Methods: We used information of the EPIC-NL cohort, a prospective cohort of 39 393 men and women, aged 20-70 years at recruitment. A lifestyle questionnaire and a validated food frequency questionnaire were administered at recruitment (1993-97). Low adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was used to determine an unhealthy dietary pattern. Lifestyle-related factors included body mass index, waist circumference, smoking status, physical activity level, dietary supplement use and daily breakfast consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for the total population and by strata of educational level.
Results: In total 30% of the study population had an unhealthy dietary pattern: 39% in the lowest educated group and 20% in the highest educated group. Physical inactivity, a large waist circumference, no dietary supplement use and skipping breakfast were associated with an unhealthy dietary pattern in both low and high educated participants. Among low educated participants, current smokers had a greater odds of an unhealthy diet compared with never smokers: OR 1.42 (95% CI: 1.25; 1.61). This association was not observed in the high educated group.
Conclusions: Most associations between lifestyle-related factors and unhealthy diet were consistent across educational levels, except for smoking. Only among low educated participants, current smokers reported an unhealthier dietary pattern in comparison to never smokers. These results can be used in the development of targeted health promotion strategies.
METHODS: Data from death records, 1998-2002, and from 2001 Census data were extracted for seven migrant groups [New Zealand; United Kingdom (UK)/Ireland; Germany; Greece; Italy; China/Singapore/Malaysia/Vietnam (East Asia); and India/Sri Lanka (South Asia)] aged 45-64 years. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate the duration of residence effect (categorized in 5-year bands and also as having arrived 2-16, 17-31 and 32 years ago or more), adjusted for sex, 5-year age group and year of death, then additionally for occupational class and marital status (SES) on relative risks (RR) of CVD mortality.
RESULTS: Compared with the Australia-born population, CVD mortality was generally lower in each migrant group. Decreasing mortality with increasing duration of residence was observed for migrants from New Zealand (RR 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval 0.92-0.98, P<0.01, per 5-year increase), Greece (0.90, 0.86-0.94, P<0.01), Italy (0.94, 0.91-0.97, P<0.01) and South Asia (0.95, 0.91-0.99, P<0.01), mainly in older age groups. Trends remained after SES adjustment and also when broader categories of duration of residence were used. CVD mortality among migrants from the UK/Ireland appeared to converge towards those of the Australian-born.
CONCLUSIONS: These results show divergence in CVD mortality compared with the Australian rate for New Zealanders, Greeks, Italians and South Asians. Sustained cardio-protective behavioural practices in the Australian setting is a potential explanation.
Methods: Online databases (PubMed/MEDLINE/PubMed Central, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and Google Scholar) were searched for all published eligible research articles in the past 12 years (as of January 2005-2017). A total of 17 research articles were included. The interventions were classified as 'individual level', 'community level' and 'cultural sensitive educations' which contains various interventions in their content as compared with usual care. A quality coding system was assessed using Cochrane checklists and rated by each researcher independently and the average score was given accordingly. This study was registered in PROSPERO 2017: CRD42017060405.
Results: The review dovetailed 17 studies. Ten studies (58.82%) were conducted in the United States, three in Iran (17.65%) and one each in Malaysia, China, Cameroon and Nigeria (23.53%). Almost all levels of the interventions boosted the screening uptake and the Pap test. However, the individual level health education interventions were prioritized in many of the studies.
Conclusion: The review indicated that health education interventions have immense contributions in boosting the screening uptake. However, the effectiveness varies with study setting, populations and the way of delivery. Therefore, the limited quality of the studies indicated that further research is required to develop a simple and effective intervention to boost cervical cancer screening uptake.