Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 200 in total

  1. Ghazali SM, Seman Z, Cheong KC, Hock LK, Manickam M, Kuay LK, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:68.
    PMID: 25636327 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-1432-z
    BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Malaysian adults.
    METHODS: We analysed data on 1044 men and 1528 women, aged 24-64 years, participants in the Non Communicable Disease Surveillance 2005/2006, a nationally representative, population-based, cross-sectional study. Prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycemia, physical inactivity, smoking, risky drinking, low vegetable and fruit intake were determined and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic factors associated with having ≥3 of these cardiovascular disease risk factors.
    RESULTS: The response rate was 84.6% (2572/3040). Overall, 68.4% (95% CI: 63.2, 73.1) had at least three risk factors. Among men, older age and Indian ethnicity were independently associated with having ≥3 CVD risk factors; while among women, older age, low education, and housewives were more likely to have ≥3 CVD risk factors.
    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors clustering among Malaysian adults is high, raising concerns that cardiovascular disease incidence will rise steeply in the near future if no immediate preventive measures are taken. The current national health education and promotion programmes pertaining to modifiable risk factors can be further improved by taking into account the sociodemographic variation in CVD risk factors clustering.
    Study name: Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 (MyNCDS-1) survey.
  2. Phipps ME, Chan KK, Naidu R, Mohamad NW, Hoh BP, Quek KF, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015 Jan 31;15:47.
    PMID: 25636170 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-1384-3
    BACKGROUND: South East Asia (SEA) is home to over 30 tribes of indigenous population groups who are currently facing rapid socio-economic change. Epidemiological transition and increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD) has occured. In Peninsular Malaysia, the Orang Asli (OA) indigenous people comprise 0 · 6% (150,000) of the population and live in various settlements. OA comprise three distinct large tribes with smaller sub-tribes. The three large tribes include Proto-Malay (sub-tribes: Orang Seletar and Jakun), Senoi (sub-tribes: Mahmeri and Semai), and Negrito (sub-tribes: Jehai, Mendriq and Batek).

    METHODS: We studied the health of 636 OA from seven sub-tribes in the Peninsular. Parameters that were assessed included height, weight, BMI and waist circumference whilst blood pressure, cholesterols, fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels were recorded. We then analysed cardio-metabolic risk factor prevalences and performed multiple pair-wise comparisons among different sub-tribes and socio-economic clusters.

    RESULTS: Cardio-metabolic risk factors were recorded in the seven sub-tribes.. Prevalence for general and abdominal obesity were highest in the urbanized Orang Seletar (31 · 6 ± 5 · 7%; 66 · 1 ± 5 · 9%). Notably, hunter gatherer Jehai and Batek tribes displayed the highest prevalence for hypertension (43 · 8 ± 9 · 29% and 51 · 2 ± 15 · 3%) despite being the leanest and most remote, while the Mendriq sub-tribe, living in the same jungle area with access to similar resources as the Batek were less hypertensive (16.3 ± 11.0%), but displayed higher prevalence of abdominal obesity (27.30 ± 13.16%).

    CONCLUSIONS: We describe the cardio-metabolic risk factors of seven indigenous communities in Malaysia. We report variable prevalence of obesity, cholesterol, hypertension and diabetes in the OA in contrast to the larger ethnic majorities such as Malays, Chinese and Indians in Malaysia These differences are likely to be due to socio-economic effects and lifestyle changes. In some sub-tribes, other factors including genetic predisposition may also play a role. It is expected that the cardio-metabolic risk factors may worsen with further urbanization, increase the health burden of these communities and strain the government's resources.

  3. Molanorouzi K, Khoo S, Morris T
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:66.
    PMID: 25637384 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-1429-7
    In recent years, there has been a decline in physical activity among adults. Motivation has been shown to be a crucial factor in maintaining physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine whether motives for participation could accurately discriminate gender, age, and type of physical activity.
  4. El Kishawi RR, Soo KL, Abed YA, Wan Muda WA
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:319.
    PMID: 25879619 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-1652-2
    Anemia is a major public health problem worldwide, with adverse consequences on child growth, development, and survival. This deficiency has affected approximately a quarter of the world population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anemia and the associated factors among preschool children in the Gaza Strip.
  5. Hossain M, Mani KK, Mohd Sidik S, Hayati KS, Rahman AK
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:484.
    PMID: 25957574 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-1823-1
    Drowning is the third leading cause of death for children aged 0-4 years in many Asian countries, and is a serious but neglected health problem in low and middle-income countries like Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to outline the study protocol of a trial to test the efficacy of a mobile coach based intervention for the prevention of childhood drowning.
  6. Alkoshi S, Leshem E, Parashar UD, Dahlui M
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:26.
    PMID: 25616973 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-1400-7
    Libya introduced rotavirus vaccine in October 2013. We examined pre-vaccine incidence of rotavirus hospitalizations and associated economic burden among children < 5 years in Libya to provide baseline data for future vaccine impact evaluations.
  7. Khan MU, Shah S, Ahmad A, Fatokun O
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14:1281.
    PMID: 25510239 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-1281
    BACKGROUND: With the increase in prevalence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of acquiring and subsequently transmitting this lethal virus. In view of this, HCWs were evaluated for their knowledge of and attitude towards MERS in Saudi Arabia.
    METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed in two hospitals of Qassim region in Saudi Arabia. A total of 280 healthcare workers were selected to participate in this study. Knowledge and attitude were assessed by using self-administered and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were carried out to express participants' demographic information, mean knowledge score and mean attitude score of HCWs. Inferential statistics (Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis tests, p < 0.05) were used to examine differences between study variables. Chi squares tests were used to assess the association between study variables and attitude questions. Spearman's rho correlation was used to identify the association between the knowledge, attitude scores.
    RESULT: Participants demonstrated good knowledge and positive attitude towards MERS. The mean scores of knowledge and attitude were 9.45 ± 1.69 (based on 13 knowledge questions) and 1.82 ± 0.72 (based on 7 attitude questions). The correlation between knowledge and attitude was significant (correlation coefficient: 0.12; P <0.001). HCWs were less educated about the management (42.4%), source (66%) and consequences of MERS (67.3%), while a majority of them were well aware of the hallmark symptoms (96%), precautionary measures (96%) and hygiene issues (94%). Although the majority of respondents showed positive attitude towards the use of protective measures (1.52 ± 0.84), their attitude was negative towards their active participation in infection control program (2.03 ± 0.97). Gender and experience were significantly associated with knowledge and attitude (P < 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that healthcare workers in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia have good knowledge and positive attitude towards MERS. Yet there are areas where low knowledge and negative attitude of HCWs was observed. However, studies are required to assess the knowledge and attitude of HCWs at national level so that effective interventions could be designed as surveillance and infection control measures are critical to global public health.
  8. Hazreen MA, Su TT, Jalaludin MY, Dahlui M, Chinna K, Ismail M, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 3:S6.
    PMID: 25437068 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S3-S6
    BACKGROUND: The National Health & Morbidity Survey (NHMS) IV (2011) observed that the prevalence of obese children aged less than 18 years in Malaysia is 6.1% compared to 5.4% overweight and obese in NHMS III (2006). As such, this observation is of public health importance as obesity is a forewarning risk factor for chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and certain types of cancers. This MyHeART (Malaysian Health and Adolescents longitudinal Research Team) study aims to examine risk factors of non-communicable diseases (NCD) among adolescents.
    METHODS/DESIGN: The MyHeART study is longitudinal cohort study of 1361 schoolchildren (13-years old) attending 15 public secondary schools from the central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and northern (Perak) regions of Peninsular Malaysia. The study used a stratified sampling design to select the study participants. Data collected at baseline included socio-economic, lifestyle (e.g. smoking, physical activity assessment, fitness assessment, seven-day diet history), and environmental information, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, handgrip strength and bone mineral density. Blood samples for fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles, full blood count, renal profile, as well as bone profile and serum vitamin D were taken. This study cohort will be followed up again when participants turn 15, 17 and lastly, after a period of ten years (around the age of 27).
    RESULTS: Nine percent of the adolescents from this study were obese. More male participants smoked compared to female participants (15.4% vs. 4.7%). Adolescent males had higher fasting blood glucose but the female participants had lower high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) and higher low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol). In addition, adolescents from the rural area had higher fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol.
    DISCUSSION: Our results demonstrated that adolescents from the rural area are at higher risk of NCDs compared to their urban counterpart. Tailor made public health interventions are highly recommended for adolescents as this may minimise the dreadful NCD burden in adulthood and health disparity between the rural and urban in the near future.
    Study name: Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (The MyHeART study)
  9. Hanifah RA, Majid HA, Jalaludin MY, Al-Sadat N, Murray LJ, Cantwell M, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 3:S5.
    PMID: 25436933 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S3-S5
    The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices.
  10. Su TT, Majid HA, Nahar AM, Azizan NA, Hairi FM, Thangiah N, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 3:S4.
    PMID: 25436830 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S3-S4
    Death rates due to hypertension in low and middle income countries are higher compared to high income countries. The present study is designed to combine life style modification and home blood pressure monitoring for control of hypertension in the context of low and middle income countries.
  11. Amiri M, Majid HA, Hairi F, Thangiah N, Bulgiba A, Su TT
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 3:S3.
    PMID: 25436515 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S3-S3
    Objectives: The objectives are to assess the prevalence and determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among the residents of Community Housing Projects in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Method: By using simple random sampling, we selected and surveyed 833 households which comprised of 3,722 individuals. Out of the 2,360 adults, 50.5% participated in blood sampling and anthropometric measurement sessions. Uni and bivariate data analysis and multivariate binary logistic regression were applied to identify demographic and socioeconomic determinants of the existence of having at least one CVD risk factor.
    Results: As a Result, while obesity (54.8%), hypercholesterolemia (51.5%), and hypertension (39.3%) were the most common CVD risk factors among the low-income respondents, smoking (16.3%), diabetes mellitus (7.8%) and alcohol consumption (1.4%) were the least prevalent. Finally, the results from the multivariate binary logistic model illustrated that compared to the Malays, the Indians were 41% less likely to have at least one of the CVD risk factors (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.37 - 0.93).
    Conclusion: In Conclusion, the low-income individuals were at higher risk of developing CVDs. Prospective policies addressing preventive actions and increased awareness focusing on low-income communities are highly recommended and to consider age, gender, ethnic backgrounds, and occupation classes.
  12. Jaafar N, Hakim H, Mohd Nor NA, Mohamed A, Saub R, Esa R, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 3:S2.
    PMID: 25438162 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S3-S2
    The urban low income has often been assumed to have the greatest dental treatment needs compared to the general population. However, no studies have been carried out to verify these assumptions. This study was conducted to assess whether there was any difference between the treatment needs of an urban poor population as compared to the general population in order to design an intervention programme for this community.
  13. Wong LP, Atefi N, Majid HA, Su TT
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 3:S1.
    PMID: 25438066 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S3-S1
    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pregnancy experience and its association with contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among the Kerinchi suburban community. Of the total 3,716 individuals surveyed, young single adults between 18 and 35 years old were questioned with regard to their experience with unplanned pregnancy before marriage. Contraceptive knowledge was assessed by a series of questions on identification of method types and the affectivity of condoms for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

    A total of 226 female and 257 male participants completed the survey. In total, eight female (3.5%) participants reported experience with an unplanned pregnancy before marriage, and five male (1.9 %) participants had the experience of impregnating their partners. The participants had a mean total score of 3.15 (SD = 1.55) for contraceptive knowledge out of a possible maximum score of five. Female participants who had experienced an unplanned pregnancy had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (2.10 ± 1.48) than who had never experienced pregnancy (3.30 ± 1.35), p<0.05. Likewise, male participants who had experienced impregnating their partners had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (1.60 ± 1.50) than those who did not have such experience (3.02 ± 1.59), p<0.05.

    The results showed evidence of premarital unplanned pregnancy among this suburban community. The low level of contraceptive knowledge found in this study indicates the need for educational strategies designed to improve contraceptive knowledge.
  14. Farid ND, Rus SC, Dahlui M, Al-Sadat N, Aziz NA
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 3:S9.
    PMID: 25437631 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S3-S9
    In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia.
  15. Fadzlina AA, Harun F, Nurul Haniza MY, Al Sadat N, Murray L, Cantwell MM, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 3:S7.
    PMID: 25437226 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S3-S7
    BACKGROUND: Obesity and metabolic syndrome is prevalent among Malaysian adolescents and has been associated with certain behavioural factors such as duration of sleep, screen time and physical activity. The aim of the study is to report the prevalence of overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and its risk factors among adolescents.
    METHODS: A multi-staged cluster sampling method was used to select participants from urban and rural schools in Selangor, Perak and Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur. Participants underwent anthropometric measurement and physical examination including blood pressure measurement. Blood samples were taken for fasting glucose and lipids and participants answered a self-administered questionnaire. Overweight and obesity was defined using the extrapolated adult body mass index (BMI) cut-offs of >25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on International Diabetes Federation (IDF) 2007 criteria.
    RESULTS: Data were collected from 1361 participants. After excluding incomplete data and missing values for the variables, we analysed a sample of 1014 participants. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in this population was 25.4% (N = 258). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% in the population and 10% among the overweight and obese adolescents. Participants who slept between 7 and 9 hours a day has a lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome OR 0.38(0.15-0.94).
    CONCLUSION: Our results provide the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysian adolescents. Adequate sleep between 7 and 9 hours per day reduces the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
    MESH: screen time
  16. Awadh AI, Hassali MA, Al-lela OQ, Bux SH, Elkalmi RM, Hadi H
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14:1107.
    PMID: 25346471 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-1107
    Parents are the main decision makers for their children vaccinations. This fact makes parents' immunization knowledge and practices as predictor factors for immunization uptake and timeliness. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument in Malaysian language to measure immunization knowledge and practice (KP) of Malaysian parents.
  17. Molanorouzi K, Khoo S, Morris T
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14:909.
    PMID: 25182130 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-909
    Although there is abundant evidence to recommend a physically active lifestyle, adult physical activity (PA) levels have declined over the past two decades. In order to understand why this happens, numerous studies have been conducted to uncover the reasons for people's participation in PA. Often, the measures used were not broad enough to reflect all the reasons for participation in PA. The Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS) was created to be a comprehensive tool measuring motives for participating in PA. This 40-item scale related to participation in sport and PA is designed for adolescents and adults. Five items constitute each of the eight sub-scales (mastery, enjoyment, psychological condition, physical condition, appearance, other's expectations, affiliation, competition/ego) reflecting motives for participation in PA that can be categorized as features of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation based on self-determination theory. The aim of the current study was to validate the PALMS in the cultural context of Malaysia, including to assess how well the PALMS captures the same information as the Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure (REMM).
  18. Shohaimi S, Boekholdt MS, Luben R, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT
    BMC Public Health, 2014 Aug 28;14:782.
    PMID: 25179437 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-782
    BACKGROUND: Data on the relationship between plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides and social class have been inconsistent. Most previous studies have used one classification of social class.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population based study with data on occupational social class, educational level obtained using a detailed health and lifestyle questionnaire. A total of 10,147 men and 12,304 women aged 45-80 years living in Norfolk, United Kingdom, were recruited using general practice age-sex registers as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk). Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in baseline samples. Social class was classified according to three classifications: occupation, educational level, and area deprivation score according to Townsend deprivation index. Differences in lipid levels by socio-economic status indices were quantified by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression after adjusting for body mass index and alcohol consumption.

    RESULTS: Total cholesterol levels were associated with occupational level among men, and with educational level among women. Triglyceride levels were associated with educational level and occupational level among women, but the latter association was lost after adjustment for age and body mass index. HDL-cholesterol levels were associated with both educational level and educational level among men and women. The relationships with educational level were substantially attenuated by adjustment for age, body mass index and alcohol use, whereas the association with educational class was retained upon adjustment. LDL-cholesterol levels were not associated with social class indices among men, but a positive association was observed with educational class among women. This association was not affected by adjustment for age, body mass index and alcohol use.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that there are sex differences in the association between socio-economic status and serum lipid levels. The variations in lipid profile with socio-economic status may be largely attributed to potentially modifiable factors such as obesity, physical activity and dietary intake.

  19. Mustapha F, Omar Z, Mihat O, Md Noh K, Hassan N, Abu Bakar R, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 2:S4.
    PMID: 25080846 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S2-S4
    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and NCD risk factors in Malaysia have risen substantially in the last two decades. The Malaysian Ministry of Health responded by implementing, "The National Strategic Plan for Non-Communicable Diseases (NSP-NCD) 2010-2014", and the "NCD Prevention 1Malaysia" (NCDP-1M) programme. This paper outlines the primary health system context in which the NCDP-1M is framed. We also discuss the role of community in facilitating the integration of this programme, and outline some of the key challenges in addressing the sustainability of the plan over the next few years. The paper thus provides an analysis of an integration of a programme that involved a multi-sectoral approach with the view to contributing to a broader discourse on the development of responsive health systems.
  20. Norris SA, Anuar H, Matzen P, Cheah JC, Jensen BB, Hanson M
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 2:S6.
    PMID: 25080995 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S2-S6
    BACKGROUND: Malaysia faces burgeoning obesity and diabetes epidemics with a 250% and 88% increase respectively between 1996 and 2006. Identifying the health challenges of young adults in Malaysia, who constitute 27.5 % of the population, is critical for NCD prevention. The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to achieve consensus amongst stakeholders on the most important challenge impacting the health of young adults, and (2) to engage with stakeholders to formulate a NCD prevention framework.

    METHODS: The Delphi Technique was utilised to achieve group consensus around the most important life and health challenges that young adults face in Malaysia. Subsequently, the results of the consensus component were shared with the stakeholders in an engagement workshop to obtain input on a NCD prevention framework.

    RESULTS: We found that life stress was a significant concern. It would seem that the apathy towards pursuing or maintaining a healthy lifestyle among young adults may be significantly influenced by the broader distal determinant of life stress. The high cost of living is suggested to be the main push factor for young working adults towards attaining better financial security to improve their livelihood. In turn, this leads to a more stressful lifestyle with less time to focus on healthier lifestyle choices.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight a pivotal barrier to healthier lifestyles. By assisting young adults to cope with daily living coupled with realistic opportunities to make healthier dietary choices, be more active, and less sedentary could assist in the development of NCD health promotion strategies.

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