Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 188 in total

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  1. Abdul-Razak S, Daher AM, Ramli AS, Ariffin F, Mazapuspavina MY, Ambigga KS, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2016;16(1):351.
    PMID: 27097542 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3008-y
    Hypertension is the leading cardiovascular risk factor globally as well as in Malaysia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and the socio demographic determinants of hypertension among Malaysian adults.
  2. Wong TH, Lim GH, Chow KY, Trauma Coordinators and Trauma Service Representatives, Zaw NN, Nguyen HV, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2016 05 14;16:402.
    PMID: 27180046 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3080-3
    BACKGROUND: Seatbelt non-compliance is a problem in middle income countries, and little is known about seatbelt compliance in populations with a high proportion of non-residents. This study analyses the profile of seatbelt non-compliance in Singapore based on trauma registry data from five of the six public hospitals.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of seatbelt compliance of patients aged over 18 years, attending the emergency departments of five public hospitals in Singapore after road collisions from 2011-2014. Seatbelt data was obtained from paramedic and patient history.

    RESULTS: There were 4,576 patients studied. Most were Singapore citizens (83.4 %) or permanent residents (2.4 %), with the largest non-resident groups from Malaysia, India, and China. Overall seatbelt compliance was 82.1 %. On univariate analysis, seatbelt compliance was higher in older patients (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.001-1.021, p 

  3. Michalopoulos LM, Jiwatram-Negrón T, Choo MK, Kamarulzaman A, El-Bassel N
    BMC Public Health, 2016 06 02;16:464.
    PMID: 27250497 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3125-7
    BACKGROUND: Malaysian fishermen have been identified as a key-affected HIV population with HIV rates 10 times higher than national rates. A number of studies have identified that psychosocial and structural-level stressors increase HIV injection drug risk behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to examine psychosocial and structural-level stressors of injection drug use and HIV injection drug risk behaviors among Malaysian fishermen.

    METHODS: The study employs a cross-sectional design using respondent driven sampling methods. The sample includes 406 fishermen from Pahang state, Malaysia. Using multivariate logistic regressions, we examined the relationship between individual (depression), social (adverse interactions with the police), and structural (poverty-related) stressors and injection drug use and risky injection drug use (e.g.., receptive and non-receptive needle sharing, frontloading and back-loading, or sharing drugs from a common container).

    RESULTS: Participants below the poverty line had significantly lower odds of injection drug use (OR 0.52, 95 % CI: 0.27-0.99, p = 0.047) and risky injection drug use behavior (OR 0.48, 95 % CI: 0.25-0.93, p = 0.030). In addition, participants with an arrest history had higher odds of injection use (OR 19.58, 95 % CI: 9.81-39.10, p 

  4. Tuan Abdul Aziz TA, Teh LK, Md Idris MH, Bannur Z, Ashari LS, Ismail AI, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2016;16(1):284.
    PMID: 27009064 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-2848-9
    Despite the strategic development plan by the authorities for the Orang Asli, there are six subtribes of which their population numbers are small (less than 700). These minorities were not included in most of the health related studies published thus far. A comprehensive physiological and biomedical updates on these small subtribes in comparison to the larger subtribes and the urban Malay population is timely and important to help provide appropriate measures to prevent further reduction in the numbers of the Orang Asli.
  5. Norhayati MN, Nik Hazlina NH, Sulaiman Z, Azman MY
    BMC Public Health, 2016;16(1):229.
    PMID: 26944047 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-2895-2
    Severe maternal conditions have increasingly been used as alternative measurements of the quality of maternal care and as alternative strategies to reduce maternal mortality. We aimed to study severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss among women in two tertiary hospitals in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.
  6. Shafinaz IS, Moy FM
    BMC Public Health, 2016 Mar 07;16:232.
    PMID: 26951992 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-2924-1
    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in both temperate as well as tropical countries. Obesity is one of the factors contributing to vitamin D deficiency. As our country has a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, we aimed to study serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and its association with adiposity using various adiposity indicators; and to study other risk factors that affect serum 25(OH)D level among multi-ethnic adults in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted with a multistage sampling. All permanent teachers working in government secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were invited for the study. The data collection included serum 25(OH)D, Parathyroid Hormone (PTH), body fat percentage, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. Demographic characteristics, sun avoidance, sun exposure and physical activity were enquired from the participants using a self-administered questionnaire. The data was analyzed using a complex sample analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 858 participants were recruited. Majority of them were Malays, females and had tertiary education. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was 67.4 %. Indian participants (80.9 %) had the highest proportion of vitamin D deficiency, followed by Malays (75.6 %), others (44.9 %) and Chinese (25.1 %). There was a significant negative association between serum 25(OH)D level with BMI (β = -0.23) and body fat percentage (β = -0.14). In the multivariate linear regression analysis, Malays, Indians and females (p 

  7. Aljunid S, Maimaiti N, Nur AM, Noor MRM, Wan Puteh SE
    BMC Public Health, 2016 Jan 23;16:71.
    PMID: 26803814 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-2754-1
    BACKGROUND: The HPV vaccine was introduced to Malaysian national immunization programme in 2010. The current implementation age of HPV vaccination in Malaysian is at the age of 13 years school girls, given according to a 3 doses protocol which may complicate implementation and compliance. Aim of the study is to determine the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination regime comparing twice versus thrice HPV vaccinations dose regime among adolescent girls in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A Markov cohort model reflecting the natural history of HPV infection accounting for oncogenic and low-risk HPV was adapted for 13 year old Malaysian girls cohort (n = 274,050). Transition probabilities, utilities values, epidemiological and cost data were sourced from published literature and local data. Vaccine effectiveness was based on overall efficacy reported from 3-doses clinical trials, with the assumption that the 2-doses is non-inferior to the 3-doses allowing overall efficacy to be inferred from the 3-doses immunogenicity data. Price parity and life-long protection were assumed. The payer perspective was adopted, with appropriate discounting for costs (3 %) and outcomes (3 %). One way sensitivity analysis was conducted. The sensitivity analysis on cost of vaccine, vaccine coverage and discount rate with a 2-doses protocol was performed.

    RESULT: The 3-doses and 2-doses regimes showed same number of Cervical Cancers averted (361 cases); QALYs saved at 7,732,266. However, the lifetime protection under the 2-doses regime, showed a significant cost-savings of RM 36, 722,700 compared to the 3-doses scheme. The MOH Malaysia could vaccinate 137,025 more girls in this country using saving 2-doses regime vaccination programme. The model predicted that 2-doses HPV vaccination schemes can avoid additional 180 Cervical Cancers and 63 deaths compare to 3-doses.

    CONCLUSION: A 2-doses HPV vaccination scheme may enable Malaysian women to be protected at a lower cost than that achievable under a 3-doses scheme, while avoiding the same number of Cervical Cancer cases and deaths. Using the saving money with 2-doses, more Cervical Cancers and deaths can be avoided.

  8. Jan Mohamed HJ, Loy SL, Mohd Taib MN, Karim NA, Tan SY, Appukutty M, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:1322.
    PMID: 26718818 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2666-5
    The consumption of beverages contributes to diet quality and overall nutrition. Studies on malted drinks, one of the widely consumed beverage choices among children in Asia, however, have received limited attention. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of malted drink consumption and explored associations of sociodemographic characteristics, nutrient intakes, weight status and physical activity levels with malted drink consumption among primary school children in Malaysia.
  9. Rasiah R, Thangiah G, Yusoff K, Manikam R, Chandrasekaran SK, Mustafa R, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:1242.
    PMID: 26673166 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2577-5
    Numerous studies have shown the importance of physical activity in reducing the morbidity and mortality rates caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, most of these studies emphasise little on the cumulative effect of CVD risk factors. Hence, this study investigates the association between physical exercise and cumulative CVD risk factors among adults in three different age groups.
  10. Teh CH, Chan YY, Lim KH, Kee CC, Lim KK, Yeo PS, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:1205.
    PMID: 26630916 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2528-1
    The health-enhancing benefits of physical activity (PA) on hypertension and diabetes have been well documented for decades. This study aimed to determine the association of PA with systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as blood glucose in the Malaysian adult population.
  11. Ng SH, Kelly B, Se CH, Sahathevan S, Chinna K, Ismail MN, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:1047.
    PMID: 26459341 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2392-z
    Television food advertising (TVFA) is the most dominant medium in the obesogenic environment promoting unhealthy food choices in children.
  12. Khan MU, Ahmad A, Aqeel T, Salman S, Ibrahim Q, Idrees J, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:1100.
    PMID: 26541976 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2471-1
    Despite the efforts of national and international organizations, polio has not been eradicated from Pakistan. The prevalence of polio in Pakistan is exceptional in global context. Quetta and Peshawar divisions are amongst the most affected regions hit by polio in Pakistan. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards polio immunization among residents of Quetta and Peshawar divisions in Pakistan.
  13. Chan YY, Teh CH, Lim KK, Lim KH, Yeo PS, Kee CC, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:754.
    PMID: 26246019 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2080-z
    BACKGROUND: Self-rated health (SRH) has been demonstrated as a valid and appropriate predictor of incident mortality and chronic morbidity. Associations between lifestyle, chronic diseases, and SRH have been reported by various population studies but few have included data from developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of poor SRH in Malaysia and its association with lifestyle factors and chronic diseases among Malaysian adults.
    METHODS: This study was based on 18,184 adults aged 18 and above who participated in the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS). The NHMS was a cross-sectional survey (two-stage stratified sample) designed to collect health information on a nationally representative sample of the Malaysian adult population. Data were obtained via face-to-face interviews using validated questionnaires. Two categories were used to measure SRH: "good" (very good and good) and "poor" (moderate, not good and very bad). The association of lifestyle factors and chronic diseases with poor SRH was examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression.
    RESULTS: Approximately one-fifth of the Malaysian adult population (20.1 %) rated their health as poor (men: 18.4 % and women: 21.7 %). Prevalence increases with age from 16.2 % (aged 18-29) to 32.0 % (aged ≥60). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, lifestyle factors associated with poor SRH included: underweight (OR = 1.29; 95 % CI: 1.05-1.57), physical inactivity (OR = 1.25; 95 % CI: 1.11-1.39), former smoker (OR = 1.38; 95 % CI: 1.12-1.70), former drinker (OR = 1.27; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.62), and current drinker (OR = 1.35; 95 % CI: 1.08-1.68). Chronic diseases associated with poor SRH included: asthma (OR = 1.66; 95 % CI: 1.36-2.03), arthritis (OR = 1.87; 95 % CI: 1.52-2.29), hypertension (OR = 1.39; 95 % CI: 1.18-1.64), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.43; 95 % CI: 1.18-1.74), and heart disease (OR = 1.85; 95 % CI: 1.43-2.39).
    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that several unhealthy lifestyle behaviours and chronic diseases are significantly associated with poor SRH among Malaysian adults. Effective public health strategies are needed to promote healthy lifestyles, and disease prevention interventions should be enhanced at the community level to improve overall health.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2011)
  14. Azlan A, Nasir NN, Shamsudin N, Rahman HA, Khoo HE, Razman MR
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:683.
    PMID: 26194098 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2044-3
    Exposure to PCDD/PCDF (dioxin and furan) through consumption of fish and shellfish is closely related to the occurrence of skin diseases, such as chloracne and hyperpigmentation. This study aimed to determine the exposure of PCDD/PCDF and its congeners in fish and shellfish obtained from different regions of the Straits of Malacca among the fishing community.
  15. Wong CY, Zalilah MS, Chua EY, Norhasmah S, Chin YS, Siti Nur'Asyura A
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:680.
    PMID: 26194643 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2058-x
    Double-burden of malnutrition (DBM) is an emerging public health concern among the Orang Asli (indigenous peoples) of Peninsular Malaysia. This study aimed to identify the presence of DBM at the community and household levels in Orang Asli population and its associated demographic and socio-economic factors.
  16. Rana M, Sayem A, Karim R, Islam N, Islam R, Zaman TK, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:716.
    PMID: 26215721 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2071-0
    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading cause of human death and TB is one of the major public health problems in Bangladesh. The aim of the present study was to assess the Knowledge about TB among non-medical university students in Bangladesh.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed on 839 non-medical university students. Data were collected from University of Rajshahi from March to August 2013 using a standard semi-structured questionnaire. Chi-square test was utilized to find the factors which are associated with students' knowledge about TB.
    RESULTS: Among 839 students, male and female were 68.2 % and 31.8 % respectively. Most of the students (94.4 %) were informed about the term TB, among them 50 % got information from electronic media. More than 50 % students believed that TB is a communicable disease, 42.8 % students agreed that bacteria is an agent for TB, most of the subjects (93 %) had the knowledge about the vaccination against TB and 97.6 % students believed that TB is curable. However, students had poor knowledge about latent TB (13.7 %) and DOTs program (28.5 %). χ (2)-test demonstrated that gender, residence, type of family and parents education were associated with students' knowledge of TB.
    CONCLUSION: In the present study demonstrated that the level of general knowledge about TB was insufficient among non-medical university students. Consequently, health education program is needed to improve the knowledge among university students regarding TB.
  17. Mohd Shukri M, Ling Kho K, Ghane Kisomi M, Lani R, Marlina S, Muhd Radzi SF, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:704.
    PMID: 26205588 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-1901-4
    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) are important tick-borne viruses. Despite their wide geographical distribution and ease of acquisition, the prevalence of both viruses in Malaysia is still unknown. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence for TBEV and CCHFV among Malaysian farm workers as a high-risk group within the population.
  18. Wong LP, Atefi N, Majid HA, Su TT
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 3:S1.
    PMID: 25438066 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S3-S1
    BACKGROUND:
    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pregnancy experience and its association with contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    METHODS:
    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among the Kerinchi suburban community. Of the total 3,716 individuals surveyed, young single adults between 18 and 35 years old were questioned with regard to their experience with unplanned pregnancy before marriage. Contraceptive knowledge was assessed by a series of questions on identification of method types and the affectivity of condoms for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

    RESULTS:
    A total of 226 female and 257 male participants completed the survey. In total, eight female (3.5%) participants reported experience with an unplanned pregnancy before marriage, and five male (1.9 %) participants had the experience of impregnating their partners. The participants had a mean total score of 3.15 (SD = 1.55) for contraceptive knowledge out of a possible maximum score of five. Female participants who had experienced an unplanned pregnancy had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (2.10 ± 1.48) than who had never experienced pregnancy (3.30 ± 1.35), p<0.05. Likewise, male participants who had experienced impregnating their partners had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (1.60 ± 1.50) than those who did not have such experience (3.02 ± 1.59), p<0.05.

    CONCLUSION:
    The results showed evidence of premarital unplanned pregnancy among this suburban community. The low level of contraceptive knowledge found in this study indicates the need for educational strategies designed to improve contraceptive knowledge.
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