We report a 33-year-old Malay lady who presented with fever, tonsillitis and pharyngitis a month after initiation of antithyroid therapy (carbimazole 15 mg tds) for thyrotoxicosis by her general practitioner. She was still clinically and biochemically thyrotoxic but not in thyroid storm. At that time, she was also confirmed to be four weeks pregnant. Her full blood count revealed neutropaenia with an absolute neutrophil count of 0.036 × 109/L. Bone marrow aspirate and trephine were compatible with carbimazole-related agranulocytosis. Carbimazole was discontinued and she was given broad spectrum antibiotics and Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GCSF), to which she responded. Verapamil was used for symptomatic heart rate control instead of beta-blockers as she had a history of bronchial asthma. The patient subsequently opted for termination of pregnancy after which she was given radioactive iodine I131 (10 mCi) for definitive therapy of her thyrotoxicosis. In conclusion, carbimazole-related agranulocytosis is an important entity to recognise and treat early to prevent morbidity and mortality. Termination of pregnancy was carried out as the treatment given during the episode of agranulocytosis may have negative effects on foetal viability and growth.
We investigated the association between polycystic ovarian syndrome, dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance in a cross sectional analysis comparing 50 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and 50 patients without the disease (control group) who were attending the Infertility clinic. Variables of interest were their body-mass index (Kg/m2), fasting and blood glucose levels after a 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test and their total cholesterol (mmol/L), total triglycerides (mmol/L), high density cholesterol lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (mmol/L) and, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L) levels. Except for HDL where significantly lower values were observed, significantly higher levels were detected in patients with PCOS than that of the control group. The difference persisted even when the obesity index were adjusted and matched. We conclude that both glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia were significantly associated with PCOS irrespective of the obesity index.
The use of transobturator tape (TOT) for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has gained popularity since it was introduced in 2001. Only few studies have reported that TOT is superior in safety and efficacy when compared to tension free vaginal tape (TVT). This case-series study was conducted to investigate the safety and efficacy of the TOT procedure in patients at Ipoh Hospital. A cross sectional study on patients who underwent TOT procedures from Jan 2006 to Jun 2008 was conducted. Patients were followed-up 1 month, 3 month, 12 month and annually thereafter. Data were retrieved from patients‟ records based on the standard pre-operative assessment sheet and follow up record. Interviews were then made via telecommunication to assess the patients‟ progression and satisfaction using a validated questionnaire. Fifty-two subjects (n=52) were recruited. The mean age was 54.2 ± 10.6 years with the median follow up time of 19 months. Majority of cases (n=46; 88.5%) had concomitant pelvic organ prolapse (POP), while only 2 (3.8%) had an isolated stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Pre-operatively, only 16 patients (30.8%) were diagnosed with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) and 24 patients (46.2%) had over active bladder symptoms (OAB) which include increased frequency and urgency. The objective cure rate for SUI was 42 (80.7%), 3 (5.8%) failed while 7 (13.5%) improved. Complications were limited to minor conditions and was only observed in four patients: one case (1.9%) of acute urinary retention, three (5.7%) had prolonged indwelling catheter more than 3 days and one (1.9%) each for mesh erosion, hematoma, urinary tract infection (UTI) and wound infection. Cure rate for MUI, frequency and urgency were 37.4%, 70.8% and 54.2% respectively. De novo urgency was noted in three (n=3: 5.7%) cases while (n=3: 5.7%) required revision of the tape. Forty-nine women (n=49: 94.2%) were satisfied with the procedure. TOT procedures significantly improve OAB symptoms with high patient‟s acceptance rate and no serious operative complication.
Systematic review is a comprehensive review of research findings in which all of the primary studies are systematically identified, appraised and summarised using an explicit and reproducible methodology. Meta-analysis is the statistical component of a systematic review in which combinable studies are drawn together via a statistical process. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are routinely being used in the evidence-based approach to medicine. These short notes intend to highlight important terms in systematic-review and meta-analysis. It is a beginner’s guide for health care professional of any discipline involved in research or practice who seeks to gain more comprehensive understanding of important terms used in systematic review and meta-analysis.
We aimed to establish a method for quantitative analysis of mixed haematopoietic chimerism based on microchip electrophoresis of selected molecular markers following PCR amplification for accurate monitoring of graft status post-transplantation. A 12-year-old girl with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation had qualitative chimerism analysis using short tandem repeat markers at three time points following the procedure. Her archived DNA samples were then used to test the ability to correlate her clinical course with changes in the quantity of donor chimerism at the different time points. Quantitative chimerism analysis was performed on the Agilent 2100 bioanalyser and donor-recipient ratios were calculated from generated electropherograms. Complete donor chimerism (98%) was demonstrated three weeks post- transplantation. Decreasing amount of donor chimerism to 24% was shown after three months and this concurred with clinical relapse. Following a second transplant, full donor chimerism was reestablished where donor chimerism rose to 100%. High resolution microchip electrophoresis could be useful in predicting the occurrence of increasing recipient chimerism which may herald impending relapse in patients while the disease burden is still low. This investigational approach may provide useful information for clinicians to select appropriate intervention strategies to ensure successful transplantation.
Three urban public primary schools in the district of Petaling, Selangor were surveyed for obesity amongst the schoolchildren and factors related to it. The prevalence of obesity amongst primary schoolchildren, with the mean age of 8.91 years was 9.5%. In addition, it was more prevalent among the boys (p
Prostate cancer is not uncommon amongst the elderly men. Diagnosis is made using histopathology specimens of Transrectal Ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate gland. However, prostate cancer presenting as a intra-prostatic cysts are rare. We report a case of elderly gentleman who presented with malignant intra-prostatic cysts.
Presence of a hypofunctioning pigmented adenoma are commonly asymptomatic and is usually only found during an autopsy. In contrast, hyperfunctioning pigmented adenoma is a rare clinical entity and in the majority of cases results in Cushing's syndrome. In this case study, we report a 66-year-old male who presented instead with the clinical and biochemical features of Conn's syndrome. On laparoscopic adrenalectomy, it was found that the tumour had a functioning black adenoma which does not usually present with Conn's syndrome but rather to that of a Cushing's. The intraoperative changes and histopathological findings are discussed.
Primary parotid lymphoma is uncommon and rarely suspected. In most cases, the disease would have disseminated at the time of diagnosis. We describe a case of primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the parotid gland which progressed to the central nervous system. Clinical history is of limited value in identifying this condition. Diagnostic imaging studies (CT or MRI) may indicate whether or not the mass is salivary in origin but do not help to confirm the diagnosis. In this case, it was deemed that FNA alone is incapable of determining the precise histological subtype for lymphoma, whilst a tru-cut biopsy demonstrated a more sensitive method of determining the diagnosis. The lessons learned from this case would prove useful for other health care providers to make an early diagnosis and hopefully manage more effectively if similar conditions appear in their practice. Performing the appropriate measures can help to not only improve the prognosis but may even avert the prospect of unnecessary surgery.
This was a cross-sectional study which attempts to assess the effectiveness of the 18-hour lactation management course organised by Klang District Health Office for its health staff. The course was conducted for three days from 19 to 21 September, 2006 with a total of 18 hours, comprising 15 hours of lectures and three hours of supervised clinical experience. There were a total of 46 participants for the course. The pre- and post-test scores of the participants from the course were used for analysis. This study showed that the mean pre-test versus mean post-test scores were 12.63 and 19.87. The difference in the mean score was statistically significant (p < 0.001, 95%CI -8.285, -6.193). The difference was significant for the staff nurse, community nurse and assistant nurse but not for doctors. In conclusion, the 18-hour duration lactation management course was effective at improving the knowledge and skills on breastfeeding management for the health staff.
The purposes of the study were: (1) to determine the agility and leg power among Malaysian national junior netball players and (2) to determine the impact of eight-week aerobic and strength-training programme on these two variables. A total of 21 netball players from Bukit Jalil Sport School were selected as the subjects in this study. The SEMO Agility Run test was used to determine the agility level while leg power was measured using the Vertical Jump test. Pre-test and post-test results showed no significant differences in the agility and leg power level among the netball players. The mean values for the agility and leg power post-test were 12.59 (SD = 0.56) seconds and 50.24 (SD = 4.90) cm respectively. The pre-test and post-test results for different playing positions recorded the highest improvement in agility and leg power among attacker, followed by centre, and defender. Thus, the training conducted in this study was found to have improved agility and leg power marginally, especially among attacker and centre netball players.
Rehabilitation Medicine is dedicated to optimise patients function and health in the most comprehensive manner. ICF, the latest International Classification by World Health Organization (WHO) is a conceptual framework for the assessment of functioning, disability and health. The purpose of this paper is to describe the applications of ICF in Rehabilitation Medicine practice in the Medical Rehabilitation Unit, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur. Issues: ICF consists of body function, structure, activity, participation and environmental factor. ICF categories are exhaustive, but are not practical to be used entirely and not applicable in clinical practice on their own. How is ICF used from the clinical perspective? It has to be adapted to make it usable. In Rehabilitation Medicine settings, the following are ways ICF is applied in clinical practice: research in terms of validating the use of available ICF Core Sets and development of new ICF Core Set; clinical practice based on the ICF-based sheet; and educational tools. Conclusion: The practice of Rehabilitation Medicine is in line and compatible with the concept of ICF and can serve as a new important language that can improve the practice of Rehabilitation Medicine. It can be a universal language in functioning, disability and health and can improve understanding in addressing issues on disability within the medical community, improve multi professionals’ communication among patients, healthcare providers and stakeholders.
Leadership style has been shown to be an important determinant of organisational success. The aim of this preliminary study was to develop an understanding of leadership style of three employees with leadership responsibility in a hospital. All the participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire around a framework on leadership behaviours followed by self administered T-P leadership questionnaire and voluntary completion of a leadership perception survey by each of the participant’s colleagues. The results suggest that whilst individuals are aspiring to be transformational in style, key barriers such as organisational culture, inter-professional dynamics and lack of leadership development meant responses more characteristic of a transactional style were encountered. There is a need to have joint responsibility between developing the individual leadership style and the organisation that facilitates such development for their leaders. The author concludes that a more analytical approach to leadership and mentorship opportunities for developments is required.
Many researchers studies have shown that stressful life events, from the death of a loved one to the loss of a job, are linked to an increase in certain health problems, particularly heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Many people assume that stress leads to cancer as well. Evidence for this, however, is not clear. However, the significance of mind-body interactions in medicine is now increasingly being recognised.(Copied from article.)
INTRODUCTION: Despite the various methods described in producing platelet-rich plasma (PRP), it is well established that this biological product in its many preparations have been proven to enhance wound healing. However, very little have been known about the efficacy of these methods hence there is a lack of evidence in the superiority of one method over another. Thus, a study was conducted to compare these different protocols to determine which produces the highest concentration of platelets.
METHODS: Peripheral blood was obtained from 24 healthy volunteers. Four different protocols using similar 2 step centrifugation methods of preparing PRP were applied to an equal number of samples in this study. Platelet counts were performed on whole blood (without processing), PRP preparations and platelet-poor plasma (PPP).
RESULTS: All protocols produced higher amounts of platelet concentrates in PRP preparations than plasma. However, centrifugation at 150g for 10 minutes followed by another at 450g at 10 minutes produces significantly higher amount of platelets concentration (p<0.05)
CONCLUSION: Optimizing the protocols to produce PRP appears to be important in obtaining a maximal yield of platelet concentrate. Here the protocol described has shown to provide significant concentration yield over all others.
Keywords: platelet-rich-plasma, growth factors, centrifugal forces
The present issue brings a diverse yet interesting array of research, but they all have a common thread-they answer to a clinical problem raised. The topics span human sexuality, diagnostic challenges, sports medicine, nosocomial infections, screening for neonatal infections, statistical analysis and fine-tuning the art of anaesthesia.(Copied from article).
The current volume of JUMMEC contains a wide spectrum of health topics highlighting the importance of controlling metabolic factors in diabetes, selection of heart failure patients for innovative treatment, early postoperative analgesia, testing of a translated screener for urinary tract problems, problems when commissioning a new operating theatre and breastfeeding issues.(Copied from article).
The current issue of JUMMEC touches on many diverse topics and in many ways reflects the evolution of modern medicine from the practice of acupuncture to epidemics facilitated by modern travel to the subject of ethics including controversies surrounding financial incentives given in promoting organ donation.(Copied from article).
Healthy lifestyle issues have been very much in the news in both the lay press and the medical journals. The incidence of chronic non-communicable diseases is increasing worldwide and it is no different in Malaysia. Preventing and decreasing the incidence is related to lifestyle issues.
Evidence suggests that breast cancer is taking the form of a chronic illness. This will add on to the present burden of managing chronic diseases in the healthcare delivery system. The burden of breast cancer being a chronic illness, calls for greater efforts to address the many neglected, physical-psycho-social and occupational functioning consequences. Timely efforts are needed to identify and implement interventions that are aim at improving the quality of life of women with breast cancer. At present, research evidence is highlighting that chronic diseases may best be managed using a self-management approach, and best treated by a balance of traditional medical care and the day-to-day practice of self-management skills. This paper presents the perspective of breast cancer as a chronic illness and its implication for rehabilitation and medical education. It is imperative that health professionals be made aware of these survivorship issues through medical education. The goals are to reduce the many disability risks, encourage patient-health provider communication and enhance partnership in care, within a timely, holistic therapeutic program to improve the quality of life of women with breast cancer.