We investigated the association between polycystic ovarian syndrome, dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance in a cross sectional analysis comparing 50 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and 50 patients without the disease (control group) who were attending the Infertility clinic. Variables of interest were their body-mass index (Kg/m2), fasting and blood glucose levels after a 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test and their total cholesterol (mmol/L), total triglycerides (mmol/L), high density cholesterol lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (mmol/L) and, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L) levels. Except for HDL where significantly lower values were observed, significantly higher levels were detected in patients with PCOS than that of the control group. The difference persisted even when the obesity index were adjusted and matched. We conclude that both glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia were significantly associated with PCOS irrespective of the obesity index.
The use of transobturator tape (TOT) for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has gained popularity since it was introduced in 2001. Only few studies have reported that TOT is superior in safety and efficacy when compared to tension free vaginal tape (TVT). This case-series study was conducted to investigate the safety and efficacy of the TOT procedure in patients at Ipoh Hospital. A cross sectional study on patients who underwent TOT procedures from Jan 2006 to Jun 2008 was conducted. Patients were followed-up 1 month, 3 month, 12 month and annually thereafter. Data were retrieved from patients‟ records based on the standard pre-operative assessment sheet and follow up record. Interviews were then made via telecommunication to assess the patients‟ progression and satisfaction using a validated questionnaire. Fifty-two subjects (n=52) were recruited. The mean age was 54.2 ± 10.6 years with the median follow up time of 19 months. Majority of cases (n=46; 88.5%) had concomitant pelvic organ prolapse (POP), while only 2 (3.8%) had an isolated stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Pre-operatively, only 16 patients (30.8%) were diagnosed with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) and 24 patients (46.2%) had over active bladder symptoms (OAB) which include increased frequency and urgency. The objective cure rate for SUI was 42 (80.7%), 3 (5.8%) failed while 7 (13.5%) improved. Complications were limited to minor conditions and was only observed in four patients: one case (1.9%) of acute urinary retention, three (5.7%) had prolonged indwelling catheter more than 3 days and one (1.9%) each for mesh erosion, hematoma, urinary tract infection (UTI) and wound infection. Cure rate for MUI, frequency and urgency were 37.4%, 70.8% and 54.2% respectively. De novo urgency was noted in three (n=3: 5.7%) cases while (n=3: 5.7%) required revision of the tape. Forty-nine women (n=49: 94.2%) were satisfied with the procedure. TOT procedures significantly improve OAB symptoms with high patient‟s acceptance rate and no serious operative complication.
Breast feeding has been actively encouraged in Malaysia in the last few years in all public hospitals. This study proposes to find out the prevalence of breast feeding in three villages in a rural community in Kedah, Malaysia. This was a cross sectional study on breastfeeding practices in Kubang Pasu, a district of Kedah. Majority of the mothers initiated breast feeding but exclusive breastfeeding was only 21% for four months and predominant breastfeeding was about 12.6%. The breastfeeding practice was more prevalent among women from the higher educational strata and higher income than those from the lower strata and lower income (p
Night work and rotating shift work are found to be detrimental to the health of workers. A cross sectional analytical study was conducted among the employees of a public medical centre in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 380 employees participated in the health screening and questionnaire survey. The majority of the respondents were Malays, females, and with mean age of 49 years old. The shift workers persistently had higher but non-significant proportions of being overweight/obesity and unhealthy clinical indicators such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile except waist circumferences and HDL-cholesterol. There were also slightly more shift workers diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension or coronary heart disease (p>0.05). Although the present study could not provide established evidence for a relationship between shift work and cardiovascular risks, this could serve as a pilot study for future studies in this area.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue is a highly malignant condition and results in high mortality and morbidity in patients despite its early detection (1). Early surgical interventions have been found to reduce mortality but in many reports, tongue reconstructions using live grafts have been found to reduce normal tongue function of speech, swallow and taste. In contrast, our report using free radial forearm flap (FRFF) to reconstruct the defect left over after a radical tongue resection in a 38-year-old gentleman with oral cancer has shown promising results. This type of reconstruction has left the patient with a functional and cosmetically acceptable tongue with minimal alteration in recognizable speech.
The year 2005 marked the rebirth of JUMMEC when the Editorial Board took over from its previous Editor with modest but realistic expectations. One year on, we have successfully achieved our initial expectation, that is, to encourage greater participation from our junior academics to write and publish in our very own journal, JUMMEC. As we head towards the end of 2006 and prepare to usher in 2007, we see JUMMEC consolidating and gaining in strength. Let us reflect on its past achievements and our expectations for the future.(Copied from article).
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease. The reported prevalence is around one per million in the West but the exact prevalence in Asia is unknown. It affects primarily young women of reproductive age, with a mean age of onset at 34 years. The disease is characterised by an abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells that grow over a course of time to obstruct airways, lymphatic and blood vessels. We report a case of LAM in a young woman who presented with a spontaneous pneumothorax. Computed tomography scan of the thorax and abdomen showed homogenous thin-walled cystic lesions with normal intervening lung parenchyma and multiple lesions in her kidneys with Hounsfield units similar to that of fat.
Distress has become a major issue in cancer population. Patients may suffer from either physical,psychological distress or both. Cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy are more likely to experience psychological distress. This could be due to the negative effects of chemotherapy agents, the uncertainty of post-treatment, and the occurrence of psychosocial problems. As a result, the patient may experience a normal reaction such as sadness or may develop common psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety.
The clinical experience of the novel drug temsirolimus on eight patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and who were refractory to other forms of treatment is reported. Although none of the patients showed complete or partial response, three patients had stable disease. One patient was prematurely withdrawn due to pneumonitis. Five patients died during the period of observation of twenty months and the median survival time from start of treatment was ten months. Three patients showed no evidence of adverse events (AE). Five patients showed dyslipidemia and two had pneumonitis for which, the drug had to be withdrawn in one of them. None had significant leucopenia. We conclude that temsirolimus has activity even in heavily pretreated patients in advanced renal cell carcinoma and in addition, has the benefits of ease of administration and good tolerability.
As women with breast cancer are living longer, issues beyond survivorship like the much neglected sexual functioning and issue of quality of life have become increasingly important. Experiences of significant alterations in sexual functioning need to be addressed. However, these sexual issues are often not acknowledged in our traditional medical model of health care delivery. This paper briefly reviews the changes in sexual functioning after a diagnosis of breast cancer, with implication for clinical practice and medical curicula.
Evidence suggests that breast cancer is taking the form of a chronic illness. This will add on to the present burden of managing chronic diseases in the healthcare delivery system. The burden of breast cancer being a chronic illness, calls for greater efforts to address the many neglected, physical-psycho-social and occupational functioning consequences. Timely efforts are needed to identify and implement interventions that are aim at improving the quality of life of women with breast cancer. At present, research evidence is highlighting that chronic diseases may best be managed using a self-management approach, and best treated by a balance of traditional medical care and the day-to-day practice of self-management skills. This paper presents the perspective of breast cancer as a chronic illness and its implication for rehabilitation and medical education. It is imperative that health professionals be made aware of these survivorship issues through medical education. The goals are to reduce the many disability risks, encourage patient-health provider communication and enhance partnership in care, within a timely, holistic therapeutic program to improve the quality of life of women with breast cancer.
Demographic, economic and social changes have had major impact on health and illness globally, including in Malaysia, and present significant challenges to the structure and delivery of health services. While these changes have influenced the epidemiology of disease, the diagnosis, experience and response to changes in health status for individuals and their families are influenced by additional environmental and personal factors. We describe these factors in relation to our ongoing research program on personal and social aspects of impairment and disability. The Resilience study aims to understand how people with impairments and their families live with chronic health conditions, how these conditions impact on self-esteem, social relationships and societal participation, and how structure, context and environment affect individual functioning, disability and well-being. We described our methodology and summarize the baseline data that will inform our future enquiries.
Current selection guideline for CRT uses broad QRS duration (>120 ms) as a marker for ventricular dyssynchrony. However, more recent data supports mechanical marker specifically measured by Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) as a better criterion to predict response to CRT. Sixty seven patients with significant left ventricular dysfunction (EF less than 40%) and narrow QRS complex were prospectively enrolled. They underwent Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) study to evaluate intraventricular mechanical dyssynchrony. Dyssynchrony index which is defined as standard deviation of time to peak systolic velocity in twelve ventricular segments was measured. A value greater than 32.6 is taken to reflect significant ventricular dyssynchrony. Overall 38 patients (56.7%) demonstrated significant dyssynchrony. There was no significant correlation between QRS duration and the Ts-SD-12 (r = 0.14, p = 0.11). Ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony is common in patients with normal QRS duration. Therefore, QRS duration alone will miss a substantial proportion of suitable patients for CRT and therefore deny them this adjunct therapy. We propose echocardiographic parameters, specifically TDI, to be included in patient selection criteria for CRT.
In a clinical controlled trial involving repeated measures of continuous outcomes such as quality of life, distress, pain, activity level at baseline and after treatment, the possibilities of analyzing these outcomes can be numerous with quite varied findings. This paper examined four methods of statistical analysis using data from an outcome study of a clinical controlled trial to contrast the statistical power on those with baseline adjustment. In this study, data from a CCT with women with breast cancer were utilized. The experiment (n=67) and control (n=74) were about equal ratio. Four method of analysis were utilized, two using ANOVA for repeated measures and two using ANCOVA. The multivariate between subjects of the combined dependents variables and the univariate between subjects test were examined to make a judgement of the statistical power of each method. The results showed that ANCOVA has the highest statistical power. ANOVA using raw data is the least power and is the worst method with no evidence of an intervention effect even when the treatment by time interaction is statistically significant. In conclusion, ANOVA using raw data is the worst method with the least power whilst ANCOVA using baseline as covariate has the highest statistical power to detect a treatment effect other than method. The second best method as shown in this study was in using change scores of the repeated measures.
The liver is an important organ of the human body, playing a major role in the metabolism and storage of nutrients, synthesis of protein and other nutrients, as well as detoxifying many metabolic by-products. The response of the foetal and newborn liver to external insult and injury is limited. This is because the ability of the closely interdependent structures of a developing liver of expressing in the face of a variety of insults is limited as well. Thus most infants with insults to the liver present as cholestatic jaundice with variable degree of pale stools, enlarged liver and conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Biliary atresia, an idiopathic condition characterized by progressive fibrosing obliteration of both intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, is the most important cause of neonatal cholestasis worldwide, including Malaysia. It is also the most important indication for childhood liver transplantation the world over. Challenges facing infants with biliary atresia include a delay in the diagnosis and late surgery, leading to a poor outcome. This often results from a failure to recognise the potential serious nature of an infant with prolonged cholestatic jaundice and pale stools among health care professionals.
As the debate on accepting financial incentives persists, more and more findings linked to its success as well as to its foreseeable backlash continue to unravel. Specifically out to enhance perceptions on financial incentives, this paper reviews important aspects of the financial incentives and provides a diverse range of empirical findings at a glance. Through a review of several empirical findings and literature, this paper argues that several basic practices of the financial incentives are indeed instrumental to enhancing organ donation. However, more experimentation is necessary to unearth the best mode that is best responsive to a society and subsequently, rejects the overly generalization that labels it as unethical.
We report a case of an 86 year old Chinese man who presented with a painless right testicular swelling that had persisted for one year. There was no history of maldescend or cryptorchid testes. Clinical and ultrasound examination revealed testicular tumour with two round masses within the right scrotal sac, with minimal fluid seen within the sac. Tumour markers were normal. He subsequently underwent a right inguinal orchidectomy under local anaesthesia as he had an underlying cardiac insufficiency. Histopathological examination revealed malignant Sertoli cell tumour. True Sertoli cell mesenchyme tumours constitute less than 1% of all testicular cancers.Current literature on histopathological and clinical features and treatment options are reviewed.
Anomalies of the genitourinary tract occur in approximately 10% of the population and account for about one third of all congenital malformations in children (1). Congenital malformations involving the genitourinary system are major therapeutic challenges faced by the practising urologist.
The treatment of large ulcers is a problem. Closure with flaps and even skin grafts in compromised patients is often fraught with risks. Dressing these large wounds is also a problem, as they are often heavily exudative. We report our experience using the vacuum-assisted closure technique in managing difficult ulcers in four patients. A modification of the technique using cheap, easily available materials is described. The vacuum-assisted suction is an effective treatment for large ulcers in compromised patients. It facilitates considerable contraction of the wound, and in smaller wounds; the vacuum-assisted closure allows sufficient contracture to enable delayed primary closure. We recommend the use of this method of wound dressing and closure in large wounds particularly, in high-risk patients where extensive flap coverage or even split skin graft would incur considerable risk.
Malignant hypertension affects less than 1% of people with high blood pressure, and is a hypertensive emergency. It is rare for patients to present initially with this form of elevated blood pressure, which is almost always associated with acute target organ damage, which can manifest in many forms including ocular, neurological, cardiac and renal. This treatable condition is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality therefore, early detection and immediate management is of paramount importance.