; p = 0.05). On multivariate analysis, age group 56-65 years (1.658 [1.157-2.376]; p = 0.006), relapse cases (7.078 [1.585-31.613]; p = 0.010), EPTB-DM (1.773 [1.165-2.698]; p = 0.008), patients with no formal (2.266 [1.254-4.095]; p = 0.001) and secondary level of education (1.889 [1.085-3.288]; p = 0.025) were recorded as statistically positive significant risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcomes. Patients at the risk of EPTB were more likely to be females (1.524 [1.311-1.746]; p 

  4. Chang CY, Lau NLJ, Currie BJ, Podin Y
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2020 Mar 06;20(1):201.
    PMID: 32143598 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-020-4937-8
    BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a potentially life-threatening infection caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis is difficult to diagnose due to its diverse clinical manifestations, which often delays administration of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

    CASE PRESENTATION: Melioidosis is uncommon in pregnancy but both spontaneous abortion and neonatal melioidosis have been reported. We report a case of bacteraemic melioidosis in a young woman with a subsequent spontaneous abortion, with B. pseudomallei cultured from a high vaginal swab as well as blood.

    CONCLUSION: It remains unclear in this and previously reported cases as to whether the maternal melioidosis was sexually transmitted.

  5. Sulaiman H, Ponnampalavanar S, Mun KS, Italiano CM
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2013 Nov 09;13:527.
    PMID: 24209898 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-527
    BACKGROUND: Infections due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei and non-typhoidal Salmonella cause significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. These intracellular pathogens share some common predisposing factors and clinical features. Co-infection with two of these organisms has been reported previously but, to our knowledge, this is the first time that infection with all three has been reported in one person.

    CASE PRESENTATION: In September 2010, a 58-year-old diabetic Malaysian male presented with fever and a fluctuant mass on the right side of his neck. B. pseudomallei was isolated from an aspirate of this lesion and there was radiological evidence of disseminated infection in the liver and spleen. The recurrence of clinical symptoms over ensuing months prompted further aspiration and biopsy of a cervical abscess and underlying lymph nodes. Salmonella enterica serovar Stanley and then M. tuberculosis were identified from these specimens by culture and molecular methods. The patient responded to targeted medical management of each of these infections.

    CONCLUSION: In endemic settings, a high index of suspicion and adequate tissue sampling are imperative in identifying these pathogenic organisms. Diabetes was identified as a predisposing factor in this case while our understanding of other potential risk factors is evolving.

  6. Teoh BT, Sam SS, Tan KK, Johari J, Danlami MB, Hooi PS, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2013;13:387.
    PMID: 23964963 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-387
    BACKGROUND: Early and rapid detection of dengue virus (DENV) infection during the febrile period is crucial for proper patient management and prevention of disease spread. An easy to perform and highly sensitive method is needed for routine implementation especially in the resource-limited rural healthcare settings where dengue is endemic.
    METHODS: A single-tube reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay with a set of nine primers was developed for the detection of all four DENV serotypes and their different genotypes. The sensitivity and specificity of the RT-LAMP were evaluated. The clinical applicability of RT-LAMP assay for detection of DENV RNA was assessed in a total of 305 sera of clinically-suspected dengue patients. The test results of RT-LAMP were statistically compared to those of quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), IgM- and IgG-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).
    RESULTS: Acute DENV infection was confirmed in 171 samples (n = 305); 43.3% (74/171) and 46.8% (80/171) of the samples were positive for DENV using RT-LAMP and qRT-PCR, respectively. The combination of RT-LAMP with the dengue IgM and IgG ELISA increased detection of acute DENV infection to 97.7% (167/171), in comparison to only 70.8% (121/171) when dengue IgM and IgG ELISA alone were used. The RT-LAMP assays showed high concordance (κ = 0.939) with the qRT-PCR. The RT-LAMP assay detected up to 10 copies of virus RNA within an hour but 100% reproducibility (12/12) was achieved with 100 copies. There was no cross reactivity of RT-LAMP with other closely related arboviruses.
    CONCLUSION: The RT-LAMP assay developed in this study is sensitive, specific and simple to perform. The assay improved the detection of dengue when used in combination with serological methods.
  7. Hart T, Tang WY, Mansoor SAB, Chio MTW, Barkham T
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2020 Apr 28;20(1):314.
    PMID: 32345231 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-020-05019-1
    BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted infection, with increasing rates of resistance to fluroquinolones and macrolides, the recommended treatments. Despite this, M. genitalium is not part of routine screening for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) in many countries and the prevalence of infection and patterns of disease remain to be determined in many populations. Such data is of particular importance in light of the reported rise in antibiotic resistance in M. genitalium isolates.

    METHODS: Urine and urethral swab samples were collected from the primary public sexual health clinic in Singapore and tested for C. trachomatis (CT) or N. gonorrhoeae (NG) infection and for the presence of M. genitalium. Antibiotic resistance in M. genitalium strains detected was determined by screening for genomic mutations associated with macrolide and fluroquinolone resistance.

    RESULTS: We report the results of a study into M. genitalium prevalence at the national sexual health clinic in Singapore. M. genitalium was heavily associated with CT infection (8.1% of cases), but present in only of 2.4% in CT negative cases and not independently linked to NG infection. Furthermore, we found high rates of resistance mutations to both macrolides (25%) and fluoroquinolones (37.5%) with a majority of resistant strains being dual-resistant. Resistance mutations were only found in strains from patients with CT co-infection.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results support targeted screening of CT positive patients for M. genitalium as a cost-effective strategy to reduce the incidence of M. genitalium in the absence of comprehensive routine screening. The high rate of dual resistance also highlights the need to ensure the availability of alternative antibiotics for the treatment of multi-drug resistant M. genitalium isolates.

  8. Azami NA, Salleh SA, Shah SA, Neoh HM, Othman Z, Zakaria SZ, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2013;13:67.
    PMID: 23379541 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-67
    In 1998, Malaysia experienced its first chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak in the suburban areas followed by another two in 2006 (rural areas) and 2008 (urban areas), respectively. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of documented data regarding the magnitude of CHIKV exposure in the Malaysian population. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of chikungunya virus infection in healthy Malaysian adults residing in outbreak-free locations.
  9. Sreeramareddy CT, Harsha Kumar HN, Arokiasamy JT
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2013;13:16.
    PMID: 23324535 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-16
    BACKGROUND: Knowledge about symptoms and transmission of tuberculosis determines health seeking behavior and helps in prevention of tuberculosis transmission in the community. Such data is useful for policy makers to formulate information, education and communication strategies for tuberculosis control.
    METHODS: A secondary data analysis of India demographic and health survey, 2005/6 was carried out. Questions about self-reported tuberculosis, transmission and curability of tuberculosis were analysed. Correct knowledge (without misconceptions) about tuberculosis transmission was used as a dependant variable and the explanatory variables tested were: demographic data, education, wealth quintiles, frequency of exposure to media and the curability of tuberculosis. Determinants of correct knowledge without misconceptions were tested by univariate and multivariate analyses using national weighting factor to adjust for complex sampling design.
    RESULTS: A total of 109,070 households (response rate of 93.5%) and 198,718 participants (response rate of 91.6%) completed the survey. The samples of men and women interviewed were 74,360 and 124,358 respectively. Prevalence rate of self-reported tuberculosis was 445 per 100,000 usual household residents and 4.60 per 1,000 participants. The number of respondents who had "heard of an illness called tuberculosis" was 177,423 (89.3%). Of these 47,487 (26.8%) participants did not know and 55.5% knew about the correct mode of tuberculosis transmission i.e. "Through the air when coughing or sneezing". The common misconceptions about transmission were "Through food" (32.4%), "Sharing utensils" (18.2%), and "Touching a person with tuberculosis" (12.3%). Only 52,617 (29.7%) participants had correct knowledge without misconceptions. Being male (aOR 1.17, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.21), being a Hindu (aOR 1.20, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.26) or Muslim (aOR 1.26, 95% CIs 1.18, 1.34), listening to radio (aOR 1.08, 95% CIs 1.04, 1.13) and "Tuberculosis can be cured" (aOR 1.47, 95% CIs 1.41, 1.53) were associated with correct knowledge without misconceptions.
    CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about tuberculosis transmission is very poor and misconceptions still exist. Among the traditional mass media, the frequency of listening to radio was associated with correct knowledge about tuberculosis transmission. Strategies to deliver information, education and communication campaigns could be improved.
  10. Azmin S, Sahathevan R, Suehazlyn Z, Law ZK, Rabani R, Nafisah WY, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2013;13:179.
    PMID: 23594500 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-179
    BACKGROUND: Dengue is a common illness in the tropics. Equally common are neurological complications that stem from dengue infection. However, to date, parkinsonism following dengue has not been reported in medical literature.
    CASE PRESENTATION: A previously well 18-year old man developed parkinsonism, in addition to other neurological symptoms following serologically confirmed dengue fever. Alternative etiologies were excluded by way of imaging and blood investigations.
    CONCLUSIONS: The authors detail the first reported case of parkinsonism complicating dengue fever. Keeping rare presentations of common illnesses in mind, it behoves clinicians to consider parkinsonism as a complication following dengue infection. This would prevent injudicious treatment with L-dopa and dopamine agonists. Immunosuppression with steroids has been shown to be helpful in certain cases.
  11. Hara Y, Chin CY, Mohamed R, Puthucheary SD, Nathan S
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2013;13:165.
    PMID: 23556548 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-165
    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is endemic to Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Clinical manifestations of disease are diverse, ranging from chronic infection to acute septicaemia. The current gold standard of diagnosis involves bacterial culture and identification which is time consuming and often too late for early medical intervention. Hence, rapid diagnosis of melioidosis is crucial for the successful management of melioidosis.
  12. Amerizadeh A, Khoo BY, Teh AY, Golkar M, Abdul Karim IZ, Osman S, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2013;13:287.
    PMID: 23800344 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-287
    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular zoonotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa which infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals, including humans. In this study in-vivo induced antigens of this parasite was investigated using in-vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT) and pooled sera from patients with serological evidence of acute infection.
  13. Yusoff AF, Mustafa AN, Husaain HM, Hamzah WM, Yusof AM, Harun R, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2013;13:211.
    PMID: 23656634 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-211
    The aims of the study were to assess the risk factors in relation to cross border activities, exposure to mosquito bite and preventive measures taken.An outbreak of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in Malaysia has been reported in Klang, Selangor (1998) and Bagan Panchor, Perak (2006). In 2009, CHIKV infection re-emerged in some states in Malaysia. It raises the possibilities that re-emergence is part of the epidemics in neighbouring countries or the disease is endemic in Malaysia. For this reason, A community-based case control study was carried out in the state of Kelantan.
  14. Beran J, Peeters M, Dewé W, Raupachová J, Hobzová L, Devaster JM
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2013;13:224.
    PMID: 23688546 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-224
    Two phylogenetic lineages of influenza B virus coexist and circulate in the human population (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) but only one B-strain is included in each seasonal vaccine. Mismatch regularly occurs between the recommended and circulating B-strain. Inclusion of both lineages in vaccines may offer better protection against influenza.
  15. Rothan HA, Han HC, Ramasamy TS, Othman S, Rahman NA, Yusof R
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2012;12:314.
    PMID: 23171075 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-314
    Global resurgence of dengue virus infections in many of the tropical and subtropical countries is a major concern. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of successful drugs that are both economical and offer a long-lasting protection. The viral NS2B-NS3 serine protease (NS2B-NS3pro) is a promising target for the development of drug-like inhibitors, which are not available at the moment. In this study, we report retrocyclin-1 (RC-1) production in E. coli as a recombinant peptide to test against dengue NS2B-NS3pro.
  16. Ning TZ, Kin WW, Noordin R, Cun ST, Chong FP, Mohamed Z, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2013;13:144.
    PMID: 23514636 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-144
    Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most frequent clinical presentation of extra-intestinal amoebiasis. The diagnosis of ALA is typically based on the developing clinical symptoms, characteristic changes on radiological imaging and serology. Numerous serological tests have been introduced for the diagnosis of ALA, either detecting circulating amoebic antigens or antibodies. However those tests show some pitfalls in their efficacy and/or the preparation of the tests are costly and tedious. The commercial IHA kit that used crude antigen was reported to be useful in diagnosis of ALA, however high antibody background in endemic areas may cause problems in its interpretation. Thus, discovery of well-defined antigen(s) is urgently needed to improve the weaknesses of current serodiagnostic tests.
  17. Koh XP, Chiou CS, Ajam N, Watanabe H, Ahmad N, Thong KL
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2012;12:122.
    PMID: 22606962 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-122
    Shigellosis is a major public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. It is an acute intestinal infection caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella, with a minimum infective dose as low as 10-100 bacterial cells. Increasing prevalence of Shigella sonnei as the etiologic agent of shigellosis in Malaysia has been reported. As there is limited information on the genetic background of S. sonnei in Malaysia, this study aimed to characterize Malaysian S. sonnei and to evaluate the prospect of using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) for subtyping of local S. sonnei.
  18. Dhanoa A, Singh VA, Mansor A, Yusof MY, Lim KT, Thong KL
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2012;12:270.
    PMID: 23098162 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-270
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has of late emerged as a cause of community-acquired infections among immunocompetent adults without risk factors. Skin and soft tissue infections represent the majority of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clinical presentations, whilst invasive and life-threatening illness like necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis, osteomyelitis and sepsis syndrome are less common. Although more widely described in the pediatric age group, the occurrence of CA-MRSA osteomyelitis in adults is an uncommonly reported entity.
  19. Aljunid S, Abuduxike G, Ahmed Z, Sulong S, Nur AM, Goh A
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2011;11:248.
    PMID: 21936928 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-248
    BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal disease is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. The World Health Organization recommends pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as a priority for inclusion into national childhood immunization programmes. Pneumococcal vaccine has yet to be included as part of the national vaccination programme in Malaysia although it has been available in the country since 2005. This study sought to estimate the disease burden of pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and to assess the cost effectiveness of routine infant vaccination with PCV7.
    METHODS: A decision model was adapted taking into consideration prevalence, disease burden, treatment costs and outcomes for pneumococcal disease severe enough to result in a hospital admission. Disease burden were estimated from the medical records of 6 hospitals. Where local data was unavailable, model inputs were obtained from international and regional studies and from focus group discussions. The model incorporated the effects of herd protection on the unvaccinated adult population.
    RESULTS: At current vaccine prices, PCV7 vaccination of 90% of a hypothetical 550,000 birth cohort would incur costs of RM 439.6 million (US$128 million). Over a 10 year time horizon, vaccination would reduce episodes of pneumococcal hospitalisation by 9,585 cases to 73,845 hospitalisations with cost savings of RM 37.5 million (US$10.9 million) to the health system with 11,422.5 life years saved at a cost effectiveness ratio of RM 35,196 (US$10,261) per life year gained.
    CONCLUSIONS: PCV7 vaccination of infants is expected to be cost-effective for Malaysia with an incremental cost per life year gained of RM 35,196 (US$10,261). This is well below the WHO's threshold for cost effectiveness of public health interventions in Malaysia of RM 71,761 (US$20,922).
  20. Rafiza S, Rampal KG, Tahir A
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2011;11:19.
    PMID: 21244645 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-19
    BACKGROUND: Health care workers are exposed to patients with tuberculosis and are at risk of nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia and also to evaluate the agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test with Tuberculin Skin Test.
    METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted at four randomly selected hospitals in the Klang Valley from December 2008 to May 2009. Self administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on health care workers and possible risk factors. The response rate for this study was 90.8% with 954 respondents completed the questionnaire and were tested with Quantiferon TB Gold in tube for latent tuberculosis infection. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube and Tuberculin Skin Test was assessed among 95 health care workers who consented to undergo both tests.
    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers was 10.6% (CI: 8.6%; 12.6%). Factors significantly associated with latent tuberculosis infection were aged 35 years and older [9.49 (CI: 2.22; 40.50)], history of living in the same house with close family members or friends who had active tuberculosis [8.69 (CI: 3.00; 25.18)], worked as a nurse [4.65 (CI: 1.10; 19.65)] and being male [3.70 (CI: 1.36; 10.02)]. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test and tuberculin skin test at cut-off points of 10 mm and 15 mm was 50.5% and 82.1% respectively. However, Kappa-agreement was poor for both cut-off points.
    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in Malaysia was relatively low for an intermediate TB burden country. We could not comment on the occupational risk of latent tuberculosis infection among health care worker compared to the general population as there were no prevalence data available for latent tuberculosis infection in the general population. Kappa agreement between Quantiferon TB gold in-tube and tuberculin skin test was poor.
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